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are the gusts of liberty of speech restrained, and the females of sedition,) containing bitter invectives against the King and some of the counsel. — Works, VI. 153.

p. 141, 1. 21. “multis utile bellum.” In his tract“ Of the True Great

ness of the Kingdom of Britain,” Bacon makes a different application of this quotation:

For it is necessary in a state that shall grow and inlarge, that there be that composition which the poet speaketh of, Multis utile bellum; an ill condition of a state (no question) if it be meant of a civil war, as it was spoken; but a condition proper to a state that shall increase, if it be taken of a foreign war. For except there be a spur in the state that shall excite and prick them on to wars, they will but keep their own, and seek no further. — Works, VII. 59.

p. 143, 1. 14. — In Burton's " Anatomy of Melancholy," Democritus to

the Reader, vol. I. p. 120, ed. New York, 1865, is this passage:

The Low Countries generally have three cities at least for one of ours, and those far more populous and rich; and what is the cause, but their industry and excellency in all manner of trades? Their commerce, which is maintained by a multitude of tradesmen, so many excellent channels made by art, and opportune havens, to which they build their cities; all which we have in like measure, or at least may have. But their chiefest loadstone which draws all manner of commerce and merchandise, which maintains their present estate, is not fertility of soil but industry that enricheth them; the gold mines of Peru or Nova Hispania may not compare with them. They have neither gold nor silver of their own, wine nor oil, or scarce any corn growing in those United Provinces; little or no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, wool, any stuff almost, or metal; and yet Hungary, Transylvania, that brag of their mines, fertile England, cannot compare with them.

p. 143, 1. 19. — Compare " Apophthegms," 252:

Mr. Bettingham used to say; That riches were like muck; when it lay upon an heap, it gave but a stench and ill odour; but when it was spread upon the ground, then it was cause of much fruit.

p. 143, 1. 21. “usury.”

There were also made good and politic laws that Parliament against usury, which is the bastard use of money; and against unlawful chievances and exchanges, which is bastard usury. History of King Henry VII. Works, VI. 87.

p. 143, 1. 21. "pasturages." See “ History of King Henry VII."

Works, VI. 93 : “ Inclosures at that time began to be more frequent,” etc. This passage is directly referred to in Essay XXIX. p. 308, 1. 19.

In 1597 Bacon made a speech in the House of Commons upon this subject, in which he said :

For enclosure of grounds brings depopulation, which brings forth first idleness, secondly decay of tillage, thirdly subversion of houses and decrease of charity and charge to the poor's maintenance, fourthly the impoverishing the state of the realm. — SPEDDING's Letters and Life of Francis Bacon, vol. II. p. 82.'

p. 144, 1. 2. — Hom. I. I. 398. The fable alluded to is in “ Adv. of

Learning,” II. 4, § 4:—

So in the fable that the rest of the gods having conspired to bind Jupiter, Pallas called Briareus with his hundred hands to his aid: expounded that monarchies need not fear any curbing of their absoluteness by mighty subjects, as long as by wisdom they keep the hearts of the people, who will be sure to come in on their side. In Homer it is Thetis, not Pallas, who calls in Briareus.

p. 144, 1. 25. “brave,” v.t. To assume ostentatiously, parade. p. 354,

1. 23. “ brave,adj. Fine. p. 144, 1. 8; p. 390, 1. 15. “ bravery," Finery; hence ostentation, display, bravado. p. 105, 1. 21. p. 268, 1. 7. p. 536, 1. 6. p. 558, 1. 1.

I do not very clearly trace, says Trench (“Glossary "), by what steps “brave" obtained the meaning of showy, gaudy, rich, which once it so frequently had, in addition to that meaning which it still retains.

If he chance to appear in clothes above his rank, it is to grace some great man with his service; and then he blusheth at his own bravery. — FULLER. The Holy State, bk. II. ch. 18, p. 106, ed. 1841.

His clothes were neither brave nor base, but comely. — FULLER. The Holy State, bk. IV. ch. 10, p. 270, ed. 1841.

Man is a noble animal, splendid in ashes, and pompous in the grave, solemnizing nativities and deaths with equal lustre, not omitting ceremonies of bravery in the infamy of his nature. — Sir T. BROWNE. Hydriotaphia, ch. V. vol. III. p. 494, ed. Pickering. With scarfs, and fans, and double change of bravery.

The Taming of the Shrew, IV. 3. There never was miracle wrought by God to convert an atheist,

“ It is remarkable that Shakespeare appears to use this substantive always in this sense only: though he uses the adjective brave, not only for fine, but more often in its present signification, for courageous ; while in the Bible neither substantive nor adjective is used at all in the modern sense. The adverb bravely, for finely, splendidly (of dress), occurs in Judith, X. 4."

– WORDSWORTH. Shakespeare and the Bible, p. 31. p. 144, 1. 9. - In the “ History of King Henry VII.," Works, VI.

153, Bacon writes, after the execution of Stanley, Lord Chamberlain :

Men durst scarce commune or talk one with another, but there was a general diffidence everywhere; which nevertheless made the King rather more absolute than more safe. For bleeding inwards and shut vapours strangle soonest and oppress most.

p. 144, 1. 17. — Bacon had written otherwise of Hope, in “Medita

tiones Sacræ," " 01 Earthly Hope," 1597:

And therefore it was an idle fiction of the poets to make Hope the antidote of human diseases, because it mitigates the pain of them; whereas it is in fact an inflammation and exasperation of them rather,

multiplying and making them break out afresh. – Works, VII. 248. p. 145, 1. 7. - Suet. Jul. Ces. 77. Quoted in “ Adv. of Learning,"

I. 7. $ 12:

Upon occasion that some spake what a strange resolution it was in Lucius Sylla to resign his dictature, he scoffing at him at his own advantage answered, That Sylla could not skill of letters, and therefore knew not how to dictate. Apoph. 135.

ESSAY XVI. 'p. 155, 1. 3. — “ Adv. of Learning,” II. 6, § 1:

because the light of nature might have led him to confess a God. p. 155, l. 4. “convince.” To refute.

p. 155, 1. 13. “four mutable elements," etc.

Aristoteles of Stagira, the sonne of Nichomachus, hath put down for Principles these three, to wit, a certaine forme called Entelechia, Matter, and Privation: for Elements, foure, and for a fifth Quintessence, the heavenly bodie which is immutable. – HOLLAND'S Plutarch's Morals, p. 662, ed. 1657.

p. 156, 1. 19.

Some of the Philosophers, and namely, Diagoras of the Isle of Melos, Theodorus the Cyrenæan, and Euemerus of Tegea, held resolutely, that there were no gods. — Holland's Plutarch's Morals, p. 664, ed. 1657.

Essay XVII. p. 169, 1. 17. "civil.” “civility,” p. 442, 1. 5. Literally, citizen-like :

hence orderly, refined, and, as applied to actions, becoming. Essay XLVIII. p. 466, 1. 3.

This is like to be a night of as civil business as I have known a great while. — Orway's Friendship in Fashion, IV. 1, vol. II. p. 63, ed. Thornton, A civil opinion, i.e. received. “Adv. of Learning," bk. II. Works, III. 381. A civil estate, i.e. condition as member of a “civitas." “ Adv. of Learning,” bk. I. Works, III. 262. A civil man once was one who fulfilled all the duties and obligations flowing from his position as a “civis,” and bis relations to the other members of that “ civitas” to which he belonged, and civility the condition in which those were recognized and observed. The highest use of the word is now almost, if not entirely, gone. — Trench. Glossary.

As for the Scythian wandering Nomades, temples sorted not with their condition, as wanting both civility and settledness. -FULLER. The Holy State, bk. III. ch. 24, p. 211, ed. London, 1841.

A man would think that civility, wholesome laws, learning and eloquence, synods, and Churchmaintenance, (that we speak of no more things of this kind) should be as safe as a sanctuary, and out of shot, as they say, that no man would lift up his heel, no, nor dog move his tongue against the motioners of them. For by the first [civility] we are distinguished from brute beasts led with sensuality.

- BIBLE. 1611. The Translators to the Reader. p. 169, 1. 25. “engines.Ingine or engine was used by our old writ

ers to designate a skilful contrivance, whether in the form of an artifice or stratagem, or of a weapon, instrument, or piece of machinery. In the former sense it is used in the text, i.e. devices. WALKER. Crit. Exam., &c. I. 102.

Essay XVIII.

p. 194, 1. 3.

Get the language (in part) without which key thou shalt unlock little of moment. — FULLER. The Holy State, III. 4, $ 2.

p. 195, 1. 14. “adamant.” In Marston's “ What you Will,” one of the

piges, in describing the nature of his master, says,

Hee keepes mee as his adamant to draw mettell. — Act III. sc. 1, E 4, ed. 1607.

Essay XIX. p. 200, 1. 25.

It is reported that King Alexander the Great, hearing Anararchus the Philosopher discoursing and maintaining this Position : That there were worlds innumerable, fell a weeping, and when his friends and familiars about hiin asked what he ailed. Have I not (quoth he) good cause to weep, that being as there are an infinite number of worlds, I am not yet the Lord of one. — HOLLAND's Plutarch's Morals, p. 121, ed. 1657.

p. 201, 1. 17. — Not Tacitus, but Sallust. Bell. Jug. c. 113. The

passage is rightly referred to Sallust in "Adv. of Learning," II. 22, $ 5:

Sallust noteth that it is usual for kings to desire contradictories. p. 202, l. 11. “precedent.” Precediny, previous. But in Bacon's

time this word had the meaning of “ original."

If you ask what they [the Translators] had before them; truly it was the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, the Greek of the New. These are the two golden pipes, or rather conduits, wherethrough the olivebranches empty themselves into the gold. St. Augustine calleth them precedent, or original tongues ; St. Hierome, fountains. - BIBLE. 1611. The Translators to the Reader.

p. 203, 1. 25. “my History of King Henry VII.,” etc.

Ile kept a strait hand on his nobility, and chose rather to advance clergymen and lawyers, which were more obsequious to him, but had less interest in the people; which made for his absoluteness, but not for his safety. Insomuch as I am persuaded it was one of the causes of his troublesome reign. For that his nobles, though they were loyal and obedient, yet die not cooperate with him, bu man go his own way. History of King Henry VII. Works, VI. 242.

let every

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