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make a compound body of glass and galletyle; that is, to have the colour milky like a chalcedon, being a stuff between a porcelane and a glass.
For the first, it is good first to know exactly the several materials whereof the glass in use is made; window-glass, Normandy and Burgundy, ale-house glass, English drinking-glass : and then thereupon to consider what the reason is of the coarseness or clearness, and from thence to rise to a consideration how to make some additaments to the coarser materials, to raise them to the whiteness and crystalline splendor of the finest.
For the second, we see pebbles, and some other stones, will cut as fine as crystal, which if they will melt, may be a mixture for glass, and may make it more tough and more crystalline. Besides, we see metals will vitrify; and perhaps some portion of the glass of metal vitrified, mixed in the pot of ordinary glass-metal, will make the whole mass more tough.
For the third, it were good to have of coloured window-glass, such as is coloured in the pot, and not by colours
It is to be known of what stuff galletyle is made, and how the colours in it are varied; and thereupon to consider how to make the mixture of glass-metal and them, whereof I have seen the example.
Inquire what be the stones that do easiliest melt. Of them take half a pound, and of iron a pound and half, and an ounce of brimstone, and see whether they will incorporate, being whole, with a strong fire. If not, try the same quantities calcined : and if they will incorporate, make a plate of them, and burnish it as they do iron,
Take a pound and a half of brass, and half a pound of iron; two ounces of the calaminar stone, an ounce and a half of brimstone, an ounce of lead; calcine them, and see what body they make ; and if they incorporate, make a plate of it burnished.
Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an ounce, and melt them together, and make a plate of them burnished.
Take of copper an ounce and a half, of tin an ounce, of glass-metal half an ounce; stir them well in the boiling, and if they incorporate, make a plate of them burnished.
Take of copper a pound and a half, tin four.ounces, brass two ounces ; make a plate of them burnished.
Take of silver two ounces, tin half an ounce; make a little say-cup of it, and burnish it.
To inquire of the materials of every of the kind of glasses, coarser and finer, and of the proportions.
Take an equal quantity of glass-metal, of stone calcined, and bring a pattern.
Take an ounce of vitrified metal, and a pound of ordinary glass-metal, and see whether they will incorporate, and bring a pattern.
Bring examples of all coloured glasses, and learn the ingredients whereby they are coloured.
Inquire of the substance of galletyle.
THE LORD BACON'S QUESTIONS,
DR. MEVEREL'S SOLUTIONS.
Concerning the compounding, incorporating, or union
of metals or minerals. Which subject is the first
letter of his Lordship’s Alphabet. With what metals gold will incorporate by simple colliquefaction, and with what not? And in what quantity it will incorporate; and what kind of body the compound makes ?
Gold with silver, which was the ancient electrum: gold with quicksilver: gold with lead : gold with copper : gold with brass : gold with iron : gold with tin.
So likewise of silver: silver with quicksilver : silver with lead : silver with copper: silver with brass: silver with iron : Plinius secund. lib. xxxiii. 9. Miscuit denario triumvir Antonius ferrum, silver with tin.
So likewise of quicksilver : quicksilver with lead : quicksilver with copper: quicksilver with brass : quicksilver with iron : quicksilver with tin.
So of lead : lead with copper: lead with brass : lead with iron : lead with tin. Plin. xxxiv. 9.
So of copper : copper with brass: copper with iron : copper with tin.
So of brass : brass with iron : brass with tin.
at be the compound metals that are common and known ? And what are the proportions of their mixtures ? As,
Latten of brass, and the calaminar stone.
Pewter of tin and lead.
Bell-metal of etc. and the counterfeit plate, which they call alchemy.
The decomposites of three metals or more, are too long to inquire of, except there be some compositions of them already observed.
It is also to be observed, whether any two metals, which will not mingle of themselves, will mingle with the help of another; and what.
What compounds will be made of metal with stone and other fossils; as latten is made with brass and the calaminar stone; as all the metals incorporate with vitriol; all with iron powdered; all with flint, etc.
Some few of these would be inquired of, to disclose the nature of the rest.
Whether metals or other fossils will incorporate with molten glass, and what body it makes?
The quantity in the mixture would be well considered; for some small quantity perhaps will incorporate, as in the allays of gold and silver coin.
Upon the compound body, three things are chiefly to be observed: the colour; the fragility or pliantness; the volatility or fixation, compared with the simple bodies.
For present use or profit, this is the rule : consider the price of the two simple bodies; consider again the dignity of the one above the other in use; then see if you can make a compound, that will save more in price, than it will lose in dignity of the use.
As for example; consider the price of brass ordnance ; consider again the price of iron ordnance, and then consider wherein the brass ordnance doth excel the iron ordnance in use; then if you can make a compound of brass and iron that will be near as good in use, and much cheaper in price, then there is profit both to the private and the commonwealth. So of gold and silver, the price is double of twelve : the dignity of gold above silver is not much, the splendour is alike, and more pleasing to some eyes, as in cloth of silver, silvered rapiers, etc. The main dignity is, that gold bears the fire, which silver doth not: but that is
an excellency in nature, but it is nothing at all in use; for any dignity in use I know none, but that silvering will sully and canker more than gilding; which if it might be corrected with a little mixture of gold, there is profit: and I do somewhat marvel that the latter ages have lost the ancient electrum, which was a mixture of silver with gold : whereof I conceive there may be much use, both in coin, plate, and gilding:
It is to be noted, that there is in the version of metals impossibility, or at least great difficulty, as in making of gold, silver, copper. On the other side, in the adulterating or counterfeiting of metals, there is deceit and villany. But it should seem there is a middle way, and that is by new compounds, if the ways of incorporating were well known.
What incorporation or imbibition metals will receive from vegetables, without being dissolved in their substance: as when the armourers make their steel more tough and pliant, by aspersion of water or juice of herbs; when gold being grown somewhat churlish by recovering, is made more pliant by throwing in shreds of tanned leather, or by leather oiled.
Note, that in these and the like shews of imbibi. tion, it were good to try by the weights, whether the weight be increased, or no; for if it be not, it is to be doubted that there is no imbibition of substance, but only that the application of that other body doth dispose and invite the metal to another posture of parts, than of itself it would have taken
After the incorporation of metals by simple colliquefaction, for the better discovery of the nature and consents and dissents of metals, it would be likewise tried by incorporating of their dissolutions. What metals being dissolved in strong waters will incorporate well together, and what not? Which is to be inquired particularly, as it was in colliquefactions.
There is to be observed in those dissolutions which will not easily incorporate, what the effects are: as the bullition; the precipitation to the bottom; the ejaculation towards the top; the suspension in the midst ; and the like.