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II. “A Breviate of the Conquest of Ireland.”
THOMAS WALKER's PROJECT.
Vol. 602, p. 170. 232. “A PROJECT touching some abuses done by the Victuallers during the wars in Ireland.”
“First, I collect that in all sea journeys, a provision may be made for six months or eight months, without any waste, the means of stowage being nothing so convenient as it is for land services. “If so be that in sea journeys the victualling be so profitable, there is much greater reason that the victuallers for a land army should do the like, their contracts being but from 6 months to 6, many times 3 months and 3. “In like manner in these late Irish wars the victuallers had time enough to make choice of the best victuals most necessary for the service, and to pack it up in that substantial manner that little waste or none at all could be in transporting it, the passage from the west of England being no more than 2 or 3 days sail at most; so upon their arrival it was always put into very convenient storehouses. “In all reason these passages could cause little waste to be required, yet notwithstanding these victuallers, upon their general accounts, were allowed not so little as 10,000l. for their waste; but had they performed their services faithfully, and contented themselves with other large gains which they had, which was too much, neither respecting the misery of the poor soldier or their duties to the State, it might well have given them royal satisfaction without any demands for waste at all. “If the victualler made choice of victual which would not continue good during the time of the contract, or that the packing was the defect, must the King allow waste to the victualler in this case? By your Honor's leave no, the fault is the victualler's. “It is not unknown to most Governors in Ireland, but that the greatest waste the victuallers could demand during those wars was for waste of victuals in the chief magissons (magazines), and not for victual which was wasted in remote garrisons by transportation. Then the stowage being convenient why should the victuallers lay any charge upon the King? “It is true that by transporting victuals from the magazine into inland garrisons, the carriage being all on horses, much victual was spoiled, as with the rain, bread and cheese being transported in linen bags, taking wet, there was some waste,
* This a copy of No. 1, in Vol. I. of this Calendar, as far as the end of the sixth paragraph.
Vol. 607, p. 130. 233.
but that being monthly supplied the soldier was fain to eat it
NOTES for the Reformation of Ireland.
1. Reformation of Religion:—
Restraint of sending their youth to foreign universities. Execution of the law against Romish and foreign priests. Repairing and building of churches to the English form. Schoolhouses to be built near the churches; some lands to be appointed for both. Churchwardens, as in England, to be appointed to have charge of both. The livings to be augmented by uniting two or three churches till by better habitation, each may be of more value. These things done, and not before, then fit preachers for life and doctrine to be sent over.
2. General rules for reformation:
Open ways of a hundred yards broad to be made through he woods. Bridges, with gate houses, to be built on all rivers, and fords to be manned, that none may pass but over the bridges. Little wooden castles to be built upon every strait. The highways to be 40 feet broad and fenced on each side, and the byeways so to be used, as none pass with cattle but by the highway. Towns to be appointed in convenient places by the highways, with corporation and privileges, and also not to depend on any but the King or his Deputy, and to be walled or shut in the night that none pass but by day, especially market towns; and in the towns, inns and good harbour for passengers, with ordinance that there be no buying or selling of cattle but in open market, nor engrossing of corn. All cattle to be marked with an open mark.
3. The chief governors:—
A deputy or justice, as now, but a L. Lieutenant also remaining in the Court of England. A most principal man, to abide there, and further the L. Deputy and Council's proceedings there. The Lord Deputy to have large commission to do things with the Council there, and not to expect directions from England. To be restrained in particular things, though not in the government, viz.:—that he sell no offices for money or cows, nor pardons nor protections, nor captainries of countries, nor share in bishoprics, nor give forfeitures of penalties, nor sell licenses for transportation of prohibited wares, especially of corn and flesh, &c.
That they granted to H. VIII. to be their King, but altered no tenures, and therefore now to alter them were wrong. Answer.—The King needed no such grant, for, being Lord of a conquered land, he might himself have taken what title he list. And for tenures, or what else, he might as a conqueror from his predecessors have altered, and done what he thought fit, as the Queen may do now, where she is not bound by her own or her ancestors' grants. Henry II. subdued the whole land, drove the most part of the Irish to the mountains, peopled it with English, and gave English laws; but at the civil wars in England, between King John and his barons, the English Lords in Ireland being called home for divers causes, the Irish came down again and re-possessed the valleys adjoining, driving out the English as in Munster — all the lands adjoining unto Slealaugher, Arlo, and the bog of Allan Connaught, all the countries bordering upon the Caller and O'Rourke's country; Leinster and all the lands bordering unto the mountains of Glan Malo unto Shillelagh, unto the Bristelagh and Polmount, etc.; Ulster and all the countries near to Tirconell, Tirown, and the Scots; and from thence spread themselves further; and then, in Edw. II, time, his brother, the Duke of Clarence, having married the heir of Ulster, and being of great inheritance in Meath and Mounster, wrought some redress, repaired the castle of Clare, in Tho
A notable forest country.
mond, of which country he had the inheritance, and of Mor-
Endorsed “Notes for Ireland.”
234. NOTES for IRELAND.
Inconveniences in the common law.—Brehoun law, com
pounding of murders, unwritten.
* See a letter from the city of Cork to the Earl of Shrewsbury of record in the Tower.
Custom of Kincogishe made a law for every chief of family to bring south his kin. Cuddye, Coshery, Straugh Bonought for their services due to them and brought in by the English upon the Irish. Inconv. by custom.—Bollyes (?), from the Scythian hordes, keeping of their cattle, and depasturing in the wastes and so passing from one to another. Wearing of mantles and glibbes. The mantles, the house, bed, and clothing of wandering rebels; his buckler also, in fight, his cover with a hood for safe passage; after theft his basket to carry close any pilferage, armour, &c. As bed for light women. The glibbe disguiseth a thief, cut off or pulled over his eyes. Their hubbub or cry of ferraghe at encounters misliked, as maintaining Irish captainry. Cries and lamentations at burials.
Irish language amongst the English. Nursing, marriage, clothing, arming, galloglasse, kerne. Bards.—All their poetries tending to the furtherance of vice and the hurt of the English. Horseboys—Of whom brought up in idleness and villand are made their kerne, and which being used by the English, do learn of them the use of their piece and all our manners, thereby hurting us. Carrowes.—Dicers and carders haunting gambling (?) houses spending their winnings loosely and paying their losings with stealths, and making many like themselves. Jesters.—Setters of robberies and news carriers. Meetings upon a rathe or hill for parley upon wrongs between town and town, whither resort all loose people. Cesse.—The soldier being laid upon the country who will have not one but five meats, aqua vitae, and money, and yet beat the host and spoil the country. Landlords not making tenants but from year to year, or at will, nor tenants otherwise, will take. Inconv. in religion.—All popish or rather not understanding any point of religion. Bishops bestow not their benefices, or upon such whom they will put out at pleasure, &c.
Extortion of sheriffs and their bailiffs.
Corruption of victuallers, cessors, purveyors.
Disorders of seneschals, captains, soldiers.
Captains and governors.—Collusions with the enemy to protract their employments.
The chief governors owe envy to their predecessor or follower.