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II. “A Breviate of the Conquest of Ireland.”
Pp. 3. In a hand of the reign of Eliz. or James I.

THOMAS WALKER's PROJECT.

Vol. 602, p. 170. 232. “A PROJECT touching some abuses done by the Victuallers during the wars in Ireland.”

“First, I collect that in all sea journeys, a provision may be made for six months or eight months, without any waste, the means of stowage being nothing so convenient as it is for land services. “If so be that in sea journeys the victualling be so profitable, there is much greater reason that the victuallers for a land army should do the like, their contracts being but from 6 months to 6, many times 3 months and 3. “In like manner in these late Irish wars the victuallers had time enough to make choice of the best victuals most necessary for the service, and to pack it up in that substantial manner that little waste or none at all could be in transporting it, the passage from the west of England being no more than 2 or 3 days sail at most; so upon their arrival it was always put into very convenient storehouses. “In all reason these passages could cause little waste to be required, yet notwithstanding these victuallers, upon their general accounts, were allowed not so little as 10,000l. for their waste; but had they performed their services faithfully, and contented themselves with other large gains which they had, which was too much, neither respecting the misery of the poor soldier or their duties to the State, it might well have given them royal satisfaction without any demands for waste at all. “If the victualler made choice of victual which would not continue good during the time of the contract, or that the packing was the defect, must the King allow waste to the victualler in this case? By your Honor's leave no, the fault is the victualler's. “It is not unknown to most Governors in Ireland, but that the greatest waste the victuallers could demand during those wars was for waste of victuals in the chief magissons (magazines), and not for victual which was wasted in remote garrisons by transportation. Then the stowage being convenient why should the victuallers lay any charge upon the King? “It is true that by transporting victuals from the magazine into inland garrisons, the carriage being all on horses, much victual was spoiled, as with the rain, bread and cheese being transported in linen bags, taking wet, there was some waste,

* This a copy of No. 1, in Vol. I. of this Calendar, as far as the end of the sixth paragraph.

Vol. 607, p. 130. 233.

but that being monthly supplied the soldier was fain to eat it
or starve.
“The victuallers might well have borne with such a loss, if
there had been any, for that their substitutes did curtail the
poor soldier upon the delivery of their week's victuals by
weight, to the clerks of every company; else how could a poor
commissary of victuals, considering his beginning, prove worth
30,000l., in 12 year's space, of a noble a day's entertainment,
and divers other inferior officers or substitutes, in 3 or 4 years,
prove worth 3,000l. a man?
“Then look what waste was demanded during the wars by
the victuallers for six years' wars. I esteem not so little as
10,000l., but if the general accounts may be surveyed, your
Honor shall find it much more.
“It ought less to have been charged on the King, because
the King's stock was ever employed in these services, to be
stocked by the King, and to cozen him was not well. There-
fore to call the victuallers to an account your Lordship may
do very well.
“Although the victuallers have found colour to demand
these allowances for waste, yet in the passages of their con-
tracts their gains was sufficient to countervail any extraordi-
nary matters of charge, for they had so many natures of
victuals to work upon that they would ever find me extra-
ordinary cheap to pay for all on their sides.
“Also this matter of waste was never demanded of the
Lords upon their contracts, but a trick which they used to get
a Governor's hand to allow it; so was this matter of waste
always foisted in upon their accounts.
“Your Honor's humble servant to the uttermost of my
power.
Signed. THO. WALKER.
Copy. Pp. 2.

NOTES for the Reformation of Ireland.

1. Reformation of Religion:—

Restraint of sending their youth to foreign universities. Execution of the law against Romish and foreign priests. Repairing and building of churches to the English form. Schoolhouses to be built near the churches; some lands to be appointed for both. Churchwardens, as in England, to be appointed to have charge of both. The livings to be augmented by uniting two or three churches till by better habitation, each may be of more value. These things done, and not before, then fit preachers for life and doctrine to be sent over.

2. General rules for reformation:

Open ways of a hundred yards broad to be made through he woods. Bridges, with gate houses, to be built on all rivers, and fords to be manned, that none may pass but over the bridges. Little wooden castles to be built upon every strait. The highways to be 40 feet broad and fenced on each side, and the byeways so to be used, as none pass with cattle but by the highway. Towns to be appointed in convenient places by the highways, with corporation and privileges, and also not to depend on any but the King or his Deputy, and to be walled or shut in the night that none pass but by day, especially market towns; and in the towns, inns and good harbour for passengers, with ordinance that there be no buying or selling of cattle but in open market, nor engrossing of corn. All cattle to be marked with an open mark.

3. The chief governors:—

A deputy or justice, as now, but a L. Lieutenant also remaining in the Court of England. A most principal man, to abide there, and further the L. Deputy and Council's proceedings there. The Lord Deputy to have large commission to do things with the Council there, and not to expect directions from England. To be restrained in particular things, though not in the government, viz.:—that he sell no offices for money or cows, nor pardons nor protections, nor captainries of countries, nor share in bishoprics, nor give forfeitures of penalties, nor sell licenses for transportation of prohibited wares, especially of corn and flesh, &c.

Irish Objections:—

That they granted to H. VIII. to be their King, but altered no tenures, and therefore now to alter them were wrong. Answer.—The King needed no such grant, for, being Lord of a conquered land, he might himself have taken what title he list. And for tenures, or what else, he might as a conqueror from his predecessors have altered, and done what he thought fit, as the Queen may do now, where she is not bound by her own or her ancestors' grants. Henry II. subdued the whole land, drove the most part of the Irish to the mountains, peopled it with English, and gave English laws; but at the civil wars in England, between King John and his barons, the English Lords in Ireland being called home for divers causes, the Irish came down again and re-possessed the valleys adjoining, driving out the English as in Munster — all the lands adjoining unto Slealaugher, Arlo, and the bog of Allan Connaught, all the countries bordering upon the Caller and O'Rourke's country; Leinster and all the lands bordering unto the mountains of Glan Malo unto Shillelagh, unto the Bristelagh and Polmount, etc.; Ulster and all the countries near to Tirconell, Tirown, and the Scots; and from thence spread themselves further; and then, in Edw. II, time, his brother, the Duke of Clarence, having married the heir of Ulster, and being of great inheritance in Meath and Mounster, wrought some redress, repaired the castle of Clare, in Tho

A notable forest country.

P. 133.

P. 131.

mond, of which country he had the inheritance, and of Mor-
timer's lands, now by the Irish called Billalowe; but he, with
the troubles of that time, was called home and made away.
The North revolted, making O'Neale captain. In Thomond,
one of the O'Briens arose, and spoiled in Mounster and
O'Meawghe, all towns, forts, &c., and called himself King of
Ireland, and thence marched into Leinster. After, in Edw. II.,
came in Edw. Le Bruce, brother to the K. of Scotts, with
Scotts and Redshanks, and the country rebells continuing all
from the point of Dunluce and beyond, to which the English
pale extended to Dublin, and was King for a year, till he was
expelled by Hugh de Lacy. He rooted out the noble houses
of Audleys, Talbots, Touchets, Chamberlaynes, and left the
Salvadges in the Ardes, Poor, &c. The rebellion of Thomas
FitzGarrett was almost universal. In the time of the govern-
ment of that Lord, as also the usurpations of the English one
upon another, and the factions of Butlers, Geraldines, &c., and
[in] short warring one upon another, and drawing in the Irish
to their party, and them, being made weak, became Irish in
usage and name.*
The McMahouns in Connaught, Monster, Leinster, Ulster,
in the North, descended from the St. Ursulnes (?) of England.
McSwins, now in Ulster, from the Weres, disguising their
names in hatred to England. Upon the death of Ro. Vere,
Duke of Ireland, in the time of Ric. II. McSwines, McMahouns,
McShehies of Monster, being followers of the Geraldines of
Monster, upon the death of the Earl of Desmond at Tredaugh,
upon subornation of the R. (?) to E. IV. And all these
Geraldines took both apparel, name, and customs Irish, and
so continue to this day; of which sort, they reckon all sirnames
ending in “an” as Hernan, Shenan, Mungan, &c., of which
kind is the Lord Bremingham, who, of the ancientest barons
English is now most Salvage Irish, naming himself Irishly
Macrorishe, as also the great Mortimer, now called McNemarra,
Likewise the old L. Courcye, now mere Irish.

Endorsed “Notes for Ireland.”
Pp. 3. In a very crabbed hand.

234. NOTES for IRELAND.

Inconveniences in the common law.—Brehoun law, com

pounding of murders, unwritten.
Tanistry, a personal state for life of the Lord or Tanist.
Receytors found but not the principal thieves.
Conveyance of lands to feoffees of trust before rebellion.
Incone by statute—A wrongful distraint, felony.
Coigne and lyvery, treason.

* See a letter from the city of Cork to the Earl of Shrewsbury of record in the Tower.

Custom of Kincogishe made a law for every chief of family to bring south his kin. Cuddye, Coshery, Straugh Bonought for their services due to them and brought in by the English upon the Irish. Inconv. by custom.—Bollyes (?), from the Scythian hordes, keeping of their cattle, and depasturing in the wastes and so passing from one to another. Wearing of mantles and glibbes. The mantles, the house, bed, and clothing of wandering rebels; his buckler also, in fight, his cover with a hood for safe passage; after theft his basket to carry close any pilferage, armour, &c. As bed for light women. The glibbe disguiseth a thief, cut off or pulled over his eyes. Their hubbub or cry of ferraghe at encounters misliked, as maintaining Irish captainry. Cries and lamentations at burials.

English.

Irish language amongst the English. Nursing, marriage, clothing, arming, galloglasse, kerne. Bards.—All their poetries tending to the furtherance of vice and the hurt of the English. Horseboys—Of whom brought up in idleness and villand are made their kerne, and which being used by the English, do learn of them the use of their piece and all our manners, thereby hurting us. Carrowes.—Dicers and carders haunting gambling (?) houses spending their winnings loosely and paying their losings with stealths, and making many like themselves. Jesters.—Setters of robberies and news carriers. Meetings upon a rathe or hill for parley upon wrongs between town and town, whither resort all loose people. Cesse.—The soldier being laid upon the country who will have not one but five meats, aqua vitae, and money, and yet beat the host and spoil the country. Landlords not making tenants but from year to year, or at will, nor tenants otherwise, will take. Inconv. in religion.—All popish or rather not understanding any point of religion. Bishops bestow not their benefices, or upon such whom they will put out at pleasure, &c.

Particular faults:

Extortion of sheriffs and their bailiffs.

Corruption of victuallers, cessors, purveyors.

Disorders of seneschals, captains, soldiers.

Captains and governors.—Collusions with the enemy to protract their employments.

The chief governors owe envy to their predecessor or follower.

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