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froward retention of custom is as turbulent a thing as an innovation; and they that reverence too much old times, are but a scorn to the new.”

Essay XXV. p. 267, 1. 11. — The conjunction " because” is used in a remarkable

manner, now quite obsolete, in the quotation from Matthew on p. 267, note. Bishop Lowth quotes this passage from Bacon. Dr. Wordsworth writes that he has not discovered any parallel

to it in Shakespeare. — Shakespeare and the Bible, p. 24. p. 268, 1. 7. “ Yet beware of being too material,” that is, says Mr.

Spedding, of keeping too close to the matter.

Essay XXVI.

p. 273, 1. 9. " prospective.” Trench ( Glossary") under title " Per

spective,” writes :

“ Telescope” and “microscope” are both as old as Milton; but for a long while “perspective" (glass being sometimes understood, and sometimes expressed) did the work of these. Our present use of perspective” does not, I suppose, date farther back than Dryden.

While we look for incorruption in the heavens, we find they are but like the earth; durable in their main bodies, alterable in their parts; whereof, beside comets and new stars, perspectives begin to tell tales, and the spots that wander about the sun, with Phaeton's favour, would make clear conviction. — Sir T. BROWNE. Hydriotaphia, ch. V. vol. III. p. 494, ed. Pickering. Perspective glasses, says Mr. Wright, in bis excellent edition of the Essays, were apparently used to produce the same solid appearance as the modern stereoscope.

Essay XXVII. p. 281, 1. 19. “privadoes.” Intimate friends, favorites. The Duchess

of Burgundy, after instructing Perkin Warbeck in his part,

Sent him unknown into Portugal, with the Lady Brampton, an English lady (that embarked for Portugal at that time), with some privado of her own to have an eye upon him. History of King Henry VII., Works, VI. 136.

p. 283, 1. 1. “ nephews.” Grandsons. Restrained in the present use to the son of a brother or a sister; but formerly of much laxer use, a grandson, or even a remoter lineal descendant. Trench. Glossary.

The warts, black moles, spots, and freckles of fathers, not appearing at all on their own children's skin, bezin afterwards to put forth and shew themselves in their nephews, to wit, the children of their sons and nephews. — LIOLLAND. Plutarch's Morals, p. 457, ed. 1657.

Essay XXVIII.

p. 283, 1. 4. “ Duke Charles the Hardy.When used of persons,

" hardy” means always now enduring, indifferent to fatigue, hunger, thirst, heat, cold, and the like. But it had once a far more prevailing sense of bold, which now only remains to it in connection with things, as we should still speak of a “ hardy," meaning thereby a bold, assertion; though never now of a “bardy,” if we intended a buld or daring person. In respect of the quotation from the text, the reader must bear in mind Bacou's Charles the Hardy is Charles le Téméraire, or Charles the Bold, as we always style him now. - TRENCH. Glossary.

p. 283, 1. 11. “ Pythagoras.” Sir Thomas Browne in his “ Pseudoxia

Epidemica," bk. I. ch. IV. vol. II. p. 203, et seq., ed. Pickering, gives some singular explanations of the doctrines of this philosopher.

p. 298, 1. 9. “ of even hand.” Equally balanced.

The battell was as yet of even hand. — North's Plutarch, p. 999.

ESSAY XXIX.

p. 305, l. 21.– A metaphor from borsemanship. See “ Adv. of

Learning," II. 20, § 11:

So as Diogenes' opinion is to be accepted, who commended not them which abstained, but them which sustained, and could refrain their mind in præcipitio, and could give unto the mind (as is used in horsemanship) the shortest stop or turn.

p. 306, 1. 20. “ artillery.” This word is now only applied to the heavy

ordnance of modern warfare. In earlier use, any engines for the projecting of missiles, even to the bow and arrows, would have been included under this term. Trench. Glossary.

Ships, heavily charged, carrying artillerie, ordenance, and engines of batterie. -HOLLAND. Liry, p. 745, ed. 1600.

p. 307, l. 24. “excises of the Low Countries." As to the-e Excises

or Accises, see Howell's “ Familiar Letters,” bk. I. sect. I. lett. VII. p. 27, 11th ed. 1754. Writing from Amsterdam, he

says:

It were cheap living here, were it not for the moustrous Excises which are imposed upon all Sorts of Commodities, both for Belly and Back; for the Retailer payes the States almost the one Moiety as much as he paid for the Commodity at first; nor doth any murmur at it, because it goes not to any Favourite, or private Purse, but to preserve them from the Spaniard, their common Enemy, as they term him; so that the saying is truly verified here, Defend me, and spend me. With this Excise principally, they maintain all their Armies by Sea and Land, with their Garisons at home and abroad, both here and in the Indies, and defray all other public Charges besides.

Dess.

p. 308, 1. 5. “ base." This word now always implies moral unworthi

Once “base” men were no more than men of humble birth and low degree. — TRENCH. Glossary.

But vertuous women wisely understand,

That they were borne to base humilitie,
Unlesse the heavens them list to lawfull soverantie.

SPENSER. The Faerie Queene, V. 5, 25, vol. III. p. 381,

ed. Collier, And see his note.

p. 308, 1. 19.— “ History of King Henry VII.” Works, VI. 93: “ Inp. 310, 1. 7. “ Pragmatical Sanction.” Soon after the accession of

closures at that time began to be more frequent,” etc.

p. 310, 1. 5. — Mr. Ellis in his note on the “ De Augmentis,” VII. c.

3 (Works, I. p. 797), quotes among the foreign generals who held high commands in the armies of Spain, Bourbon, Prosper Colonna, Pescara, Egmont, Castaldo, Parma, Piccolomini, Spinola." He adds:

Of these, however, one or two might almost be called Spaniards ; and it must be remembered that the dominions both of Charles V. and of his successors extended beyond the natural limits of Spanish monarchy. Buckle (Hist. of Civ. II. 80) regarded this practire at the end of the 17th century as one of the signs of decay of Spain.

Philip the Fourth a royal decree or Pragmática was published which attempted to carry out some of the recommendations of the Council, and which gave certain privileges to persons who married, and further immunities to those who had six children. The decree was plainly issued some time in the summer of 1622, and is no doubt that to which Bacon refers.

Mr. Ellis's note, Works, I. p. 798.

p. 310, 1. 7. "now published.” Mr. Sidney Walker conjectureid that

new is the genuine reading. — Critical Ecamination of the Text of Shakespeare, vol. II. p. 216.

p. 312, 1. 24. “ Spain.” Bacon afterwards writing of "the great secret

of the power of Spain,” had this passage, in the text in mind:

Which power well sought into, will be found rather to consist in a veteran army, such as, upon several occasions and pretences, they have ever had on foot in one part or other of Christendom, now by the space almost of six-score years, than in the strength of their several dominions and provinces. Considerations touching a War with Spain, 1629. Reprinted in The Harleian Miscellany, V. 92, ed. 1810.

p. 312, l. 16. - In the “ History of Henry VII.” Works, VI. 89,

Bacon writes of the rebellion of Sir John Egremond:

When the King was advertised of this new insurrection (being almost a fever that took him every year), etc.

Essay XXXI. p. 330, 1. 10. — In the “ History of King IIenry VII.” Bacon describes

him as having the composition of a wise King, (stout without and apprehensive within)."

Essay XXXII. p. 344. — In “ Short Notes for Civil Conversation,” (Works, VII. 109)

paragraphs 4-8 are almost verbatim a repetition of this Essay. p. 344, 1. 5.

certain common places and themes.” To be able to ake of one thing and no more, is first and foremost in my conceit no small signe of ignorance. — HOLLAND. Plutarch's Morals, p. 7, ed. 1657

p. 344, l. 15.

Jest not with the two-edged sword of God's word. Will nothing please thee to wash thy hands in but the font? or to drink healths in but the church chalice? - FULLER. The Holy State, III. 2, § 2, p. 145, London ed. 1841.

p. 344, 1. 21. “Parce puer,” etc.

Sonne, spare the whip, and reyne them hard, they run so swift

away. — GOLDING. Ovid's Metamorphosis, p. 127, ed. 16.57. p. 344, last line. “ let him be sure to leave other men their turns to speak."

If thou be Master-gunner, spend not all
That thou canst speak, at once; but husband it,
And give men turns of speech.

HIERBERT. The Church Porch.

p. 345, 1. 4. "galliard.” The Galliard (a word meaning brisk, gay,

and used in that sense by Chaucer) is described by Sir John Davis as a swift and wandering dance, with lofty turns and capriols in the air. It derived its name from Gallia, the country from whence it came. C. Simpson says:

This (according to its name) is of a lofty and frolick movement; the measure of it always a tripla, of three minims to a time. – A Compendium of Practical Musick, 3d ed. 1678, p. 117. For a full description of this dance, the reader is referred to that elegant work, CHAPPELL's Popular Music of the Olden Time, I. 155, 157.

Essay XXXIII. p. 353, 1. 15. — The following pa-sage is taken from the scholarly

“ Speech of John Wingate Thornton, Esq. at the Fort Popham Celebration, August 29, 1862," p. 12:

Thomas Fuller, 1608-1661, an attentive observer of American affairs, and the reputed author of " The Holy and Profane State," 1642, says in the article “Of Plantations,” bk. III. ch. 16, p. 184, ed. London, 1841, If the planters be such as leap thither from the gallows, can any hope for cream out of scum ? when men send, as I may say, Christian savages to Heathen savages! It was rather bitterly than falsely spoken concerning one of our Western plantations, consisting most of dissolute people, that it was very like unto Eng. land, as being spit out of the very mouth of it.'” The same author.

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