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Vol. VII. No. 14.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 6, 1805.
“ I hope there never will be rooni for any one to entertain an idea, that ministers are too big for punish,. « ment, and out of the reach of parliament. This house has drawn the line, and I make tio doubt but * those who shall transgress it, will find that parliament does not want power to bring them to punishment, “ let their rank be what it may. It is not, therefore, because the house cannot punish ministers who may « disobey it, that we extend responsibility to those who may obey the unlawful commands of ministers; bui, “ solely because there should not exist a possibility of ministers first being guilty of disobedience themselmes, * and ihen shifting the blame on the shoulders of their inferiors.”—-Mä. Pitt's Speech in the House of Commons, 4th March, 1792. 513]
[514 AFFAIRS OF INDIA.
sible to do it, to contrast the past with th: SIR, I bave attentively read your re present state of India.- Prior to our territomarks on the present state of India. In
many rial acquisitions, the trade from India was of your observations I fully agree I will take carried on by the exportation of bullion from the liberty to mention certain points, on Great Britain.--Since 1765, when we a which I differ from you, and I will endea quired ihe sovereignty of Bengal, no bullimit vour to explain the causes to which our pre was sent to India until 1802. The invesi. sent embarrassinents in India, ought fairly to ments of each year were made by the sore be imputed. I am afraid, Mr. Cobbett, plus revenues of Bengal, by the very small that the actual debts of India, instead of drafts which the directors permitted their being twenty millions as you state them, are governments to draw upon their treasury in at this moment thirty miilions sterling at the England, and by the sale of exports, which least. In this country we have unhappily were not very considerable, with two excepbeen able to borrow money to such an ex tions. In 1770 bills were drawn upon the tent, that a debt of thirty millions appears a directors to the amount of one million; and, mere trife; especially, when it is considered in 1781, when we were engaged in an arthat the revenues of India are ten millions a duous contest with France, the Mabratias, year. But no reasoning can be more dan. and Hyder Ally Cawny Mr. Hastings was gerous, or more fallacious. The debt of compelled to purchase the investment of lodia bears an interest of 12 per cent, or at that year with borrowed money, and to draw least, a part of it does, and the remaining upon the Company for the amount of that part an interest of 10 per cent., which is a investment.-----Lord Clive had calculated deduction of three millions a year, from the in 1765, ibat after paying every expenso, Indian revenues, leaving seven millions a there would be a surplus of one million steryear, for the civil, judicial, and military ex ling cach year in Bengal. ---In 1772, Mr. penses of India, which at present far exceed Hastings succeeded to that governmeot. seven millions sterling a year. --If tho The debt of Bengal was then a million sterpresent system is continued, therefore, so far ling, contracted chiefly by the reinitances from India being the brightest gem in the sent by the Bengal government to Madras, British crown, it will be a severe clog upon and Bombax, in the three preceding years, Great Britain.--You are in an error, Mr. I his debt he not only paid off, but in 1777 Cobbert, when you impate to the Court of there was a surplus of above a million sterDirectors, or to the East India Company any ling in the Bengal treasury; and very blame, for the measures which have occa valuable cargoes were sent every season sioned the present debt. From the year from Bengal to Great Britain. India 1784, when Mr. Pitt's bill passed, to this at that period, was indeed, the brightest jewday, the political affairs of India have been el in the British crown.--In 1778, the under the management of a board of com war with France commenced. It was the missioners appointed by his Majesty. That great object of France to recover ber lost board fixed the civil and military establish-- consequence in India. To effect this she menis, and appointed the governors of India. sent secret agents to Poona, and to Hyder Mr. Dundas invariably avowed in Parlia Ally, prior to the commencement ot be ment, that as president of the board, he was war, an official joformation that she laid alone responsible for the good and economi done so, was sransmitted to Mr. Hasting, cal government of India. The merit or de by Lord Stormont, then the British ambas merit therefore, of each inportant transac. sador at Paris. The Mahratta war was tion belopga to him to 1801, and from that solely occasioned by the anxions endeavour time to his successor in office, Lord Castle of Mr. Hastings to counteract she schemes reagh... Allow me as shortly as it is pos- of France, and not with a view or a w.sh in
acquire territorial dominions. The invasion India during the administration of the Mar: of the Carnatic by Hyder Ally, was also the quis Wellesley. But this is not all. The result of French intrigues, and in the pro India debt of eight millions which existed gress of the war, France sent out seventeen in 1784, has in great part been paid off in sail of the line, and three thousand of her England. I do not thiuk Sexaggerate, therebest troops under De Bussy. --We succes fore, when I say, that the affairs of the Com. fully resisted this most formidable confede- pany are worse by Thirty millions than they racy, and at the close of the war, France and were in 1784.---To what cause are we to Holland had lost all their settlements in lo attribute this? Is it to the wars in which uc dia. We had several armies in the field, ac have been engaged since 1784. I think not. tively employed for five years, and when The first war wiib Tippoo Suliaún was finish. peace was concluded throughout India, the edin" two campaigns." We acquired twenty whole debt of India amounted to eight mil lacks of rupees by the peace which Lord Jions sterling, while two millions sterling Cornwallis concluded with him; besides a were added 1o the annual resources of Bengal very valuable territory; and seventy lacks of by Nir. Hastings.---1 dare say, Mr. Cob. rupees paid the extra expenses of the war. bett, you can remember the difference of The second war with Tippoo Sultaun was fi. opinion which prevailed in England in 1782, nished in one canipaign, by his final oreras to the origin of the Mahrália war,
throw; and our acqu sition of his dominions, cret committee of the House of Commons of which we reiainid as much as we thought was appointed expressly to report the origin proper.-- The extra expenses of the Mab. and the causes of that war; Mr. Dundas ratta war must have been considerable onwas the chairman, and he moved various re doubtedly, and the warfare still ngintained solutions tending to show that it was a war wiib Holkar, mest occasion lieavy esta ex. of offence, not of precaution and defence, penses.--The espedisjou from Bengal 10 He deprecated the idea of further conquests Egypt was a very heavy extra expense, which in India, and trusted that no future gover fell for the time upon Bengal.- Bui, Sir, ñor, after the sense of parliament was koown, the at cause of the magniiade of tbe debt, would endeavour to rival the Emperor Au has been the increased expense of the civil, fengzehe; since any addition of territory in judicial, and tinancial branches of the soIndia ly conquest, was contrary to the bo vernments in India, and the still greater in. nour, the policy, and the justice of Great Bri crease of the armies in India. -- Prior to tain. - Here, then, you had the political the French war in 1778, the establishment creed of Mr. Dandas. It matters pot whe. of the Bengal army was four companies of ther he was right or wrong, io imputing the arrillery, three regiments of European infanMahratta war to flr. Hastings, or in suppo try, and wenty-four battalions of Sepoys; sing that he wished to extend our dominions each battalion commanded by a captain.in India by conquest.com]n 1784, Mr. Piti's The establisbment at Madras was not so bill passed, and under that bill, Mr. Dundas considerable, and that of Bombay very immediately became the minister of lodia — trifling. --As there was no longer a French His first important measure w3s, to fix the force in India after the peace of 1763, if it civil and military establishments of India. had been thought prudent to reixrt to the It had been the fashion to declaim at large
establishment of 1778, the expenses of loupon the supposed extravagance of Mr. dia would have been two millions at the Hastings's administration. The strictest al least, within its annual resources. All that tention to economy, was therefore, to be ex was necessary if this establishment had been peeted from Mr. Dundas. Mr. Hastings deemed prudent, was to send out two or had been thirteen years governor general of three thousand recruits to complete our EurBengal. For five years he had to support a ropean regiments; and our Sepoy corps war against France, Hyder Ally, and the might have been augmented to any exieni, Mahraitas. This he did support without the when the necessity arose for 'augmening assistance of any kind from England, ex them. Such I have every reason to beliere cept that in' one year he drew bills to the would have been the plan of the directors, amount of the investment, which in that had the management remained in their year he sent home. The debe of Bengal did bands. --But, Mr. Dundas thought it right not exceed three millions when he quitted the enurely to new model the army in India. government, though the whole India debt was The Sepoy battalions became regimento eight millions, What, Mr. Cobbelt, is commanded by colonels. Each reginent the situation of India at present? The debt formed into two battalions, and each batia. is tbirly millions, and bullion to the amount, lion had a lieutenant-colonel, and a major, I believe, offses millions has been sent to with a certain proportion of captains and
subalterns.— The old establi-hment of a bat. in the field. Sir Hector Munro, in 1764, talion of Sepoys was a captain commandant, gained the battle of Buscar, against the and ten subalierns, that is one officer to each Vizier Sajah Dowlah, ihough the latter was company.
Under ibis establishment our strongly entrench-d, had 20,000 troops, and Sepoys faced Freuch regimenis, and were a numerous artillery, kell served Sir Hece equal to any service. I see no objection 10 lor Munro's force was less than 9,000 men, the change however, except as to the ex. and not a seventh of the number Evropeans. pense, which certainly is a very material one. Sir Eyre Coote defeated Hyder Ally in The Compatiy's European regiments con ibrée several engagements, in 1781, when tinued mere skeletons, because it was Mr. Hyder was Aushed by bis' recent victories, Dundas's plan to have King's regimenis in though Sir Eyre had at no one time 7.000 India; and, therefore, the Company were men under his command. ----Colonel Godhot permitted to recruit in England beyond dard matched across the continent of India, a certain extent. Another great expense in 1778, at the head of six battalions of tas incurred, by the rank which it was ne Sepoys, and a small body of Candahar horse, cessary to give the Company's officers, 10 in despite of every opposition of the Mahtank and put then on a footing with the offi rattas. He afterwards conquered the protets in his Majesty's service. Formerly, vince of Guzzeral, and defeated the Mahwhen an officer with the rank of captain rattas in various general actions. - The commanded a battalion of eight hundred Se question niay be asked, whether the Maba poys, it was of no consequence what he was raltas fight better now than bey did fora called, whether captain or colonel; but when merly? I do not believe it. Their late he acted constantly with his Majesty's forces, success against Colonel Monson has been it became necessary that his rauk should be owing to other causes, not to the military equal to his command. The establishment skill of Holkar, nor to the bravery of his of the army in India, therefore, was under troops. As far as we know, the misfortune Mr. Dundas, treble as to expense in pesce, was occasioned by a want of provisions, by to the peace establishment of 1778.--A incessant rains, and a want of co-operation. great change also took place in the civil esta There has been no French force to assist the Žlishments. Under the Company, the pay Mahrattas, except in the management of of their civil servants was by no means equal their artillery, and that force was destroyed to their necessary and unavoidable expenses ; by Lord Lake.--- We bave acquired by the but their emolumeots when they obtained
destruction of Tippoo, in 1799, and by the official situations were considerable, though late war with the Mahrattas, a vast accessioni Dor avowed. It was Mr. Dundas's plan to of territory in India. We possess the whole make their salaries so large; that a moderate sea coast, from Surat on the Malabar side, fortune, with economy, might be saved in to the Bay of Bengal ; so that it is impossitwelve or fourteen years, and to cut off every ble the French, at any period, should effect possibility of secret emoluments.-- I am a landing in force, if they were mad enough not finding fault with the principle, but the to attempt it. We have this additional adeffect was, an increase of half a million ster vantage, a revenue in India of ten millions ling a year in the civil disbursements of sterling a year. Were the French to attack Bengal alone, and the system extended to Os in India, hey must send with iheir feet, Madras and Bombay also.--The simple and with their troops, money for their subquestion is ilzis. Was there a necessity to sistence, if they could find provisions to purmake these important changes in the civil chase. I have no idea, therefore, that the and military service of the Company? I petty warfare with Holkar can endanger our think noi. I think that every thing which empire in India. But, Mr. Cobbeit, I say has been done in India by the joint exertions with you, that if India does not much more of the King's and Company's forces, might than support itself in future, our acquisitions have been effected by the Company's troops are a misfortune, and a loss. . I agree that had the directors been permitted alone, your quotations from Lord Melville's speeches to keep their European regiments complete. are very correct. Many of them I heard
Lord Clive gained the battle of Plassey, bim deliver, and I concurred in opinion with in 1757, with 840 Europeans and 2,400 him, that India, instead of requiring assista Sepoys, though opposed by the Nabob of ance from us, would afford relief to Great Bengal, at the head of 80,000 men, and Britain. Why it has not yet done so, is 100 pieces of cannon.
-Major Adams, in plain. The expenses which Mr. Dundas 1763, drove Cossim Ally Cawn out of Ben found so enormous in 1784, and which it gal, though his ärıny was still more numer was his plan then to reduce, have been inous, and Major Adams liad got 3,000 men creased beyond all calculation. This is the
sole cause of onr disappointment. France medium of your Register, let the publie a has never been able since 1783, to give us little into the secret, or rather put iben, the smallest disturbance in India, beyond the scent, if it shall be thought worth_pro the capture of a few trading vessels, and we secuting, ---The proper revenue have always had a superior fleet in the In Scottish monarchs arose from the qoit reng dian Ocean. Our debt has not been con. or duties paid out of lands; the tithes which tracted by the wars with the country powers, came to the crown, by the reformation, and in which we have been engaged since 1784, the abolition of episcopacy; and what'sle but by the extent of our civil and military called casualties, That is, 'fines upon the establishments, (both of which were formed change of property and other contingencie. by Lord Melville) and by the expenses of The amount of these, though much dimi. the expedition to Egypt. --It may be said nished by the lavish grants made by James in opposision to my humble opinion, that the 6th (ihe 1st of England), and his socour military establishments musi remain as cessors, was, at the union, still very coo. they now are, and that no reduction of the siderable. These composed the privy pune, civil charges, can take place. If so, I am out of which the civil establi:liment, the most confident, ihat instead of a diminution salaries of the judges, &c. were paid.
The of the India debt, it must increase as long remainder was considered to be at the dise as money can be borrowed in India.
posal of the monarch, that is, of bis minisLord Melville once observed in the House ter; for I presume you are not to leara, of Commous, that since he had looked into that ever since the union, there has been a the Company's accounts, he was astonished person, well known to the country, though to find how very inconsiderable the extra not, perhaps, altogether so well known to expenses, incurred by the wars in India had the constitution, by the title of minister for been, compared with the idea which he had Scoiland. That office has been held for formed of their amount. Though the ob. many years by Lord Melville, and the great servation, as applied to himself was correct, duty of it is the recommendation för places yet it does not follow that the extra ex and pensions, and particularly the distribu. penses occasioned by war, in India, are tion of the surplus of the revenue abore. triling ; on the contrary, they are very mentioned, through the channel of the Trealarge, owing to the increased allowances to sury, the Barons of the Scots excheguer, officers and men when on service, and to and the Receiver of the King's land rents the increased expense of the ordnance de and casualties. What now comes into partment But at the periods to which the bands of the general receiver from that Lord Melville referred, the armies with source, is reduced to'a trifle : a new mode which we conquered, and preserved India, of giving pensions has been adopred, by were so small, that the largest torce em making grants of the revenue arising in par. ployed in any one body, would appear as an ticular
districts, or which ought to be paid advanced guard to the armies we now inain out of particular estates. There is now be. taio.--ASIATICUS.
fore the House of Cimmons an instaoce of
this in the grant to Lady Melville, of the SCOTCH PATRONAGE.
rents of the lordship of Fife, by which about SIR,-Though a century has very near 9001. a year (not to mention 3,600). of arelapsed, since the union of England and rears) are put into her ladyship's pocket
, Scotland, it is surprising to observe how lit taken from the fund especially appropriated tle the people, or even the statesmen of the for the civil establishment. It were easy, former country, know of, or interest them. but it might be deemed invidious, to nane selves in the affairs peculiar to the latter. many others pensioned in the same way, Various examples of this might be given; And there is another mode of lessening the bat at present I am only to state one. We
The debtors of the crown, when hive all, or at least many have heard of the the annual payment is considerable (and you Civil Establishment of Scotland, as distinct will guess who these are) are suffered to run from the English establishment. We have in arrear, and, from time to time, obtain heard of the Scots Pensiun List, which forms discharges, or their quietus ; but that is by no inconsiderable part of that establishment; the favour of the minister, and depends, you and though a few years ago a copy of it will easily believe, upon their good beba. was laid before the House of Commons, yet viour. While the fund out of which the no person on that, or any other occasion, establishment and the direct pensions ongbt thought of inquiting out of what fund that to be paid is thus abstracted, the list increases establishment and those pensions were paid ! every day. There is no limitation upon olio With your permissiou I will, through the Scots minister, as there is upon the English,
who, by Mr. Burke's bill, is restrained from I deemed it prudent to allow the council to granting above 400l. a year, (I think) with capitulate for the town of Roseau and its out the consent of parliament ; witness the dependencies, whilst I attempred, by forced pension of 1,5001. lately granted to Lord marches, to get into Prince Rupert, with Melville, in addition to his salary of 3,0001. such force as I could collect, in which I a year for discharging the sinecure office of | have succeeded, and wait their attack on this privy seal. It is said, that when Lord Mel post, with a well grounded expectation that ville resigned his English odlice about three His Majesty's regulars and militia forces will years ago, he left with Mr. Addington a list again distinguish themselves. I retreated of pensions he had promised to procure so from Roseau on the 21st, at 4 P. M. and numerous, and to such an amouni, that ihat understand the terms I prescribed are acgentleman stood aghast at it, and, with a ceded 10. I ordered none to be accepted few exceptions, they were not granted that were not honourable, and desired the during his administration. Whether the French commander not 10 allow his troops promises liave been fulfilled since / ord Mel to disgrace themselves by plundering, or any ville and Mr. Pitt came again into office will act of wantonnes. You are hereby desired appear, it any member of parliainent thinks to sail immediately, and make the first island it worth ,
and the dates of the several warrants. -.*Channel prevent your turning to wind i ara,
That the land rents and casualties, and other make Monserrat or Antigua.
On Mondny, the 25tb of Marcb, tbe following: --They are generally understood to be
Petition of tbe Roman Catholics of Ireland greatly deficient, and yet the establishinent
was laid before the twvo Houses of Parlia
ment. and pensions are paid with much more regularity in Scotland than in England. From 10
RIGHT HONOURABLE AND HO.' whence does the owney come That is ibe NOURABLE THE KNIGHTS, CITIZENS, question I wish to be put, where an answer BURGESSES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM can be compelled, and an evasion or false OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, IN answer detected.---Till I see whether this PARLIAMENT ASSEMBLED, attracts notice, I shall only add, that I be The humble Petition of the Roman Catholics of lieve if an investigation were made, a scene Ireland, whose names are hereunto subscribed, would be laid open sufficient to excite
on behalf of themselves and of others his Ma. astonishment, even in these times, and
jesty's subjects professing the Roman Catho. after the appearance of the Tenth Report. -SCOTO BRITANNICUS.
Shewetu, --That your petitioners are DOMESTIC OFFICIAL PAPERS. stedfastly attached to the person, family, and Capture of DOMINICA, Copy of a government of their Most Gracious Sove
Letter of General Prevost, commanding at reign; that they are impressed with senti. Dominica, to the Master of the Sloop En ments of affectionate gratitude for the bedeavour, to be delivered to the Commander nign-laws which have been enacted for me. in Chief of His Majesty'e Forces, or to the liorating their condition during his paternal Governor or President of the first Land he reign, and that they contemplate, with rashould make. Dated 24th Feb. 1805. tional and decided predilection, the admira.'
SIR,-You, will inform the commander ble principles of the British constitution.in chief of His Majesty's naval and land Your petitioners most humbly state, That forces, that a force from France, consisting they have, solemnly and publicly, taken the of one three-decker and two 74's, frigates, oaths by law prescribed to his Majesty's Ro&c. with troops on board, invested the island man Catholic subjects, as tests of political on the 2014, and made good their landing and moral priociples; and they confidently on the following day (the 21st); they were appeal to the sufferings which they have most successfully resisted by the troops un long endured, and the sacrifices which they der my command, and repeatedly driven still make, rather than violate their con
The ships of the line in vain at sciences (by taking oaths of a religious or tempted to silence the batteries ; but unfor spiritual import contrary to their belief) as tunately the town being on fire, the militia decisive proofs of their profovod and scruon the right, notwithstanding their spirited pulous reverence for the sacred obligations conduct, were compelled to fall back.- of an oath.--Your petitioners beg leave to