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VOL.VII, No. 21.) LONDON, SÅTURDAY, MAY, 23, (1805.60 EPAIcelop.

on! chat such bulky bribes as all might see, 720
“ Suill, as of old, encumheredd vilainy!

"Tis páper credić, last and hest supply,
« That tends corruption lighter wings to fly.

Porn, Ep.

1 769] REFORM OF FINANCIAL ABUSES.. ly contain an account of sumns of LETTER IV.

tually expended, but it likewise, en bracks as $IR,Before I proceed to point out a account of some of the resources of the pulin method, by which the expenditure of the lie incoine; for instance, the expenses for public money may be conducted, without the establishments of the Secretaries of State's being liable to the numberless opportunities Offices; of the War Office ; of the Treasury of committing frauds that exist at present, Ofice, and of other offices, charged in the and which frauds, when comınitted, are not civil-list, are not the whole of the expenses under the form now in use of stating the incurred. The whole produce of the several public expenses, exposed to detection by Par fee funds in each office, are applied to defray liament, it is obviously necessary to make these expenses, and the sum charged on this such a preparatory explanation of the pro account in the civil list, are such sums as are ceedings now had in regard to the appli- wanting to make up with the fee funds the cation of the public inoney, as will enable wholeexpense incurred by these establishments your readers to judge correcuy, how far they Again, the sale of old stores, and the droiglsts are defective, and in what degree the refor of the Adiniralty, are applied in a similar mnation, which I am about to recommend, is manyer towards the payment of expenses calculated to correct abuses. From the fullest incurred in the different naval and military consideration that I am capable of giving to departments; though, like the fee funds ac50 extensive a subject, I am of opinion, that tual resources of revenue, and in propriety the discussion of it may be properly divided ought so to be received and accounted for. into four distinct parts. 1. The stating the Such, therefore, is the inconsistency, and accounts of the public expenses. 2. The in such the confusion in accounting for the pubcurring of them. 3. The examining of the Tic money, that you must look into the indemands for payment; and, 4. The paying come account for the public experditure, of these demands. According to this divi. and into the expenditure account for the sion, I shall proceed to point out, as briefly public income! The charges of managem3 possible, what the practice and the errors ment, &c. contained in the income paper, are of the systein pow in use; and then I are as much items of the nation's expenses, shall proceed to propose one more consistent as the payments to the army and naty; and in its regulations, and more consonant with the fee funds are resources of its income, the acknowledged principles of finance, equally as to every principle and purpose of 1. In looking into the annual accounts of the taxation as any specific tax. The fees are public income and expenditure, we shall, in virtually taxes, and as such, now that salaries the onset, find full cause for advancing some have been given in lieu of them, they ought very strong objections. For in the eight an to be accounted for, and not left, as they tual papers that professedly contain these now are, to bę received and applied by the aceouts, one of them No. 5, that is, accord clerks in the offices of the state the ing tits tiile, a statement of the whole pub priuciple was adopted of paying AĻl the relie expenditure, by 10 nieans answers this venue, of every description, and from whatdescription ; fur, in No.1, which is called ever source it might be derived into the un account of the public incorne, there are Exchequer, this commixture and confusion uo less than eleven colnmns, expressing the of accounts could never occur. There then expenditure of a very considerable portion of could be no such abeurdity, as a statement of that income. Pour of these are certainly thie Pational income cranimed with columns arried forward to the expenditure paper, of the expenditure of it, or such a thing as but the rest of them are wholly omitted; a statement of the expenditure diminished in namely, “ Repayments, Drawbacks, &c.; its teal amount by the entire suppression of Irish Packet Establishment; Charges of Ma productive sources of revenue. But what is nagement ; His Majesty's Forests; and Im of still greater consequence, there would not posts for the Redemption of the Land Tax. then present themselves so many opportuniAgain, the expenditure paper does not mere ties of committing fraud. There is this

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further objection to the present method of 6. Payments in anticipation of
stating the public expenditure, an objection the Exchequer receipt
of the greatest importance ; viz. the want-7. The Navy

7,979,89 of sufficient detail in explaining the items in 3. The Ordnance

1,827,041 the abstract sheet, to enable Parliament, to 9. The Army

11,299,416 trace the application of the whole of the pub. 10. Miscellaneous Services 16.1.2,800,500

Without the power of doing so, 11. From Income Paper, total no system of accoulling can be adequate to payments out of Gross Re-049 the proper object of it, the commission of


asplo flex. 5,291,473 peculation may pass undiscovered, as it has 12. From Do, on account of mq already for years, together, and no correct Militia

young 96,210 gpinion can be formed of the capability of Do. bis Majesty's Forests. 1

.: 1600 the nation to maintain its present or to in Do. for redemption of Land ! Ed... cur new expenses. To establish, therefore,


61:712 an efficient plan for understanding in what manner the public money is expended, the

56,812,149 present one must be radically altered, and such a plan must be substituted in its place, In examining into the detail of this great as will be in strict conformity with the true expenditure, the first obvious distinction litat principles of stating accounts, and will be presents itself is that between expenses competent to convey a correct and satisfac- which are fixed, and specifically, ascertained tory history of every shilling, which the sub- and regulated in their amount by acts and ject pays, from the period of its first pay-, votes of Parlianzent, and those which are fit ment by him, to that of its repayment for a $0 ascertained. When the publie vmoney is public service. -2, 3, and 4. The discus made payable in particularly stated soos te sion of the present practice of government express and defined objects, there evidently jų incurring, examining, and paying of the can exist but little diiħculty in securing the public expenses, involves matters of great public from fraud. Of this description of variety and extent; and, from the circum payments are those for the interest and re: stance of these duties being perforined with demption of the national debt, and a great out any distinct arrangement, the discussion proportion of the charges upon the copsala of each of them cannot well be separated.dated fund, As the arrangements niade with But, however complex this subject is, it is ab- the Bank of England by the Treasury **** solutely necessary that the principles, at least cure the immediate payment of the interest of this practice should be canvassed, in order on the pational debt, to the persons entitled that the errors of it may be sufficiently ex to receive it; and as all payments of a sim. posed to autiorise the proposal of its entire lar tixed nature, might be paid by the Tea : abolition. If we find upon investigating sury in the same manner, directly to the posts it, that no general principle is allowed to go sons entitled to payment, there does not SPvern the regulations of office; that there is pear to be wanting any further regulatico: no consistency in the regulations, and no in respect to the payment of

expenses pre consistency in the control of public accoun cisely voted and ordered by Parliament, there taníts, we shall be warranted in condemuing the general application of this principle of such a practice; and by acquiring a know- payment to all of them. It is, therefore, to ledge of what is defective, we shall attain those public expenses, that are not, and can the surést means of being capable of advising not be detined in specificallystated suipes iinprovement. The following statement that our attention may be said to be parte of the expenditure for 1803 *, will point out cularly wanting. To those expenses, a ready arrangement for proceeding with the are voted by the House of Commons upon inquiry,

estimates, and are eventually incurred at tim 1. On National Debt £24,264,424 | discretion of the public officers of the sele 2. On Exchequer Bills


ral departments. Of this description are the 3 and 4. On Civil List and other charges on Consoli

t On comparing the charge in No: 5, fos dated Fund

2,346,043 militia and deserters warrants, and with the 5. On Civil Government of

same charge in-No. 1, it will appear to be in Scotland

79,502 the former 108,405). and in the batter

204,6711., making a difference of 90,2001, * This year is taken, the accounts for How is such a shamneful denionstration 1804 nut being yet delivered by the House great fraud or great inaccuracy to be of Commons

plainod away?


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Expenses of the navy; "the orduance, the art Boards of Commissioners, subordinate to the my, anil miscellaneous services; and, likeb Board of Admiralty,"for conducting the dio wise, though not voted on estimates, the tail of the privy expenditure, why sloald not paymerits in anticipation of the Exchequer the vilice of Secretary at War, and tlfe Ofice (Faceipt, and the total payments in No. 1. but of Barrack Master General be placed in comof the gross revenue for charges of managemision ? Tlie principle of confiding great ment, &c.--I It would be lighly reasonable trusts iit the hands of commissioners, is in a person-unacquainted with the practice either a good or a bad pritvtiple. If we look of the several departments, to suppose that to experience, we all find that the adoption some one common system should regulate of this principle in every departmektty coneach of them; and that, when an improve cerned in the collection of the Teremie, has ment had taken place in one of them, it been attended with the best of consequences. would be adopted in the others. It would If we refer to the reasoning that may be had likewise, be reasonable in such a person to respecting it, we shall find that it is perfectsuppose, that the great extent of the expen-ly consistent with sound reason, to look with diture of the country, would have occasioned greater certainty to the correct fultilment of un entire abandonment of the plan and regu a trust, when many are employed, than when lations that were in use, when a few millions confidence is placed in individuals

. With ouly were sufficient to defray every expense. therefore, the concurrent testimony of both Such a person, however, would find his sup- experience and reasoti, to recornmend the positions by 'no meaus supported by facts, if adoption of this principle in each departhe was to inquire into the detail of the sys- ment; that is necessary for managing the tem now in use. He would ind in some in- public expenditure; the sooner it is adopter', stances, the power of conducting the expen- the greater will be the advantages which the diture vested in the hands of commissioners, public will derive from it. If then, the nain others, this power entirely left with a sin- ture of the public expenses is such, that so gle individual; and even when improve great a proportion of them as amounts to ments liad been made, he would find them thirty millions annually, cannot be brought to where carried far enough to produce any before the House of Commons in such a degree of perfection in matters of regula- mariner, as to render it possible to fix the tronz nor adopted by some departnents precise amount of the particulars of thenu; where the most wanting. He would, in but, that this great sum must be left to the storty discover that the system of manage- offices of the statė, to be incurred and conmeest of the public expenditure, has been by troled according to the discretion of those no means altered in such a manner, as to who fill theni; Both common sense and daily render it adequate to meet the great altera expérience point out the policy of providing tion, that has taken place in the last thirty the most effectual guards, for securing the pears in the amount of it; and he would be public from irregularities and frauds. As convinced, that a radical reformation is ab- however, the primiples of this policy live dutely necessary, to secure the publice from not been acied upon; as no regiilor princiFuture violations of the law, and Arrure pecu- ples for incurriin, examining, and paying atidl-Is it not, Mr. Coblett, tie lieight ile public expenses are pursued; nor as f inconsisteney to vest the expcuditure of even, where the principle of acting by cona navy in five Boards of Commissioners, missioners is followed, has, as the reports of d to continue the whole direction of the the Conimissioners of Naval Inquiry demonpenditure or army'atid' ordnance depart. strate, a proper system of checks Lecti Ants in two individuals? If it is wise to formed over the conduct of the commissionilet the office of Lord High Adiniral in | érs, it must be a usctul undertaking, even if mmission, do not the same priviples sus. it sliould fail of complete success, to point Se the wisdoint of placing the offices of out any rational pian for so dividing and coi:ommander in Chief of the Army, wid of troling the various duties of conducting the ister General of the Ordnance in con mis expenditure of the public money, that each host'? In farther, it is wise to have four duty may be rendered simple and easy in 144

perfcrinance, and that each person employed he was * The Admiralty, the Navy, the Trans to fultil it may isave no opportunity of beHt, the Victuallong, and the sick and Hurt itd. In the Ordtrance there is a ** Call to any act, which can otherwise, if ard Eckniposed of the Lient: General, then he does not

interpose, bedre by the veyor General; the Clerk of the Ord su. Board."" (12 lep. Con. Fin.) It is obrce, the Storekeeper and the Cleik of vious, that the officers who''cutropiese třís - Deliverics'; lut, " the Master General boarii, execute a power to which they ought

to Le subordivate.

fraying his trast:s Tbei great length of [.2dly, That they impose & penaltroa Kamati this letter obliges me to breitk off, and leave Catholics not resortipg to their, 90 the statement of steh aplan for a subsequent ship on a Sunday. I now, wish; to call the communication.4. I am; Sir; & VERAX. serious attention of every reader to the May, 17, 1805. 10 -9.30,' those! 09179 lowing extract from a letteri (dated, 7th

April, 1805) that I received from a deput ROMAN CATHOLIC( SOLDIERS.IN UNO liegtenant and justice of the peace for the MR. COBBYTT,Until I had seen what county of Kilkenny. Nothing could give turn the motions submitted to both Houses me greater pleasure than our passing of Parliament, by Lord Grenville and Mr. soune time here, when I could shew,599 Fox, on the petition of the Ronian Catholics one of the finest cir£umstanced conquis of Ireland, had taken, I did not think it nie perhaps'in Europe, for becoming rich and cessary to trouble you, or the preblic through happy :. but, unfortun.tely, the country your Register, on a point which would pro is peopled with Papists! By way of giving bably have been discussed and remedied, had "some idea of the country, I will describe either House of Parliament gone into the to you the state of this parish. Last yesi proposed comnittees ---Yon may remem “they thought propery much against my ber, Sir, that in the year 1791, au aet passed, will, to appoint me one of the Deputy which is 'recorded in the statutes at large, “ Governors or Board of Licutetancy of under the 31 Geo. III. chap. 32, and is inti " this county, (Kilkenny) to which the twed: “An Act to relieve, upon Conditions, “ have added the coinmission of the peace,

and under Restrictions, the persons there 1. a very troublesome office. In my former

in described, from certain Penalties and capacity I undertook to order a returu af int Disabilities to which Papists, or persons " this and the neighbouring parishes, and

professing the Popish Religion, are by law in this parish I attended closely w tebe

subject."--This act provides (III) that correctness of the return under the da po Roman Catholic, why shall have taken the fence act., The parish contains, 4,500 path appointed by the act, 'shall be prose-Irish acres, its population consists of cuted far 'not resorting to some Parish 2,469 of both sexes, and all ages, of which Curch, ốc: Non cái he (IV), be prope “ sixteen' only are Protestants, and all the cuted for being a papist; and then allows "remainder Papists, Of these 2,460 there (V) public places of Roman Catholic wor are 640 men between 15 and 60 years af ship, when certified to the quarter sessions. age, capable of being called out. The And, in order to oblige Romin Catholics to whole population of the county amounts attend these places of worslvip the act pro to about 139,300, of which the nipah ceeds thus:---IX. “ Provided always, and “ of all descriptions of religions except

be it further enacted, That all the laws “pists, is ascertained to be 5,238 (abave. " made and provided for the frequenting of to 1.): Under the Army of Reserve Ad,

divine service on the Lord's day, com "", this parish was required to furnish fixe "Sinonly called Sunday, shall be still in 1. men, which, I procured and sent to qur

force, and executed against all persons tein in the course of a fortiglit. Ile "who shall offend against the said laus, un grand objections to falling on, as it 2" less such persons shall come to soine con "called, was religion, which I obyiated by

gregation or assembly of religious worship reading our act of 1703. (see act w ", permitted by this act, or by an act passed above.). The five I sent from the parish " in the first year of the reign or King Wil were Roman Catholics, as I beliese the

liam, and Queen Mary, intituled, An Act " entire of the reserve to be. Then they ** for exampting their Majesty's Protestant got to the regiment they were prohibited

subjects, dissenting from the Church of ” from going to mass, and ordered to go to

Englwd, from the penalties of certain “ Churchy and this after they took the * the Irish act passed 1793, bounty for general service, which at the

33. Geo III. chap 21, runs thus : XI. “ time I enlisted-them, I advised them to

Arki be it enacted, That no Papist, or per “do. It is now impossible to get men som 11: son processing the Popish or Roman Ca enlist in any part of his country, for apg " thodia Religion, shall be liable or subject “bounty, as the lower crders (from the

to any peints for not attending Divine knowledge of this breach of faith having 24 Seryice on ile Sabbath Day, called Sun reached them) look upon entering ibe "5 days in his or her Parish Church.”-From army equal to an apostacy from their re; wie e premios every reaskr inust infer, Ist. ligion. Surely system: Tiit the laws of this enupire allow the Ro * could not be entertaived by mnem in their w Ca.holic worship within thusa realms. senses, situaied as the whole empire is on

of that kind

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Nesenii mortént. To reject the military as to the subject, which, in my judgment, and I - as listance of so great; só athletie, and so pa- | Hope, after reading this statement, in their Si tient X body of people,"&c&c. What judgmente requires immediate redress, ;- You may be the sensations raised in the breast of are no stranger to the innumerable aets for my readera, I shall not pretend to describe angmenting our means of defence. There bat, if every park of patriotism be not ok. fore, you will certainly second the views of tinct in their breasts, I hope that one and all one who wishes to put the public in posseswil dill Tally for an explanation of this bission of nothing but the truth, and the whole gotted despotisin exercised: over poor men, truth; <ALETHEIA.May 16, -1805. indeed,' but who are gerierously exposing their lives against the most formidable, and

DOMESTIC OFFICIAL PAPERS. here the same time, 'nrost artful of despots (for

PETITIONS, AGAINST LORD MELVILLE. he has found means of setting every religious

Petition of the Borough of St. Albans, predispute" at rest, in the short space of tive

sented to the House of Commons on the 10th years. These poor hien are willing to give

of May, 1805, and entered in the Potcs as their lives for their country. Their coun

follou's. try, as I have shewni, give them the free ex

A petition of the mayor, aldermen, reericite of their religion ; and, nevertheless, corder, freemen, and inhabitants, of the Bujthey are deprived of that consolation which rough of Saint Alban, in the County of they look for, in a religioni pròtessed by their Hertford, was presented to the House, and progenitors froni the first moment that chris read; setting forth, that the petitioners beg tianity was known in their islund.' To my

leave to congratulate the House, and express own personal knowledge, poor soldiers have their heartfeit satisfaction, at the resolutions been refused the muistry of the priesthood,

which passed on the sth and 10th of April while on their death beds at the same pe

last, respecting the Tenth Report of the Tiod; the jail was open to the priest, and the

Comiņissioners of Naval Inquiry, and pray thief of murderer at Newgate, was allowed

the House to pursue such measures as they those consolations which the soldier was re

may think just for effectually exposing, and fused in his last inoments. This system, bringing to punishment, all public peculators as you see, Sit, is now stopping the recruit and delinquents, and for securing in future ing service, and though the penal laws drive

the treasure of the nation from similar den me personally třuni'those ranks in which my predations; and although the petitioners aricestors fornictly fought, for they were at

most sincerely deplore the complicated diffiCressy and Potiers, still I shall ever think culties of the present conjuncture, yet they it a duty to serve my country by what

confidently rely on the wisdom of Parliament ever means I can. None, I believe, could

for reliet, be more effectin), at this 'nonent, thun Pelition of the Coun!y of Surrey, presentcą, to instigaté du inniry, whether any or as alove, on the 16ch of Nay, 1905. ders, sol contrary to the spirit of the A petition of the gentlemen, clergy, and abure sets, have been issued? If none have freeholders, of the County of Surrey, was been issued, why are Roman Catholics presented to the House, and read; setting forced to the Protestant Olurch against their forth, that the petitioners heg leave to ex will? Arid, iti either case, whence is the press treir unteig ned gratitude to the House power assuinel-How different ihe con for the measures they have taken towards deduct iit the Austrian service, where the Ro tecting, and bringing to jestice, those serman Catholic faces towards his church, the vants of the Crown who have broken the Proiestäni tovards his; and, at tlie word law, violated their trust, and used the public murch, eaci proceeds to his place of wor -money for purposes of private emolament ship. In France before the revolution, there and ambition, and they inplore the House existed two military restrarols the Croses oti tot to desist from the prosecution of those St. Lewis, and of' merit; the hist for the inquiries which they have so lionorably and

T arn sorry to think, that this statement differs | House to bear in mind' la pasiuntija tie

people of England 'huye sustained him.' versant widh foreign affairs. Can this igno niense burthens imposed upon thiño,' the mined be attributed to our insular situation. sufferings they have endured, and ute noi It is to tliat sitration Indeed, that the advan- enduring, the enormously advanced prices of tage of hating preserved the celtic language the necessaries of lito, ind, above vil, their in a greater state of purity," than any other

generous, suspecting contideve at all part Hof Eerrasę, lns been attribited by the times in those in whose fanels the fallings antiopiary: Bre, to return, Sir, my object of their industry were defx i texte thit, has been to call the attention of the public: thankful as the petitioners are to the House


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