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you draw a
6 debt, an object so desirable that no differ addition to the debt during the war; the
ence of opinion can be entertained upon circumstance which was to work such wun. " the subject. I trust, therefore, this sys- ders, that was to inspire confidence at home s tem will be adopted. It is one which has and respect abroad, that was to convince our hy been before tried, and of which the effect enemy of the hopelessness of a contest " is known. It has inspired confidence at against our finances, has proved an abortion. 6 home, and created respeci abroad. But, What our enemy may think upon the subject
, " the pecuniary effect is not all. It will be must, perhaps, be left, to be discovered
a difference in another respect : the dif of those, at whose disposal the parliament I ference between a tenperary and a per leaves about 200,cool. a year of secret 66 manent tas. It will have another effect service money; but, what he says we “ also; that of convincing the enemy of this know as well as they.
Rec. country, that it is bopiless for him to con NAULT to the Tribunate, “ si tend with our finances; that it is not in parallel between the finances of the “ his power to atlect us in that respect. It so two states, you will find upon the op“ will have a still further effect; that of posite shore new expenses accumulating se convincing the other powers of Europe, upon the expenses already immense ; of " that they may safely join with us in a a nation to whom a million and a half
common cause of resistance agiinst the “ sterling was yearly necessary in an or
common enemy; for, that the resources " dinary war, and who, in the present “ of this country are such as to give full se war, stands in need, for the first time, "curity for the punctual discharge of any " of a levy en masse ; of a levy that costs
engagement it may enter into, and this is o it hundreds of millions of livres. It pro
av object for which I have in view some " vides for that sum, it is trae : but by “ provisions." Now, all this is proved to goading the present, and by swallowing have been false. Completely false. The up the future, by resolving to find its surplus of the consolidated fund has conti debt, swelled by the abuse of its only re. nued to decrease; the war taxes* hare not source,
loans. On our side, our nu. produced more than half the amount which merous armies have been always the they were, by this time, to have produced ; " cause of our greatest expense; and their instead of 6 millions a year, we borrowed 10 " maintenance brings with it but an inmillions in 1803; in 1804, we borrowed 14 (6 considerable addition that is not made millions; and, ihis year we have already bor “to bear upon a foreign country. The rowed 22 millions and a half; the war ex “ exposition, which will be shortly laid penses, instead of 20 millions a year, are " before you, will apprise you, that our already risen to 43 millions, while 5 millions “ territorial resources have provided for only are pretended to be provided for sub "every thing; and that, instead of adding, sidies, and while nothing has been voted by " to our debt, during these two years of parliament on account of those visitations of of war, our sinking fund has begun effica. scarcity, to which “ the first financier in *** ciously to operate for its extinctive. " the world" thought proper to allude. Ac " What France has done, she may code the time that the above flaitering picture was s tinue to do for 30 years, and bias only drawn, even at an earlier period, the follow “ 10 ask of. Heaven that the sun may con.. 'ing opinion was given in the Register : " tinue to shine, the rain to fali pon
her We cannot estimate the total of the na “ fields, and the ground fecundize the seed * tional expenditure of the present, and <f “ deposited in it. Ten years more of war “ 'every future year, even of this scrt of se kould make no addition to pur debt; “ warfare, at less than 60,000.000). There “ ten years more of war would add tour “ fore, however the man of finance may der " milliards to the debt of England. Let *** fer his loans; by whatever act lie may “ her not forget, however, that if public * hide from our eyes the path to bankruptcy, " credit be a powerful and formidabc " the loans must come at last, or, in one weapong that the bow loo strongly bent, " shape or another, the national debt, or ra snaps in the hand that holds it, and * ther the amount of the interest annually to " leaves naked and defenerless him, by “ be paid by the people on account of that 56 whom it is en ployed. Our fleets at " debt, must go on increasing.” The samle “ Brest, Toulon, and Rochefort, have an. was said, and, perhaps sooner, by Mr. John. is nexed to them armics resolved to pass sone, whose predictions relative to the ex " the occan with them. Our flotillas are penses of the war and the amount of the ** ready to depart with these proud sons of loans are now all completely verified.-- war, who know no impedinents, because The circumstance, then, that of making co “ they have surmounted all that, before
Dil cun's !
" them, had astonished the most intrepid. amount to more than about 30 millions. ( Let us continue to keep on our coasts
Will the war taxes be rendered perma, 6 soldiers inhabiting camp: instead of bar nent? What, then, is to be done? But " sacks, and become intrepid sailors as suppose the war. to end with the present " well as brave warriors. Let the people of year. We well know, that it requires a * England in the mean-time, arm, agilate, year's war expenses to wind up; and that " fatigue, exhaust, and discourage them. woulirtize the annualinterest of the debt
selves. Let our resources and our re to 30 millious, absorbing the whole of the
venues suffice for our expenses, and let permanent revenue. Again I ask, then, “ there be no want but that of some ex what is to be done, unless we render “ trwordinary resources which the riches of the war taxes permanent ! But, even
our country insure to us. In England, that would not do ; for who is there 6 let the interest paid to loan-holders ab fuoli h enough to suppose, that 15
millions * sorb, and exceed all possible means 10. a year, allowing the war taxes to yield so.
pay those levies en mass which exhausi i much, would suffice for she maintenance of " the nation without defending it: lei inis a peace establishment such as that, for which, * state of things prolong itself, and let.ihe in future, weshould have to provide? Never “ English Cabinet state the advantages more, therefore, while we continue to pay " that result from this situation, from the interest upon the debt, shall we see a " which it derives equal danger and shame." year pass over our heads without the goIf, then, the
convinced," vernment being compelled to make a new as Mr. Addington said he would, of the loan. These loans will be constantly adhopelessness of a contest against our ding to the debt; a circumstance of no imfinances, it must be allowed, that he portance, if it was not attended with that of very well understands the art of disa a constantly increasing aniount of the interest, guising his conviction; for, the projects which the people will be annually called on to of invasion apart, he seems to be fully pay in taxes, I am aware, that money will convinced, that a very few years of war continue to depreciate, because it is quite immost reduce our finances to the last ex possible, that, while the funds last, the paper tremity; and, if such be bis conviction, should ever be replaced by a currency of inI an afraid, that, if the present system be trinsic value; and, I am also aware, that, pursued (mark the qualification) he is but as the interest of the debt will, of course, be too good a judge of our situation. In short, paid in this depreciated money with an adand to draw to a close of these remarks herence to the nominal aniount, the real upon the loan, it is, in my opinion, now amount to be drawn from the people will clearly established, that, as long as the not increase to the same extent as the 10interest, without a deduction greater than minal amount; but, !he increase of the real what is laid in the shape of tax upon other
amount njust still go on very rapidly; for, income, continues to be paid upon the whenever the depreciation begins to be so national debt, so long, whether in war or considcrable as to counteract the effect of peace we must continue annually to make the increase of the interést upon the debt, loans. This is the sentence now irrevo away goes the bubble in the :winkling of arz cably passed upon the nation; and, the eye.
So much for loans. The new taxes only question for the fund dealers, is bow. next demend a few remarks. A tax, suplong she can go on borrowing. That sie i posing it to be anobjectionable in other remust continue to make loans, if she con spects, is good in proportion to its productinue to pay the interest upon the debt, tiveness compared with the experises of colwho, that but casts his eye upon her ex lection"; and, in this light, the tax upon let: penditure, as compared with her income, ters is excelent, because the expenses of the can doubt. Her whole expenditure now, post-office must be nearly the same, whether for a year, is 70 millions. Next year it. there be a tax collected or not. As to the will be so millions, or very nearly ap
aduitious made to this tax, th-y cannot be proaching it. But, suppose it to remain complained of, seeing that they have by no at 70 millions; her revenue does not sur means kept pace with the depreciation of pass 45 millions, even with the additional money, and ihat, therefore, prople will not, taxes. Suppose the war to continue 5 in reality, now ply for their letters at so years longer; the annual amount of the high a rate as they did twenty years ago. interest of the debt will be nearly 40 mil According to the scale syste, however, it is lions. Where are the taxes to come from? hard to conceive any thing more unfair than The whole permanent revenue does not at
he letter-tax. In imposing the it, on yere this time, and will not this present year,
vants, on horses, on dogs, on windows, &c.
care is taken (with what wisdom I do not beer is made I shall be told, perhaps that pretend to say) to raise the tax upon each dog, &c. in a certain proportion to the name while the rain and the dewe fall and the
earth teems with springs, men may live ber of dogs kept by any one person ; but, withour beer, and thal women and children the letter-tax is a perfect leveller, ceking a may live without milk. They may; and so labourer, who oily receives one sheet of they may without salt as the American Inbrown paper in a year to let hiin know that dians now do by choice. Nay, they may. his son or daughter is alive, pay just as much live without bread. But will cher and, as ising for one letter from the same distance, are not bread and milk and butter aod imposed upon a loan-jobber, under whose cheese and meat taxed? Yes, and that too dispatches the mail-horses come daily sweat very beavily in the taxes on land, houses, ing from every part of the kingdom. I do windows, and income ; taxes which seem, in not speak of this as a hardship opon the la general, to be regarded as falling exclusively bourer, but mentiop it merely to show, how upon the rich. When we recollect, thai, jdle it is to pretend to regulate taxation upon ever since the system of taxation began in principles like that of the scale. I was glad this country, ihe imposers of taxes have cons id hear Sir Robert Buxton propose the aboli stantly professed to tax the rich as much, and tion of the privilege of franking; not be the poor as litile, as possible; and when we cause I agree with him; but because the see, that, at the end of a bundred years proposition and the sentiments by which it taxing, the rich are richer and the poor poor was accompanied, must certainly be consi er than ever ; when such is the evidence dered as an earnest of the honourable Baro before us, is it not astonishing, that we ner's conduct with respect to those who may should still be the dupęs of those wbo, by be, at any time, proved to have been guilty laying taxes, immediately upon the rich, pro . of robbing the public. The tax upon fess to spare the poor? Such persons how, draught horses has been censored, and, it is ever, to give them their due, are, in general, to be sure, consummately ridiculous to tax deceived themselves, as well as the deceivers implements of husbandry with one haod, of others. In sho!1, I cannot belp thinking, while a bounty for the encouragement of that all these objections to taxes because they husbandry (which bounty comes out of the weigh upon the poor, proceed from the want tixes) is held out in the other! But, as to of a more general and enlarged view of the the tax itself, there does not appear to me subject, whence njen would easily perceive, to be any objection against it, which would that all taxes, be they what they inay,, most nst equally well apply to all the rest of The finally fall upon labour, labour being the assessed taxes. What is it to the farmer only source of the meaus of paying taxes. wiether he pay's the tax for his windows or Some taxes are, however, more partie in for his horses ? Light in bis house is as ne. their first operation than others; and, ja ce-sary as horses are in his fields. Besides, some cases, they totally ruin one part of the where does the tax hoally fall? Is it community in working their way into gedut evident that it falls
The neral disasion. Others are particularlyobe sumer of bread and meat? Is it not evi- | jectionable on account of the mode of their drns, that, in supporting it, the farmer will collection. When they employ too maoy only share, in a very fair and exact propor hands in proportion to their produce, and time, with every otier class of people? The thereby not only cause a serious dedaction aperehensions, therefore, of that patriotic from the productive labour of the country, and pains-taking gentlensan, Sir Robert Bux bullake the food from those who are em191, ihat the tax will turn arable fields into ployed in productive labour and put it into a adow's (with or without the help of micis. ihe mounts of those who do no:bing that is ture), are, I trust in God, entirely ground profitable to the state, they are very injurious. less -- Whether the additional tax upon The mode of collection may be odious and salt be particularly objectionable, or not, vexatious ; as where it authorises 3, set of ofmust depend upon its produce compared with ficers to call you before them; to ketp you the expense of collection, or upon some cir from day to day dancing attendance apon cumstance other than that of salt being one of them; to treat you as a creature at their the first articles of the necesșaries of life, and, cominand; to scrutinize into the state of of course, sorming part of the consumption your concerns; to examine the depth of in the family of every poor man; which is the your purse; to overhaul your books and aconly oljection that I have yet heard urged counts, your deeds, leases, mortgoges and against the tax upon it. If this objection be bonds; to ascertain the state of your debts good, will it not bear equally strong against and credits ; to renjand you, and to call you the tax ou beer and on the things of which again at their pleasure, : If, under such a
system of taxation, ' man can be said to be a country I know little or nothing; but; that free-man, I should be very glad to know they are, in their operation and effect, very what it is that would make him a slave. But, fat indeed trøm answering the above deeven all this is more congenial with iny ideas scription given of the excise laws in Ame. of freedom than the exercise of those powers rica, I must, of course, be perfectly satisfied; which, in America for instance, are given because, were they not so, it is impossible by the excise laws. Count over the houses that I sbould never have heard any thing in the streets of any city or town, and you said against them in parliament.-With reswill find, that, into every fourth house, or pect to the addition to the Income TaxI have thereabouts, ao excise officer bas; (or at least nothing to say that I have not already said. had when I was in the country) at all times My objection is not to the amount of it; å right to enter, and range about in despite of not to its unfairness; not to the place on tbe owners. Many of them the excise otticer which it finally falls; but, to the effect never quits, without first puiting his lock, or which it has in checking industry and ecobis seal, upon some part or other of the nomy. It is, in the first instance, a tax building, which lock or seal to break, or upon these two virtues, so useful' io éven to toucb, the owner of the house trem. individuals as well as to the state. As far as bles but to thiok of ; and, if, by any acci relates to the funds, however, I'must dent, or by any temptation, he should have acknowledge, that this tax did not originate swerved from the limits prescribed to bim; wiih either of the two first fipanciers in the bay, even if suspicion fall upon him, he world," but with that celebrated person, Mr. hastens to prostrate himself at the feet of Thomas Paine! After having proposed the him, whoever he may be, that happens, in abolition of the monarchy, he proceeds thus, the instance, to represent the dreadful mi in the Srcond Part of bis Rights of Man : nisters of Excise. If his supplications and “ Reasons are already advanced in this work, all other means of mollifying fail, swift ruin "shewing, that, whatever the relonins in the awaits bios. He is instantly shunned by his s taxes may be, ihey ought to be inade in the friends'; the mark of destruction is set upoo current expenses of governident, and not kim; first a jail and last a poor. house are bis “ in the part applied to the interest of the lot. This terrible system it was against “ national debt ;" for, says Thoipas, who which the people of Pennsylvacia so strongly was a firm stickler for the funds, It is now Temonstrated. It is said, that the excise laws “ too lale to enquire how the debt began. have been repealed, and that the system has " I bose to whom it is due have advanced been completely abolished, ander the admi “the money; ani, whether it was well or nistration of Mr. Jefferson ; if so, it is no “ill spent, or pocksted, is not their crive. By wonder that he has been re-elected by the “ remitting all the taxes of he poor" (quito unanimous voice of the people. Thc a first financier!) They will be totally rePeposylvania people, in one of their repre “ lieved, and all discontent on their part will sentations, said: “ What is our situation ? “ be taken away ; and, by striking oif such * Our houses, regarded, in our law books, “ of the taxes as are already mentioned, the
as our fastles, are entered, at pleasure, by “nation will inore than recover all the ex. * persons who come with an authority from “ pense of the mad American war There
our rulers to force their way into and “ will then remain «nly ihe national deht 38 \ about them, if we dare to resist. The a subject of discontent; and in order to " quantity of our liquor, 'the dimensions of “ remove, or rather to prevent. this, it'w uld
our vessels, are ascertained by these bold “ be good policy in the stockholder. theni* intruders, who may come and break in 6 selves to con-ider it as priperly, subject
upon our repose at any hour of the nighi; " like all other pro; erty to bear some portion is who affix their locks and their seals to our “ of taxes. It would give to it both popula« doors and our utensils; who act the part "rity and security, and as a great part of its " of inquisitors, in the most odious manner; present inconvenience is balanced by ibie " who set 'neighbour to watch neighbour, ” capital which it keeps alive, a measure of " who make one defray the expense of keep “ this kind would so far add to that balance "sing the other as a spy upon his aciions ; as to silence objeciions. This niay
be duue * who, in short, seem intended for no other " by such gradual means ai to acc inplish all
purpose than that of raising money upon " that is necessary with the great at ease and "rus, in order to pay one for keeping ano convenience. Instead of laxing the capi. " ther in subjection, and thus to render us * tai, the hest way would be to tux the inte. " in reality a nation of slaves, sufferng its Test by some progressive atin, and ti le-s-12 " to retain the forms of freedom merely to " the public taxes in the same pro oft on ac "disgrace it." Of the excise-laws in this o the interest diminished." (Wehuve ::oreces
able to ac!, s yet, upon this latter sag gestion.) and then, as Mr. Addington said, “
Suppose the interest was taxed one balf “ buruienis would have been lighiered in " penny
in the pound the first year, a penny “ proportion to our pressure.”. Ad in good i more the second, and to proceed by a cer time, however!. If the war continue " tain ratio to be determined upon, always three years lenger, we may live in hopes « less than any other tax upon property. of seeing something of this sort adopied.
Such a tax would be subtracted from the in Here, fir she present, I should take "terest at the time of payment, without any my lewe of this subject, did I not, upon
expense of collection. One half pruny in -recurring to the opinion which seems to be “the pound would lessed the interest and entertained as to the effect of taxing draught
consequently the taxes, twenty shousand horses, think it of some importance to
pounds. The tax on woggon: amounts to offer a remark or two upon a circonstance " this suin, and this tax might be taken off which appears to me a muchgreater im" the first year. The second ytar the tax on pediment to agricultural industry than all “ female servants, or some other of the like the taxes upon ihe property of farmers pit "atiount might also be taken off, and by together; and that is the reluctance which “ proceeding in this manner, always apply has, for several years last past existed, ing the tax raised from the
of to the granting of leases. This circumstancs " the debt towards its extinction, and not was mentioned once before, but I cannot re
carry it to the current services, it would frain from again bringing it forward; when I « liberate itself." That the 66 two Grst am upon a subjeci wieli which it is so closely * financiers" in the world have not fol connected. Nlost of my readers know, that, lowed this latier part of Mr. Paine's advice since the commencement of the administration we know; but, I am sure it will not be of Mr. Pitt, there has been established a denied, that to tax the funds, and the way certain deparıment, called the Board of Agri. of collecting that tax, were first suggesteril culture. This board, which bas a Pear of by him. Paine was a lover of traders and the Realm for its president, is composed of fund-dealers. He hated the legitimate persons profoundly skilled in the qualities of aristocracy and the church, because thoy soils, in the divers arts of planting, sowing, were, he clearly perceived, the principai drilling, dibbling ploughing, reaping, and supports of the throne; and, therefore, we mojviag. They study the science of breed. always find him railing against the landed ing and feeding cattle and sheep; of fatting interest, while he is, as is above shown, Bags; and of promoting propagation amongst very lenient towards the fund-holders. the various sorts of ihese our fillow creatures, 'With regard to the title to the crown he for whose comfort and happiness the Vice goes back as far as the conquest by Wil Society and the Benches of Justices have Liam the Norman; rigidly inquires into the shewn so tender a solicitude. Well, this rights founded upon that conquest; and Board, of which Arthur Young, esq. F.R.S. maintains that no length of time or other is the Secretary, have taken particular pains to circumstance, impairs the right of the ascertain the agricultural state of the several people to choose whether they will adhere counties of the kingdom. To this eod they to their sovereign or not. But, when he have sent out several persons to make actual comes to the national debt, quile another surveys; and, indeed, it appears from the set of principles seenis to have entered his accounts of the Board, that, in these surveys, mind." It is now 100 late," says he " no irifiing sons of money have been spent, 56 inquire how the debt began !" I am of the annual charge to the public on account of a very different opinion. The two first the Board and its proceedings being about financiers in the world have my hearty 3,000). The persons thus, sent torth have thanks for taxing the funds in a proportion made their reports to the Board, which reequal to that of other properiy; and, ports have been published at the public exthough I think they have done tclerably pense; and as they have come forth under well for a beginning, and are going on ihe sanction of so respectable a body, instivery well, I cannot help saying, that they tuted too, by Mr. Pitt himselt, there is no would have pleased me still better if they one, at least no friend of Mr. Pict, that will, had, at once, imposed a much heavier tax I should think, venture to question the facts upon the funds than upon other property. which they state. These surveyors, then, all Twenty-five per centum upon the interest agree, that the greatest impediment to the of the national debt would not have been agricultural industry of the country, is, the too much for the first year, to which an refusing of leases to farmers, and compelling addition of five per centum might have them to cultivate, if at all, upon the tenure been added every year during the war ; of a single year. Mr. Young, in bis gent