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we used to shoot them like fun! It would have been a satisfaction to have seen such a heartless ruffian in an archery ground, with about a score of expert archers at a fair distance from him, if only to witness how well he would personify the representations of St. Sebastian. This man was a shrewd mechanic, and had been some years at Port Stephens: it such people consider the life of a black of so little value, how is it to be wondered at if the convicts entertain the same opinion? It is to be hoped that the practice of shooting them is at an end; but they are still subjected to annoyance from the stock-keepers, who take their women, and do them various injuries besides.'Breton, p. 200.
'But to waive for the present all discussion of the moral effects on the settlers, likely to result from the system, let be supposed that the labour of convicts may be so employed as to advance the prosperity of the colony, and let it only be remembered that this object is likely to be pursued both by governors and settlers, at the expense of the other far more important one, which is inconsistent with it, the welfare of the mother-country, in respect of the repression of crime. This one consideration, apart from all others, would alone be decisive against transportation as a mode of punishment; since even if the system could be made efficient for that object, supposing it to be well administered with a view to that, there is a moral certainty that it never will be so administered.
'If there be, as some have suggested, a certain description of offenders, to whom sentence of perpetual exile from their native country is especially formidable, this object might easily be attained, by erecting a penitentiary on some one of the many small, nearly unproductive, and unoccupied islands in the British seas; the conveyance to which would not occupy so many hours, as that to Australia does weeks.
* But as for the attempt to combine salutary punishment with successful colonization, it only leads, in practice, to the failure of both objects; and, in the mind, it can only be effected by keeping up a fallacious confusion of ideas.'
* Plantations are amongst ancient, primitive, and heroical
Bp. Hinds remarks on the great success with which the ancient Greeks colonized : pursuing an opposite plan from that of all nations since, and accordingly, with opposite results.
An ancient Greek colony was like what gardeners call a layer; a portion of the parent tree, with stem, twigs, and leaves, imbedded in fresh soil till it had taken root, and then severed. A modern colony is like handfuls of twigs and leaves pulled off at random, and thrown into the earth to take their chance.
Above all, let men make that profit of being in the wilderness,
that they have God always, and his service before their eyes.'
Every settler in a foreign colony is, necessarily, more or less, a missionary to the aborigines—a missionary for good, or a missionary for evil,-operating upon them by his life and example.
It is often said that our colonies ought to provide for their own spiritual wants. But the more is done for them in this way, the more likely they will be to make such provision; and the more they are neglected, the less likely they are to do it. It is the peculiar nature of the inestimable treasure of christian truth and religious knowledge, that the more it is withheld from people, the less they wish for it; and the more is bestowed upon them, the more they hunger and thirst after it. If people are kept upon a short allowance of food, they are eager to obtain it; if you keep a man thirsty, he will become more and more thirsty; if he is poor, he is exceedingly anxious to become rich; but if he is left in a state of spiritual destitution, after a time he will, and still more his children, cease to feel it, and cease to care about it. It is the last want men can be trusted (in the first instance) to supply for themselves.
ESSAY XXXIV. OF RICHES.
CANNOT call riches better than the baggage of virtue; the
Roman word is better-impedimenta ;' for as the baggage is to an army, so is riches to virtue—it cannot be spared nor left behind, but it hindereth the march; yea, and the care of it sometimes loseth or disturbeth the victory. Of great riches there is no real use, except it be in the distribution; the rest is but conceit; so saith Solomon, "Where much is, there are many to consume it; and what hath the owner but the sight of it with his eyes ?" The personal fruition in any man cannot reach to feel great riches : there is a custody of them, or a power of dole,' and a donative of them, or a fame of them, but no solid use to the owner. Do you not see what feigned prices are set upon little stones or rarities and what works of ostentation are undertaken, because there might seem to be some use of great riches ? But then, you will say, they may be of use to buy men out of dangers or troubles; as Solomon saith, “Riches are as a stronghold in the imagination of the rich man:" but this is excellently expressed, that it is an imagination, and not always in fact; for, certainly great riches have sold more men than they have bought out. Seek not proud riches, but such as thou mayest get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and leave contentedly; yet have no abstract or friarly contempt of them, but distinguish, as Cicero saith well of Rabirius Posthumus, 'In studio rei amplificandæ, apparebat, non avaritiæ prædam, sed instrumentum bonitati quæri.” Hearken also to Solomon, and beware of hasty gathering of riches: “Qui festinat ad divitias, non erit insons.” The poets feign that when Plutus (which is riches) is sent from Jupiter, he limps, and goes slowly,
? Eccles. v. 11 • Dole. A dealing out, or distribution.
• It was your pre-surmise, That in the dole of blows, your son might drop.' * Because. For the reason that ; in order that. See page 227. 6 Proverbs x, 15: cf. xxviii. 11.
'In his desire of increasing his riches, he sought not, it was evident, the gratification of avarice, but the means of beneficence.'-Cic. P. Rabir. 2.
''He that maketh haste to be rich, shall not be innocent.'- Prov. xxviii. 20.
but when he is sent from Pluto, he runs, and is swift of foot; meaning, that riches gotten by good means and just labour pace slowly, but when they come by the death of others (as by the course of inheritance, testaments, and the like), they come tumbling upon a man: but it might be applied likewise to Pluto taking him for the Devil; for when riches come from the Devil (as by fraud, and oppression, and unjust means) they come upon' speed. The ways to enrich are many, and most of them foul: parsimony is one of the best, and yet is not innocent, for it withholdeth men from works of liberality and charity. The improvement of the ground is the most natural obtaining of riches, for it is our great mother's blessing, the earth; but it is slow: and yet, where men of great wealth do stoop to husbandry, it multiplieth riches exceedingly. I knew a nobleman of England that had the greatest audits of any man in my time,-a great grazier, a great sheep master, a great timber man, a great collier, a great corn master, a great lead man, and so of iron, and a number of the like points of husbandry; so as the earth seemed a sea to him in respect of the perpetual importation. It was truly observed by one, "That himself came very hardly to little riches, and very easily to great riches;' for when a man's stock is come to that, that he can expect the prime of markets, and overcome those bargains, which for their greatness are few men's money, and the partner in the industries of younger men, he cannot but increase mainly.' The gains of ordinary trades and vocations are honest, and furthered by two things, chiefly, by diligence, and by a good name for good and fair dealing; but the gains of bargains are of a more doubtful nature, when men shall wait upon others' necessity; broke by servants,
* Take upon command what help we have.'-Shakespere. * Expect. To wait for. · Elihu had expected till Job had spoken.'—Job xxxii. 14 (marginal reading).
'... Erpecting till his enemies be made his footstool.'—Heb. x. 13 • Overcome. Come upon.
• Can such things be, And overcome us, like a summer's cloud,
Without our special wonder ?—Shakespere. • Mainly. Greatly.
• You, mainly are stirred up.'—Shakespere. 6 Vocation. See page 20. • Broke. To traffic; to deal meanly. This divine, contrary to his profession, and instruments to draw them on; put off others cunningly that would be better chapmen,' and the like practices, which are crafty and naughty. As for the chopping of bargains, when a man buys not to hold, but to sell over again, that commonly grindeth double, both upon the seller and upon the buyer. Sharings do greatly enrich, if the hands be well chosen that are trusted. Usury is the certainest means of gain, though one of the worst, as that whereby a man doth eat his bread, 'in sudore vultus alieni," and besides, doth plough upon Sundays: but yet certain though it be, it hath flaws: for that the scriveners and brokers do value*unsound men to serve their own turn. The fortune in being the first in an invention, or in a privilege, doth cause sometimes a wonderful overgrowth in riches; as it was with the first sugar man in the Canaries: therefore, if a man can play the true logician, to have as well judgment as invention, he may do great matters, especially if the times be fit. He that resteth upon gains certain, shall hardly grow to great riches; and he that puts all upon adventures, doth oftentimes break and come to poverty: it is good, therefore, to guard adventures with certainties that may uphold losses. Monopolies, and coemption of wares for re-sale, where they are not restrained, are great means to enrich; especially if the party have intelligence what things are like to come into request, and so store himself beforehand. Riches gotten by service, though it be of the best rise, yet when they are gotten by flattery, feeding humours, and other servile conditions, they may be placed amongst the worst. As for 'fishing for testaments and executorships,' (as Tacitus saith of Seneca, “Testamenta et orbos tanquam indagine capi?") it is yet worse, by how much men submit themselves to meaner persons than in service.
Believe not much them that seem to despise riches, for they despise them that despair of them; and none worse when they come to them. Be not penny-wise; riches have wings, and sometimes they fly away of themselves, sometimes they must be
took upon him to broke for him in such a manner as was never precedented by any.'— Proceedings in the House of Commons against Lord Bacon. Chapmen. Purchasers.
• Fair Diomede, you do as chapmen do
Dispraise the thing that they intend to buy.'—Shakespere. Naught, or Naughty. Bad. “The water is naught, and the ground barren. 2 Kings, xi. 19.
3. In the sweat of another's brow.' • Value. Represent as trustworthy. 8. Wills and childless parents, taken as with a net.'—Tacit. Ann. xiii. 42.