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is obtained by the making of reprisals, compass of its power. ' Hence would arise ought to be enjoyed by either party to the such a confusion of rights and of duties, sucit certain disadvantage of the other. To ren a constant suspicion, such a total uncertains der your making of reprisals, separate from as to what each power would do, that all war, ju tifiable, there must not only be a confidence must be destroyed, and the faith possibility, but a very evident probability, of of trcaries and of nations would soon cease to your thereby obraining redress for the wrong exist even in name. Ai peace with Spain, complained of; for, it by mere reprisals there with a minister actually negotiating at ber be no such probability, must it not clearly court, and wäh our sivipy of war as well as appear, that your reprisals are made as sub. merchantmen hospitably received and riding sidiary to your intended warlike operations ; in ber harbours under the taith of a treaty of and that, therefore, you are availing yourself peace and amity, we did, under the name of reof the garb of moderation and humanity for prisals, attack and capture litrinen of war upon the purpose of taking an unfair advantage of the high seas. And would not Napoleon, aller the power, with whom you have resolved to having made peace with us, tind it very go to war? In what degree, then, we may easy, under the same naine, and without ask, did this probability exist in the instance giving 116 an hour's notice of his intention, before us? What were the wrongs of which to justity his invasion of England or Ireland? we complained? That Spain had supplied Those who have set up the cry against France with money, and that she was, at the " eternal war," will do well to refiect on time we attacked and captured ber ships, the consequences which most proceed from making warlike preparations in her ports, the principles that they are now so despera:e. without being willing to give us the neces ly coueavouring to maintain.----Neiber let sary satisfaction and security. What sort of it be forgotten to observe, how charming y satisfaction and security we required, and this pretext of reprisals harmonizes with ibe how far she is chargeable with having re assertion, that the war with Spain is just, fused what was necessary upon this score, re. politic, and necessary, the only justification of mains to be gathered from the particulars of reprisals being, ibai they are evidently inthe negotiation ; but, if she did refuse us tended, and are evideoily likely, to prevent the necessary satisfaction and security, will the having of recourse to war ! I have before any ope pretend to say, that there was the me a ministerial pamphlet entiiled, * The most distant probability of our obtaining it justice and policy of a war with Spain deby the capture of her plate ships? Could we “ monstrated." I could refer to, perhaps, have captured them all, and could we, at the twety essays in the newspapers, some of same time, have seized the treasure in her which essays are said to have issued froiu mines, we might have pleaded the capture of the foreign office, professiog the same ob, the four frigates as part of a measure of pre- / ject : and one of the ministerial prints now vention, for the future, for one of the wrongs lying upon my table, coneludes its remarks complained of; but, as it was certain on the Spanish declaration, by invoking that we could not effect that, and, as it was (impious invocation !) the aid of The also certain, that, as to the other wrong Almighty in this “just and necessary war!” complained of, the capture would be totally All that has been proved, all that has been useless, and could only tend to widen the asserted, in these publications, is just so breach, that capture cannot be regarded as much proved and asserted against the mahaving for its object to obtain redress with. king of reprisals, against that very, that out having recourse to war, an object essen sole ground of defence, to which I tially necessary to the justification of an act would pledge my life that the ministers wil of reprisals. To be convinced of the sound finally betake themselves To this dilemma, ness of this reasoning, we have only, for a therefore are they reduced ; the attack and moment, to consider, what would be the io. capture of the Spanish frigates was an act evitable consequences of actiog upon oppo of war, or it was an act of reprisals : if the site principles. If, upon every provocation, former, England has made war without a or, in every case where a recourse to war previous declaration, and her honest and would be justifiable, we were to allow it to gallant sons, have, by the cupidity of her be just to make reprisals upon the party of ministers, been led to do a deed at which fending, every state, secretly resolved upon honour blushes and humanity shudders; if war, would assuredly begin by making repri. the latter, the ministers did, in that very sals, and would, as we have now done, re act, declare, that a war with Spain, that serve its declaration of war to answer that of that which has now taken place, it was dethe enemy, on whom it bad already been sirable to avoid, and, of course, that it was exercising all the acts of hostility within the neither necessary nor politie. It will ap

" dence."


pear strange, if they succeed, with all their “ Rumbld, which was a fortunate coinci. quirks and with all their verbosity, in de

A set-off, we are to suppose, ceiving the people of England upin tua for our seizure of the Spanish plate-ships ! subject'; but, they may rest assured, that Indeed, it would be by no means wonderthey will have no success in this way with ful, if the Emperor of Russia were to reeither the courts or the people of toreign monstrale on this subject, especially when countries. There, the attack and, ap ure we are so eager to draw forth remonstrances of the Spanish frigales will be viewed in its against the violations of public law committed Arce light, and will excite the feelings which by France. To advance the pretexte of such deeds are calculated to excite. This is reprisals, while the partisans of ministers are the sticond war which has grown out of the openly endeavouring, in all manger of ways, treaty of Amiens, on both we had good to convince the people of the policy and and honourable grounds to enter, and, sucha necessity of the war, so completely exposes has bero the admirable address of The us to the world, that it is impossible we Family of the Addingtons and the Pilts, by should not be univesally condemned and whom we have the happiness to be govern

detested for this act. ed, that, on both we have entered wiib the Peace.-The rumours which, in conse opinions of the world decidedly against us. quence of a messenger baving arrived from The war with France, instead of being un France, have gotten afloat upon this subject dertaken for the purpose of kreping that are various. Some say, that nothing furiher encroaching power within duc bounds ; for than an arrangement relative to prisoners is the freedom and safety of Earope and of intended, while others possitively assert, England amongst the other nations ; bas That Napoleon has actually made overtures from our own misconduct, from the mis. of peace. This latter is by no means imcondoct, from the, ignorance, the selfish- probable. The surrender of Malta, the due ness, or wickedness of our ministers, been execution of the treaty of Amiens, being ever regarded as having arisen from our the foundation of the treaty, there can be desire to keep possession of the island of no doubt that peace, for a short space, might Malta, contrary to the stipulations of a very desirable to him. Overtures coming solemo treaty ; and thus have we furnished from him would be a mark of moderation ; another trait for that odious and galling if they lead 10 peace, he is acknowledged comparison, which our enemies have so by us as Emperor of the French ; it not, he often and but 100 jastly made : “ 'The pre has shown that he is not implacable; that “ lence of the second panic war,” says he is not that insariable mooster, whoın we Grotius,

was a contest about Saguntum ; are praying to God to p.eveot from “ swal" but, the true cause was, the secret dis lowing us up quick." Either way he is sure

gust which the Carthaginians had against to gain something. But he will never finch " the Romans for the bard conditions they from the treaty of Amiens. He left off at " had imposed on them in the low ebb of Malta when he spoke to us last, and with " their fortunes." The present war will be Malta he will again open his mouth. And, equally odious, will excite still more sus notwithstanding all hat Lord Melville and picion of us in the world, a still greater dis Mr. Pitt have said about Malta, they will,

a greater contempt for our when Mr. Wilberforce gives them the hint, national character, and, if possible, a still be ready to make peace and to give up Malstronger determination in the powers of the ta. The ministerial papers seem already continent to stand aloof from “ a ministry to have received their cue; and the follow" and a people too honest to have any con ing curious extract from one of them will “ nexion with them." It has been enable the reader to form some judgment as stated in the public prints, that in conse to what will bereafter, as to certain points, quence of the representations of Spain, the be the language of Mr. Pitt and his "young great powers of the continent, and particu.

16 friends' ---" The arrival of the Freneb larly our ally, Russia, has shewn a disposi “ messenger bas produced a very agrecab'e sention to address remonstrances to our govern

" sation in the minds of the public. That ment. A ministerial paper, speaking upon “ sensation is, however, very different from this subject says : « The inielligence of the “ the joy that was expressed by the rabble "capture of the Spanish plate ships excited “ of London, when at the close of the last "emotions at St. Petersburgh not very

war, General Lauriston brought over the " favourable to the interests of Great " ratification of the preliminaries. Then, " Britain ; but, nearly at the same tinie, “ the people appeared to prefer a prace of " information was received in that city, any sort to the national honour. They did " of the atrocious seizure of Sir George “ not then inquire whether the peace was

trust of us,

honourable or dishonourable, advantageous “ and dorst no more oppose bis projects ;

or disadvantageous ; they seemed only to e and therefore be freely gave scope to his * consider, that peace would make provi 6 boundless ambition.-Being now, howpol sions cheap, and save them from the pow “ ever, convinced that this country does not in the + er of France. --The nation has vow, " the least fear his power, and that it has se

however, a much more digoified feeling, sources to carry on a war of any length against

and one better suited to its greatness, and him, it is not unlikely but he may really - to its character. "If the country now de “ desire a peace, which is full as necessary

sire peace, it is not because it sees any “ to France as to any other conntry, and from * thing to dread in the contiouance of the “ which no individual would gain so much, 66 war- it is not that it is mistrustful of ei. “ personally, as he himself, who would be " ther its strength or its resources : It wishes 6 firmly established in one of the finest em• an honourable and secure peace, founded “ pires of the world. Bụt be these facts « in the independence of other nations. Se. as they may, we feel a perfect confidence ** cure itself from the ravages of an invading “ that our present ministers will not suffer “ army, both by its strengih and its insular " themselves to be deceived by the name of " situation, it wishes peace, principally with peace; and that they will continue the « a view of restoring to the continent of contest so long as it may be necessary for

Europe, that tranquillity and happiness “ the honour of this couniry, and the inde* which the consequences of the French “ pendence of other nations."--To say * revolution, and the war which followed, that Buonaparté treated this “ as a conquered « have so long banished from it. As to the country" is false; to say that be treated our # internal affairs of France, although we minister haughtily is true; but, did we go to

would certainly prefer a Bourbon to a Buo war for that? No, says this ministerial wrinaparté, yet the age

of chivalry is now so ter, we did not embark in the war for that is far gone, that we begin very much to doubt alone, nor for the purpose of restoring the 66 whether tbe continent of Europe will ever Bourbons, but we went to war," becausc Bu

rise in arms about the difference becquern one “ onaparté oppressed and enslaved all those * family and another. Buonapar é most « feeble states that he was bouod by treaty

probably wishes for peace, because it " to leave independent.” Now, what states w would, perhaps, be a recognition of him were these? Holland, Switzerland, and Italy.

by this country, in his new capacity. This Has he ceased to oppress and enslave these * recognition is of great consequence to him states ? or has he, since the beginning of the '" personally, but it is of none to this coun. war, added Portugal, Hamburgh, and poor

We have acknowledged the French Hanover to the number, What a shame republic in its jacobin form, in our yego is it, then, to pretend, that we have suc« tiation at Lisle. Al Amiens we acknow ceeded in restoring the independence of the “ ledged Buonaparté as chief magistrate, or nations of the Continent! But, before the governor of France ; and it is indifferent wer, “ he evidently thought that this coun.

as " try was completely bumbled," and, by he keeps possession of the supreme the war, we have convinced ihm, « that “ authority of the empire.

We never

we do not, in the least fear his power, aod “ inquire by what acts an “ Emperor

" that we have resources to carry on a of Morocco," or a “ Dey of Algiers,” has war of any length against him." 'An as“ gained his throne; it is sufficient to us, sertion similar to this last was solemoly made " that while they fill it, and are allowed to by Mr. Pitt only sixteen munths before he «i exercise the powers of government in advised the making of the treaty of Anniens, " those countries, we treat with them as if not“ a peace of necessity," indeed, but " a nethey were lawful sovereigns. The pre


cessary peace." Napoleon is convioced that “ sent war was not embarked in for the pur we are terribly afraid of his power, or that we pose of restoring the Bourbons; but it are, towards both God and man,

the greatwas because Buonaparté, intoxicated with est hypocrites that the world ever saw. Why “ his successes on the Continent, oppressed all our alarms, our beacons, our orders for and enslaved all those feeble nations that he was holding in readiness all the means of speedy bound by treaty to leave independent; and be flight, and for laying waste our own country?

cause he even ventured 10 treat this country Are such precautions taken by a people who

as a conquered nation. He assumed a lofty not in the least afraid ?" We shall 6 and a menacing tone towards us, and not deceive Napoleon by such talk as this. “ treated our ambassador with haughtiness He looks at our actions, and he sees marks bu and insolence. He evidently thonght of fear in every one of them." Our pre" that this country was completely bumbled, " sent ministers will not be deceived by ille

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“ name of peace." Which is as much as to of drawing away the fruits of our labour. say, that our former ministers were so de Nothing can be more true or more evident ceived. Boi, this writer seems to forger than this; that, in a country where there is, the “ reconciliation” which has taken place a funding system like ours, the public rein The Family ; that our present ministers sources must always be at the mercy of that were our former ministers, and that Mr. foreigner, be be who he may, who holds in Piut, that famous man of words, secretly bis hands the absolute power of peace and advised and openly defended the former

Our situation, in this respect, is peace.-Yes, Mr. Pitt will submit to al

new, The kings of France could have most any terms of peace, or he will greatly drained us to death, could have drawn to, dece ve every one who knows any thing of their own use the fruit of our labour, by ocbis character and views, and of the embar. casional threats and warlıke preparations ; Tassed state of the public resources. He but, they did not attempt it, because it knows not which way to turn himself; the would instantly have brought oo wa on OUT funding system, that sole monument of his part, and would bave exposed them to severe fame, is crumbling away before him; with punishment from the powers which we in such the army he can do nothing, all his projects case, were always able to raise up against them. tending only to expose him to ridicule; This is not the case with regard to Napoleon. allies upon the Continent he can obtain We can bring no power to bear upon him ; none, who can lend hiin any effective aid; he need not fear the effects of our resenta

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rapidly on the decline, and must perceive has thereby drained us of a million or two, that he has not a sufficient stock of public we have only to wring our hands, or again reputation to preserve him from oblivion

call forth our volunteers, and send out our in retirement. Thus situated, he will, of blockading squadrons and catamarans. While course, bail peace, or anything else the present system lasts, therefore, we must that affords nim a chance of prolonging his remain armed, and indeed, at war, or we power. But, the help he would gain from must labour for France. This was the state peace would be very small. No peace, in of things which Mr. Addington had floating our pre ent relative situation with respect in his mind, when he made the memorable to France, and chained down as we are by declaration, that “

we were at war, because the Pitt system, could be lasting. Napo " we could not be at peace.”. The same leon has marked out this kingdom for con words will, it is more than probable, be used in quesi; it is to be his last labour; any peace justitication of the next war after this, whicb, that he may make with us, during the exis if peace should take place now, may be retence of the Pitt system, will only be in garded at about eighteen monihs or two tended to prepare the way for the execu years distance. What Macbeth says of tion of his grand design. Peace and war sleep, Mr. Piti may say of peace.

6. Me. will always be in his hands, and he may thought it said, have peace no more! Pitt drain us of just as much money, or rather “ hath murdered peace !" The Pitt adminis, labour, as he pleases. The Litt system tration and system have certainly banished seems to be the only one by which English real peace from England. It is not a mere men could have been rendered the slaves change of ministry that would do any good : of France, without an actual conquest of it is a change of system that is wanted, and their country. It is curious to observe that must take place, or the country will how Buonaparte moves on at every change never be, for one moment, in a state of peace of things with respect to us. We make and security. peace with him, he becomes Consul of The FAMILY RECONCILIATION seems, France and president of the Italian Repub in the mean time, to be drawing towards a lic for life. "We make war upon him, he consummation. Mr. Henry Addington is becomes Emperor of France. 'And, when to be a peer, and President of the Council. we make peace with bim again, it will not The title which he has chosen is that of be at all wonderful, if he extends his em- Lord Viscount Raleigh of Combe in the pire eastwardly nearly as far as that of county of Devon, where, it seems, he has a Charlemagne. That' done, we should farm or a house or something formerly the again hear of his “ haughtiness and inso property of Sir Walter Raleigh, whose delence.” We should again see the base scendant Mr. Addington will, by some peowretches of the 'Change gaping towards ple, now be considered! There was a person Dover to know the value of the public (whose real name I forget) who was made a pecurities;" we should see the stocks rise peer since the commencement of the Pitt and fall just as it suited the agents whom administration, and who expressed a desire the French might place here for the purpose to be called Lord.4incourt !!!!! The Earl

of Buckinghamshire (late Lord Hobarı) is to port the ministry, on all future occasions ; * be Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. and also, by his keeping away from the subMr. N. Vansittart, and Mr. John Sergent, sequent debates and divisions, even upon the are, as treading in the steps of George Rose only measure which he thought proper 10 and Mr. Long, to become Right Hooourable oppose. -There are strong evidences, it is Privy Counsellors; upon which list also Mr. said, in the language of the two main R. P. Carew is to be placed. Mr. Hiley is branches of The Family, that little cordiality supposed to be destined for the l'aymaster. is, at last, likely to be found between them; ship in place of George Rose, whom we may but, the most formidable difference to the reasonably expect to see rewarded for his country is that, which, in all probability, s long and faithful services” with a pension will arise with regard to public measures. and a peerage. What further changes of The Addingtons are said already to sigh after office will take place we shall probably learn pence. If so, the two paris of ide ministry in a few days. But, it is evident, thit. Mr. will soon begin to be competitors tor public Biagge must have someibing, and also Mr. opinion), or, rather, for the support to be de. Bond. Not the worshipful Mr. Bund, but a rived from the ignorance and baseness of Mr. Bond, who was lately a lord of the Trea the worst part of the people; and that, sury. The Chief Secretaryship of Ircland

100, upon a subject of all orders the most js, probably, kept open for one of these important. Mr. Addington declares for peace; gentlemen. And this puts one in mind of profound peace ?" and though those, who the Right Honourable George Tierney, of expect real peace from him, may hereafter be whose services, it is greatly to be appre. called “pature's fools and not his," the odds hended, His Majesty and the public will are, that Mr. Pite will ihink that the winnow be deprived, at least, for a considera ning side; and, then, without any reble time. This gentleman's situation in par. gard to the interests or safety of the liament must, one would think, be some country, a peace will be concluded, merely what awkward : he stands pledged always to that one part of the ministry may not get remain opposed to Mr. Windham; and yet, an advantage over the other ! What a it is hardly probable that he will side with noble esemplification is here of Mr Wilberthe ministers, both of whom now appear to torce's doctrine of consulting popular opihave left him to shift for himself. What nion, and of the system which has been inwill happen to Mr. Canning sis, if possible, variably pursued for the last twenty years, still more uncertain. It has been stated, in namely, the choosing of measures with a the public prints, that he has been admitted, view to the permanence of administration, In order to make his peace with Mr. Ad and not of the greatness and sccurity of the dington, into the presence, not of the mi country! Here we bave the true secret of nister himself, bui into that of the Right the decline of the empire. This is the box Honourable Hiley, who, it is said, signified of our political Pandora. A man bent upon boch bis and bis brother's forgiveness. If this power, and comparatively indifferent to fame; be true, Mr.Canning will probably remain in ever fearful about his own interests, and alpossession of his house, his salary of fuur ways bold (that is to say, careless) about ihousand a year, and also of his other place, those of the country, would adopt precisely mentioned in the PLAIN REPLY.* Of Mr. that rule of conduci, according to wbich this Yorke we hear pothing, in this grand dis nation has been governed for many years tribution of power and profit. Mr. Adding past; and such conduct would naturally lead ten seems to have regarded him as having to precisely the consequences, which we dow withdrawn himself from under his protec sce to have taken place. tion ; and, indeed, this Mr. Yorke appears to have done by the intimation, which, ai the time when ihe Addingtons were opposing

THE PARLIAMENTARY DEBATES, the ministry, he gave of his intention to sup. Of which two Volumes, includsng all the

debaies, accounts and other documents for * Io speaking of this gentleman's conduct The last session, have been published, will in parliament, I stated, in the preceding be continued, in numbers, at the opening of sheet, that he voled with the ministry, the session now about to commence. through the several divisions on the Treaty of peace ; but, I now find, chat he voted * See Parliamentary Debates, .vol. II. on neieb.r side.

p. 565.

Printed by Cox and Baylis, No.75, Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Bow Street, Covent

Garlen wliere former Numbers may be hall; solu also by J. sydd, Crown and Mitre, Pal-Mall.

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