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78, edit. 1773) And can it be now made tween the government and the people. But a question in the 19th century, whether the when a large part of the community is ex fullest privileges of the constitution should cludei from a proper share in the general be restored to the Catholics of the present dividend, such an exclusion becomes an act day! Shall they alone be debarred from the of the highest injustice, and amounts to a full enjoyment of its benefits, whose ances state of double or treble taxation tors firsé secured these inestimable bles. says Mr. Burke, “ a state should be so un. sings? Such a political degradation must be happy, as to think it cannot subsist withrepugnant to the feeling; of a grateful and " out such a barbarous proscription, the generous nation. I am rightly inform " persons so proscribed ought to be indemed, you and yonr friends reject with a spe. " nified by the remission of a large part of cies of sanctified horror, the term emanci “ their taxes, by an immunity from the ofpation, which the Catholics employ, when “ fices of public burden, and by an exemp: they solicit the privileges of British subjects, " tion from being pressed into any military Emancipation is a deliverance from slavery " or naval service." (Mr. Burke's Letter of one kind or another. As to the situa on the penal Laws against Irish Catholics, tion of the Roman Cotholics, who are ex 1782.) If, Sir, amidst your numerous .cluded from the benefits of the constitution, schemes of finance, you should undertake I am justified in calling it a state of civil to provide for the exigencies of the state servitude, by the authority of a great man, by the expedient of a lottery on a new whom I was once proud to call my friend, plan; if according to the supposed scheme, and whose political maxims are deemed you should oblige each individual to contrioracular by ihe statesmen of the present bute a sum proportioned to his income, if time. “ To be under the state," says Mr. you should then allow the chances of eerBurke, w but not the state itself, nor any tain prizes not to all the contributors, but “ part of it, that is, to be nothing at all in to those only who think with you in reli" the commonwealth, is a situation per. gion, or rather, who will swear with you to “ fectly intelligible: but to those who till abhor transubstantiation, in that case, what " that situation, not very pleasant, when it opinion should we form of your notions of “ is understood. It is a state of civil servi- distributive justice? You probably would " tude by the force of the definition.” (See be deemed as iniquitous a minister as ever Mr. Burke's celebrated Letter to Sir Her guided the councils of a Sovereign. But cules Langrishe, Beaconsfield, Jan. 3, 1792. reflect a moment on the exclusion of Ca. The whole of this sensible performance 1 tholics from places of emolument, and tell beg leave earnestly to recommend to the me how you can possibly be free from attentive perusal of every member of Par blame in sanctioning for a day such a barbaliament before the discussion of the Catho rous and inhuman proscription. Here you lic claims). From this stale of political have four millions of people, who contrislavery, the Catholics, however, you may bute to the formation of chi state lottery, dislike the term emancipation, loudly de. but who are deprived of their just chances mand a deliverance. -The exclusion from of a prize, by laws which operate solely the dignities of the state, and from offices of against them. If national justice can be trust, is rendered a peculiar hardship, by found in such a proceeding, I must profess the change which has taken place in the
si myself totally unacquainted with its first tuation of the different governments of Eu elements. ---Place yourself, Sir, in the sirope. In former periods, when govern tuation of a Roman Catholic, who professes ments subsisted on domains belonging to certain doctrines confessedly innocuous, them, an exclusion from offices could which he holds necessary to his eternal salscarcely be accounted a hardship. But now vation. Were you inpressed with such a a very general revolution has happened in conviction, you would deem it a cruel and the greatest monarchies of Europe. Go intolerable hardship to be debarred from vernments are w holly supported by private the offices and dignities of the state, and contribution ; a considerable portion of the from a fair and honourable occasion of disindustry of individuals is given to the state, playing your talents in the service of your and the subject receives an indemnification country. You would consider it a most exs of the loss, by the returned profits of his la traordinary proceeding that a conscientious bour through the channel of offices and em attachment to the religion of the Edwards ployments. When the favours of the crown and the Henries, should be made a bar to are distributed with an impartial hand, uni employments of a civil nature. You, pera versal satisfaction must naturally prevail, haps, would hear with pain the exalted en and an accurate balance is established be comiums which are justly bestowed on our
Constitution, when you would be excluded secution of the civil magistrate on the ground from a participation in its blessings. Judge of religion is peculiarly deserving of animadof the feelings of four millions of people by version. His duty, by the nature of huis ofthe dictates of your own mind, and then de fice, is confined to the impartial execution termine, whether after raising their hopes of equal law's, to the general care of all bis to the fairest prospects, you are not solemn subjects with respect to civil concerns, to ly bound, under the present circumstances the security of their property, lives, and temof the country, to espouse their cause and poral weitare, and to the punishment of gratify their wishes. --Much, Sir, has been crimes which disturb the peace of society. said and written in this county on the in To interfere in the religion of his subjects, by portant subject of toleration. Many excel claiming the privilege of directing their belent lessons have been given by different lief, by propagating his own mode of worwriters, but they have not yet been reduced slip in deliance of the inward persuasion of to practice by his Majesty's government. individuals, by inficting for the same purWhether you have formed a desided opi pose the punishments of rapine, confiscas nion on the sutject, I cannot pretend to de tion, tortures, and death; even to resort to termine, as I am unacquainted wiih all the more gentle mode of civil proscriptions, those secret motives which have given to exclusions from civil offices, which are birth to so many liberal promises and profes- perpetuated by the purse of individuals, all sions, from you towards ihe Catholies of Ire this is to jumble heaven and earth together, land. Perhaps it may not be improper to to confound things which are in their own state the doctrine of toleration, grounded nasure distinct, and to claim a power which, on the most incontestible principles and unquestionably, he does no: possess. The cisupported by the highest authorities. With vil magistrale, may indeed, inake a legal esrespect to that religious intolerance, which tablishment by encouraging one mode of leads each church to hold the exclusive doc worship, by honouring and rewarding its trine of salvation, it must be admitted to be ministers, by stcuring the immunities of his perfectly proper and harmless, Truth is church from rapacity, even by enabling it to enquestionably one; and the divine Author raise its head in the highest assemblies of the of the Christian religion pronounces his nation. But if, on the mere pretext of relifold to be one (John X. 16.) Now, who gion, without alleging any crime, that disa, ever embraces any religion, must act from turbs the peace of society, he proceeds to a conviction that he is about to enter this temporal disabilities and penalties, if he exone fold, or one church established by cludes his other subjects from civil offices Christ; he must, by the very nature of his and employments, he by ibat very act beown conduct, think himself in the right comes not so much the protector of his own soad, and those of different persuasions out church, as the persecutor of the other modes of the true Church of Christ. Hence the of worship in his dominions. The Grand Church of England and the Church of Signior might on the same grounus, le Rome, both hold the exclusive doctrine justified, in the sight of God and man, in (See the last article of the Athanasian Creed confining his favours to the professors of ile in the Book of Common Prayer.) On this Koran, and in extending, to his other sube account the late aitempt of a noble lord to jects, nothing but penalties of erery descripdraw a charge of disloyalty against Ca
But, Sir, every man can regulate tholics from a speculative tenet, common the affairs of his own conscience try til uniboth to them and Protestants, excited senti alienable righi, wholly independe' t of the ments of surprise, compassion, and asto civil authority. This right was exercised nishment throughout the country. (See the by the first Christians, in defiance of the most singular and extraordinary correspon Majesty of the Roman Empire, and its tutedence ever submitted to public inspection, lary deities; and the invincible constancy of between Lord Redesdale and the Earl of Those heroes has excited the admiration of Fingal, Reg. Vol. V. p. 215.)-Having thus ail Christian nations It is truly an unaliona slated the nature of religious intolerance, I able right. “ Nobody," says Locke, believe you will agree with me in saying, “ ther single persons, nor churches, nay, or that it must be contined to the speculative “ even conmonwealths, bave any just litle tenets, and the spiritual power claiined by " to invade the civil sights, and worldly cach particular cliurch. All external vio goods of each other opoo pretence of relence, by which meu are forced to enter into " ligion” (Locke's Letter on Toleratiosi, any sect or society, cannot but be displea-ing p. 08, edit. Glasgow, 1757.) --- Individua's to Him, who does not even save his crea can indeed, and often have been, punished tures without their concurrence. The
per by temporal penalties, for seditiously disa
turbing the religious establishment of their succession of the Duke of Yrk. It is stated eouniry. That becomes a civil crime, and to be an act to prevent the dangers arising is unquestionably panishable by the civil ma from Popisb recusants. " It was principally," gistrate. But, to invade the remporal rights says Eckarıl, “ if not solely levelled at the of the subject, on the ground of his religious " Roman Catbolics in order to preclude persuasiou, is to sow ihe seeds of discord “ them from places of note and trust.” and war, and to excite direct provocation 10
(Eckard's Hist. of England, p 693). The barrel, to rapide, and to slaughter. li evin dangers whether real or imaginary, which dently tends to disturb the peace of man this law was calculated to averi, are now kind, by encouraging a well knowo fanatical completely removed in the judgmeut of all maxim, that dominion is founded in grace, mankind, and the continuance of the acı beand that religion is to be propagated by torce comes at once unnecessary and oppressive. of arms. To make an application of these The sectaries are, indeed, included in the principles to the circumstances of our own letter of the regulation, but it is full well country. You, as minister of a great na known, that against them it has long crased tion, should shew all indulgence to the spe 10 operate.-.-Many among ibe various de. culative tenets of different secis, however in. scriprions of dissenters resort without hesitatolerant they may be in a religious point of tion to an occasional conformily, and those view. For it is incontestably true, that arti who are less pliant, are relieved by the an. cles of faith, or opinions which have no co: nual bill of indemnity, which in fact, amoun s nexion with the concerns of the state, can to a suspension of the law. But, Catholics never be ubject to civil control. You are consider compliance as a desertion of theii likewise pledged, by the situation which you faith. Thus, it appears, that they only are hold, to support the religious establishment of excluded from the benefits of the constituyour couniry, and to secure its rights and im tion, by the operation of a law, which con. munities. But when you are assured of the tinges, though the cause that gave it birth loyalty of those who dissent from the religion has long ceased to exist. While the dissenof the state, when you have not the smallest ters fill our corporations, and enjoy places of reason to imagine, that they will disturb the Irust and emolument, while the presbyte. established mode of worship, whatever their rians of Scotland, a race of men, by habits own belief may be, you are bound, by all and disposition, infinitely more averse to the laws of heaven and earth, to extend to the Church of England, ihan Roman Catholics, the fullest benefits of civil toleration, and an are encouraged by every species of patronequitable participation of the rights of Bri age, and fill the highe-t departojenis of the tish subjects. To adopt a contrary mode of state, civil, naval, and military; the Catho. conduct, to punish men solely for a conscien- lics are debarred from these advantages, contious adherence to religious opinions, resem sidered as a wretched and degraded society bles the tyrannical conduct of an arbitrary of men, and treated as exiles in their own monarch, who should direct civil disabi land. Is this proscriptive esclusion consislities against an antiquated sect of philuso tent with the spirit of the British constitu. phers, for following the systerns of the Peri lion? Is it agiecable to the dictates of justice patetic or Cartesian schools, in opposition to and policy? Is it necessary for tbe maibicine modern discoveries of Newton, of Kep nance of the established Church? Suffer me ler, and of Halley.--- But still, Sir, some 10 recur again to the authority of Mr. Burke persons may be alarmed at the progress of on this subject. “I cannot conceive how Catholic doctrines; they may affect much any thing worse can be said of ibe Frotesapprehension that the sectaries may be cla “ tant religion of the Church of England, morous for indulgence, and under this “ ihan this, that wherever it is judged progloomy state of mind, they will perhaps op per 10 give it a legal e: tablishment, it bepose every plan for the repeal or moditica. comes necessary to deprive the body of tion of the Test Act. It is much to be ques " the people if they adhere to their old opi. tioned, whether ignorance, bigotry, or per “ nions, of their "liberties and all their free haps, the most sellish views be nos concealed "" customs," and to reduce them in a state under the garb of zeal for the establishment. 6 of civil servitude." (See Letter to Sir You have not to learn that the Catholic doc Hercules Langrishe.)- perhaps, may be trine, that the harmless tenets of transub told, rhat the injury done to the Catholics is stantiation and invocation of saints d d not not so considerable, as to merit the odious give birth to that celebrated act, 25 Car. 2 name of civil exclusion; and that the Cacap. 2
The real grounds are to be sought tholics of Ireland were relieved by an imporfor in the bias of the court to a connexion tant act of the 33 Geo. III. c. 21. No man, with ibe Catholic powers, and the dreaded Sir, can think more bighly than I do of that
paternal goo-lness, in which this substantial ! But, Sir, peace to all such! I am no! addresrelict is said to have originated ; and every sing myself to the herd of mankind, to ihe seni.ment of attachment, every tribuie of ad. unthinking or the opinformed vulgar, how miration and applause is due from grateful ever they my be accidentally distinguished subjects to a beneficent Sovereign. But do by rank or by fortune. I am speaking to a you imagine that you can stop here, consist man of superior sense, and soperior altainently either with policy or justice? Do you menis; a man above the workings of bigota suppose, that atier recognising the principle, ry, and the rage of fanaticism. The que thai Catholics may safely be admitted to til, at er what has been said. lies in a very places of trust, you can continue to cistribute barrow co npas. Four millions of subjects, the first signities of the state among a few deprived of the benefits of the constilution; bundred thousand individuais, and that the arddently look for the restoration of those while mass of Catholic population is to re. liberties an't tres (11-tome" which are se. main satisted with : be lowest and least love coved to Britons by the Great Charter, and c'ative employmenis? No), Sir, these are not which are unquestionably their birih right, your sentimeais; you have long promised unless they fo:feit it by disloyal conduct, or more; you stand pledged to carry into effect The adini-sion of principles hostile to the the claiins of the Catholics. I will not, sarı ny of the state. Now, Sir, I appeal to therefore, irsult your understanding, by yo i, whether in the cooduct and principles of pointing out the fatal consequences of suf. the Roman Catholics any thing of this defering so large a part of the community to re cription can be found. You know full well, main in its present state of political degrania thi their loyalıy has frequently been recog. tiou. I most, however, remind you before nised by the legislature, and that it is placed I quit this part of my subject, that the relief beyond a doubt by the evidence of tacis. alluded to is confined solely to the Catholies You are fully convinced that their religious of Ireland. Those in Great Britain are will principles are perfectly innocuous, and com: debarred from the birth rights of Engli-h-parible with the tranquillity of any givern.
Even the elective franchise is boi to ment.--Sutter me, Sir, to bring to your lerated by favour. And yet, Sir, in my cer.
recollection an event, which took place about lain knowledge, a more deserving class of sisteen years ago. The committee of Eng. men, persons of more animated loyalty lo lish Catholies waited on you, to stale ibeir their beloved Sov-reign, and of inore ardent grievances, from which they begged to be attachment to the constitution of their coun rel'éved; and, before any farther proceeding try, are not to be found in the whole com you requested to be furnished with aubenic pass of this Majesty's doininions.---There is evidence of the opinions of the Catholic surne reason to imagine, Sir, that a portion of Clergy, and the Catholic Universities abroad, the old leaven, of the antiquated and bigot. with respect to the existence and extent of ted hatred towards Catholics, still remains in the Pope's dispensing power. Three ques. the country. When the great question of tions were accordingly framed and sent to their claims shall be made a subject of dis
the Universities of Paris, Louvain, Alcala, cussion, it is not improbable, that some of Douay, Sulamanca, and Valladolid, and ai. the juvenile and unfledged statesmen of the swers were requested. The questions were, present period, some of the sanctified politi Ist. Whether the pope, cardinals, or any cians will be alarased for the safety of the body of men possessed any civil authority Church, will feel the workings of the old whatever in this reatm. 2dly. Whether the spirit, will renew the exploded and ridicu. pope or any set of meo could dispense with lous charges of superstitions fooleries, idola bis Majesly's subjects from their Oath of al. try, impiety, and atheism, and will pour forth legiance. 3dly. Whether it was a principe against the Catholic religion a torrent of the
of the Catholic Church, thái no faiib was to most virulent and offensive abuse, which a be kept with heretics. By ail these Univer. foul imagination, assisted by volubility of sities the most precise and satisfactory antongue, can display. Such a scene will re swers were given ; all foreign jurisdiction of mind us of the description which the poet
a civil nature within this realm was perempgives of the eruption of Mount Ætna: corily denied to exist in the pope, cardinal: “ Interdum scopulos, avulsaque viscera or any other body of men; the power of dis
pensing with the oaih of allegiance wao “ Erigit eructans, liquefactaque saxa sub. equally rejected, and the principle that no
faith was to be kept with heretics was ego “ Cum gemita glomerat, fundoque exes ploded with horror, as totally foreign to C. " taat imo."
tholic doctrine. Sach was the unanimo , Virgil Æneid, lib 3, v. 575, et $87. consent of ihese Universities. But the Doc
tors of Louvain, prefaced their time, Sir, to perform an act of substantial swer with a remarkable preamble. They justice, which it is disgraceful to the Britiske express their readiness to give their opi government to have so long delayed? When nion, but they are “ struck with asio will you cease to act the part of a procrasti“ nishment that such questions should, at nating debtor, who refuses to satisfy the just or the end of the 18th century, be proposed demands which are made on him, till he is e to a learoed body by the inhabitants of a reduced to the most perplexing difficulties? “ kingdom, that glories in the talents and Is it not time to carry into effect those just "disceroment of its natives.” (See all these and salutary principles of toleration, which pieces apud Plowden Hist. Rev. tom. 2, p. are known and practised almost in every 2, Append. p. 199–204.)--You remained, country in Europe, except Great Britain ? Sir, perfectly satisfied with these answers : Is it not time to redeem the pledges which for you supported ibe, bill, which afterwards
you have given to the Catholics of Ireland, passed in favour of the English Catholics, and to rescue from di-grace the honour of But the astonishment of the flemish Doc. the British name? Much obloquy has been tors, of men generally andervalued as de- | injuriously thrown upon Catholics, for not ficient in liberality of sentiment, was per keeping faith with heretics. But see, Sir, fectly natural. What, Sir, could have in that your conduct do not afford a just ground duced you to expose yourself and your coun of reproach, if it should appear, that a Pru. try to ridicule, by proposing such questions testant statesman can induce hiinself poi to to a learned body, in an enlightened age ? keep faith with Catholics. Let me tell you, Had you taken a view of the map of Europe, Sir, that it is time to conciliate ihe affections and examined the prevalence of ihe Catholic of the Catholics of Irelaod, and unite the religion in the different states, you might best energies of the empire against the comhave satisfied yourself, the legislature, and mon enemy; and that no time is to be lost the country, with respect to the innocent in effecting this de-irabie porpose. If you tendency of Catholic doctrines. The popa wish to raise an impenetrable barrier against lation of Europe amounts to more than one the continued encroachments, the restless hundred and fifiy millions of inhabitants, ambition of a military chieftain, if you hope and of this number, nearly two-thirds, or completely to disappoiat his views of conone huodred million, are Roman Catholics. quest, your great resources must be sought They are scatrered over immense tracts of for in the spirit and unanimity of the people. country in the north, middle, and south of Let once an enthusiatic ardour de raised in Europe; they exist under every species of the breast of every subject of his Majesty, government, arbitrary, monarchical, mixed, by interesting all equally in the defence of and republican ; they are blended with the
The laws, liberties aod constitution, and we Protestants of Germany, Denmark, and Swe may set at defiance the menaces of an inden, and the Greeks in Russia ; they all ac sulting foe, reduce him to fair and honourknowledge the spiritual authority of the able terms of peace, confirm our indepenPope, but in no place are their teners con dence, and still stand in the proud and sidered as hostile to the civil government. | commanding attitude, which we have long This simple view might have dissipated all exhibited to the nations of Europe.The your fears, and convinced you, that no dan BRITISH OBSERVER. -Jan. 6th, 1805. ger can possibly be apprehended from admitting Roman Catholics to the fullest en
PUBLIC PAPERS. joyment of the privileges of Britons. I WAR WITH SPAIN. -Order issued by the hope, that when the question comes to be Court of Madrid, dated 27th Novemb. 1804. considered, you will calm the rage of some The conduct which the English have of your bigotted 'friends, by giving them observed since the event of the 5th of Oct. th 1 view of the subject ; and that you will is almost iosafferable. They attack our prevent them from disgracing themselves, ships of war in whatsoever situation they the legislature, i nl the country, by exposing may appear, and detain our commercial yestheir ignorance and their prejudices in the sels, obliging them afterwards to return to face of Europe. - After this clear and suc the ports from whence they came, so that the cioct exposure of the state of the question, object of their voyage is wholly frustrated. let me ask, Sir, what can, at this period of These hostile proceedings have constraiped the world, retard the admission of the Ro his Majesty to abandon the pacific seotimn Catholics to the fullest benefits of the ments which he has considered heretofore constitution ? Will you resort to the usual most conducive to the happiness of his bepoilett of ministerial delay, that it is not the loved subjects; and he is therefore driven to
propose Buch a measure?' Is it not the necessity of procuring satisfaction for