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ESSAY XLIV. OF DEFORMITY.

DEFORMED, persons are commonly even with nature ; for

as nature hath done ill by them, so do they by nature, being for the most part (as the Scripture saith) “void of natural affection :” and so they have their revenge of nature.' Certainly there is a consent' between the body and the mind, and where nature erreth in the one she ventureth in the other (Ubi peccat in uno, periclitatur in altero'): but because there is in man an election touching the frame of his mind, and a necessity in the frame of his body, the stars of natural inclination are sometimes obscured by the sun of discipline and virtue; therefore, it is good to consider of deformity, not as a sign which is more deceivable, but as a cause which seldom faileth of the effect. Whosoever hath anything fixed in his person that doth induce contempt, hath also a perpetual spur in himself to rescue and deliver himself from scorn; therefore, all deformed persons are extreme* bold—first, as in their own defence, as being exposed to scorn, but in process of time by a general habit. Also, it stirreth in them industry, and especially of this kind, to watch and observe the weakness of others, that they may have somewhat to repay. Again, in their superiors, it quencheth jealousy towards them, as persons that they think they may at pleasure despise ; and it layeth their competitors and emulators asleep, as never believing they should be in possibility of advancement, till they see them in possession ; so that upon the matter," in a great wit, deformity is an advantage to rising. Kings, in ancient times (and at this present, in some countries), were wont to put great trust in eunuchs, because they that are envious towards all are obnoxious' and officious towards one; but yet their trust towards them hath rather been as to good spials' and good whisperers than good magistrates and officers; and much like is the reason of deformed persons. Still the ground is, they will, if they be of spirit, seek to free themselves from scorn, which must be either by virtue or malice; and therefore, let it not be marvelled," if sometimes they prove excellent persons; as was Agesilaus, Zanger the son of Solyman, Æsop, Gasca, president of Peru; and Socrates may go likewise amongst them, with others.

i Rom, i, 31.
• Then since the Heavens hare shaped my body so,
Let Hell make crook’t my mind to answer it.'

Shakespere's Richard III. : Consent. Agreement.

With one consent, let all the earth

To God their cheerful voices raise.'—Tate's Version of Psalm C. * Extreme. Extremely. 5 Matter.

Whole. (*Upon the matter'On the whole.) 'He grants the deluge to have come so very near the matter, that but very few escaped.”—Tillotson.

o Wont. To be accustomed. Now at the feast the governor was wont to release unto them a prisoner.'— Matt. xxvii. 15.

'I this night, have dream'd,
If dreamed, not as I oft am wont of thee.'—

Milton.

ANNOTATION.

Bacon is speaking principally of original deformities, not such as result from accident or disease. And it is very remarkable how much less tendency these latter have, than the other, to produce such effects as he is speaking of.

2

Obnoxious. Subject ; submissive. The writings of lawyers, which are tied and obnoxious to their particular laws.'—Bacon. Spials. Spies.

* The Prince's spials have inform'd me.'—Shakespere. 3 Malice. Vice. (Not, as now, restricted to malevolence.) 'In malice be ye children.'—1 Cor. xiv. 20. Not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness.' — 1 Pet. ii. 16.

• Marvel. To wonder at. 'Marvel not that I said unto thee, ye must be born again.'—John iii.

ESSAY XLV. OF BUILDING.

HOUSES

OUSES are built to live in, and not to look on; therefore,

let use be preferred before' uniformity, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for beauty, only to the enchanted palaces of the poets, who build them with small cost. He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat,' committeth himself to prison—neither do I reckon it an all seat only where the air is unwholsome, but likewise where the air is unequal: as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap' of ground, environed with higher hills round about it, whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth as in troughs; so as you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ill' air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets; and if you consult with Momus, ill neighbours. I speak not of many more; want of water, want of wood, shade, and shelter, want of fruitfulness, and mixture of grounds of several natures; want of prospect, want of level grounds, want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote; having the commodity of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business; or too

· Preferred before. Preferred to.

“O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples, the upright heart and pure,

Instruct me.'- Milton. ? Seat. Site. • It remaineth now that we find out the seat of Eden'Raleigh. * Knap. A prominence; a knoll.

• Hark, on knap of yonder hill,

Some sweet shepherd tunes his quill.'—Brown. As. That. See page 23. Ill. Bad.

• There some ill planet reigns.'-Shakespere. Commodity. Advantage ; convenience. See page 416. Discommodity. Disadvantage. See page 416.

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because they that are envious towards all are obnoxious' and officious towards one; but yet their trust towards them hath rather been as to good spials' and good whisperers than good magistrates and officers; and much like is the reason of deformed persons. Still the ground is, they will, if they be of spirit, seek to free themselves from scorn, which must be either by virtue or malice;' and therefore, let it not be marvelled,' if sometimes they prove excellent persons; as was Agesilaus, Zanger the son of Solyman, Æsop, Gasca, president of Peru; and Socrates may go likewise amongst them, with others.

ANNOTATION.

Bacon is speaking principally of original deformities, not such as result from accident or disease. And it is very remarkable how much less tendency these latter have, than the other, to produce such effects as he is speaking of.

· Obnoxious. Subject ; submissive. “The writings of lawyers, which are tied and obnoxious to their particular laws.'—Bacon. · Spials. Spies.

* The Prince's xpials have inform'd me.'—Shakespere. 8 Malice. Vice. (Not, as now, restricted to malevolence.) 'In malice be ye children.'-1 Cor. xiv. 20. Not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness.'1 Pet. ii. 16.

* Marvel. To wonder at. Marvel not that I said unto thee, ye must be born again.'—John iii.

ESSAY XLV. OF BUILDING.

HOUSES

OUSES are built to live in, and not to look on; therefore,

let use be preferred before' uniformity, except where both may be had. Leave the goodly fabrics of houses, for beauty, only to the enchanted palaces of the poets, who build them with small cost. He that builds a fair house upon an ill seat,' committeth himself to prison-neither do I reckon it an ill seat only where the air is unwholsome, but likewise where the air is unequal: as you shall see many fine seats set upon a knap' of ground, environed with higher hills round about it, whereby the heat of the sun is pent in, and the wind gathereth as in troughs; so as you shall have, and that suddenly, as great diversity of heat and cold as if you dwelt in several places. Neither is it ille air only that maketh an ill seat, but ill ways, ill markets; and if you consult with Momus, ill neighbours. I speak not of many more; want of water, want of wood, shade, and shelter, want of fruitfulness, and mixture of grounds of several natures; want of prospect, want of level grounds, want of places at some near distance for sports of hunting, hawking, and races; too near the sea, too remote; having the commodity of navigable rivers, or the discommodity of their overflowing; too far off from great cities, which may hinder business; or too

• Preferred before. Preferred to.

O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples, the upright heart and pure,

Instruct me'-Milton. · Seat. Site. It remaineth now that we find out the seat of Eden,' Raleigh. * Knap. A prominence; a knoll.

• Hark, on knap of yonder hill,

Some sweet shepherd tunes his quill.'—Brown. • As. That. See page 23. 6 Ill. Bad.

• There some ill planet reigns.'-Shakespere. • Commodity. Advantage; convenience. See page 416.

Discommodity. Disadvantage. See page 416.

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