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The southern and western wind with us is the warmest, whereof the one bloweth from the sun, the other from the sea; the northern and eastern the more cold. Qu. whether in the coast of Florida, or at Brasil, the east wind be not the warmest, and the west the coldest; and so beyond the antarctic tropic, the southern wind the coldest.
The air useth to be extreme hot before thunders.
The sea and air ambient, appeareth to be hotter than that at land; for in the northern voyages two or three degrees farther at the open sea, they find less ice than two or three degrees more south near land; but Qu. for that may be by reason of the shores and shallows.
The snows dissolve fastest upon the sea-coasts, yet the winds are counted the bitterest from the sea, and such as trees will bend from. Qu.
The streams or clouds of brightness which appear in the firmament, being such through which the stars may be seen, and shoot not, but rest, are signs of heat.
The pillars of light, which are so upright, and do commonly shoot and vary, are signs of cold; but both these are signs of drought.
The air when it is moved is to the sense colder; as in winds, fannings, ventilabra.
The air in things fibrous, as fleeces, furs, etc. warm; and those stuffs to the feeling warm.
The water to man's body seemeth colder than the air; and so in summer, in swimming it seemeth at the first going in; and yet after one hath been in a while, at the coming forth again, the air seemeth colder than the water.
The snow more cold to the sense than water, and the ice than snow; and they have in Italy means to keep snow and ice for the cooling of their drinks : Qu. whether it be so in froth in respect of the liquor?
Baths of hot water feel hottest at the first going in.
The frost dew which we see in hoar frost, and in the rymes upon trees or the like, accounted more mortifying cold than snow; for snow cherisheth the ground, and any thing sowed in it; the other biteth and killeth.
Stone and metal exceeding cold to the feeling more than wood: yea more than jet or amber, or horn, which are no less smooth.
The snow is ever in the winter season, but the hail, which is more of the nature of ice, is ever in the summer season; whereupon it is conceived, that as the hollows of the earth are warmest in the winter, so that region of the air is coldest in the summer; as if they were a fugue of the nature of either from the contrary, and a collecting itself to an union, and so to a further strength.
So in the shades under trees, in the summer, which stand in an open field, the shade noted to be colder than in a wood.
Cold effecteth congelation in liquors, so as they do consist and hold together, which before did run.
Cold breaketh glasses, if they be close stopped, in frost, when the liquor freezeth within.
Cold in extreme maketh metals, that are dry and brittle, cleft and crack, Æraque dissiliunt ; so of pots of earth and glass.
Cold maketh bones of living creatures more fragile.
Cold maketh living creatures to swell in the joints, and the blood to clot, and turn more blue.
Bitter frosts do make all drinks to taste more dead and flat.
Cold maketh the arteries and flesh more asper and rough.
Cold causes rheums and distillations by compressing the brain, and laxes by like reason.
Cold increases appetite in the stomach, and willingness to stir.
Cold maketh the fire to scald and sparkle.
Paracelsus reporteth, that if a glass of wine be set upon a terras in a bitter frost, it will leave some liquor unfrozen in the centre of the glass, which excelleth spiritus vini drawn by fire. Cold in Muscovy, and the like countries, causes
those parts which are voidest of blood, as the nose, the ears, the toes, the fingers, to mortify and rot; especially if you come suddenly to fire, after you have been in the air abroad, they are sure to moulder and dissolve. They use for remedy, as is said, washing in snow water.
If a man come out of a bitter' cold suddenly to the fire, he is ready to swoon, or be overcome.
So contrariwise at Nova Zembla, when they opened their door at times to go forth, he that opened the door was in danger to be overcome.
The quantity of fish in the cold countries, Norway, etc. very abundant.
The quantity of fowl and eggs laid in the cliffs in great abundance.
In Nova Zembla they found no beasts but bears and foxes, whereof the bears gave over to be seen about September, and the foxes began.
Meat will keep from putrifying longer in frosty weather than at other times,
In Iceland they keep fish; by exposing it to the cold, from putrifying without salt.
The nature of man endureth the colds in the countries of Scricfinnia, Biarmia, Lappia, Iceland, Groenland; and that not by perpetual keeping in in stoves in the winter time, as they do in Russia : but contrariwise, their chief fairs and intercourse is written to be in the winter, because the ice evens and levelleth the passages of waters, plashes, etc. ! A thaw after a frost doth greatly rot and mellow the ground.
Extreme cold hurteth the eyes, and causeth blindness in many beasts, as is reported.
The cold maketh any solid substance, as wood, stone, metal, put to the flesh, to cleave to it, and to pull the flesh after it, and so put to any cloth that is moist... Cold maketh the pilage of beasts more thick and long, as foxes of Muscovy, sables, etc.
Cold maketh the pilage of most beasts incline to grayness or whiteness, as foxes, bears, and so the
plumage of fowls; and maketh also the crests of cocks and their feet white, as is reported.
Extreme.cold will make nails leap out of the walls, and out of locks, and the like.
Extreme cold maketh leather to be stiff like horn.,
In frosty weather the stars appear clearest and most sparkling
In the change from frost to open weather, or from open weather to frosts, commonly great mists.
In extreme colds any thing never so little which arresteth the air maketh it to congeal; as we see in cobwebs in windows, which is one of the least and weakest threads that is, and yet drops gather about it like chains of pearl.
So in frosts, the inside of glass windows gathereth a dew; Qu. if not more without.
Qu. Whether the sweating of marble and stones be in frost, or towards rain.
Oil in time of frost gathereth to a substance, as of tallow; and it is said to sparkle some time, so as it giveth a light in the dark.
The countries which lie covered with snow, have a hastier maturation of all grain than in other countries, all being within three months, or thereabouts.
Qu. It is said, that compositions of honey, as mead, do ripen, and are most pleasant in the great colds.
The frosts with us are casual, and not tied to any months, so as they are not merely caused by the recess of the sun, but mixed with some inferior causes. In the inland of the northern countries, as in Russia, the weather for the three or four months of November, December, January, February, is constant, viz. clear and perpetual frost, without snows or rains.
There is nothing in our region, which, by approach of a matter hot, will not take heat by transition or excitation.
There is nothing hot here with us but is in a kind of consumption, if it carry heat in itself; for all fired things are ready to consume; chafed things are ready
to fire; and the heat of mens bodies needeth aliment to restore.
The transition of heat is without any imparting of substance, and yet remaineth after the body heated is withdrawn; for it is not like smells, for they leave some airs or parts; not like light, for that abideth not when the first body is removed; not unlike to the motion of the loadstone, which is lent without adhesion of substance, for if the iron be filed where it was rubbed, yet it will draw or turn.