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previously subdued. To those who have of obloquy; they are despised by those who been accustomed to a differëpt way of life, have the most frequent opportunity of ma. and who have consequently acquired differ-nifesting their contempt, and whose estimaeut habits, it appears astonishing, that men tion they are most anxious to gain. It is wlio are perpetually familiar with all the va impossible to conceive a more efficacious rieties of human distress, should mingle with discipline for the mind, and it is not surpriseeming unconcera in the most cheerful sing, that it produces at length a degree of scenes, without any, alloy from the remnem. heroisa), of which men in the quiet occupabránce of diose spectacles of anguish and af. tions of civil society have no adequale confliction of which they are the constant wit ception. nesses. But on a more attentive considera. The attainment of eminence in the milition, this apparent insensibility will appear tary profession, is closely connected with the to be the necessary result of that process of perfection of those moral qualities, by which discipline, which the mind has undergone, the mind, in scenes of peril is supported and and without which it would be impossible in preserved in full possession of its faculties. this profession to derive practical benefit. Accordingly, a variety of extraneous supfrom theoretical skill. jo all those employ: 1 ports, and a complicated system of discipline, ments where success or eminence depends have been contrived in order to qualify men on à contempt of danger or death, the im for the duties of active warfare. As my main portance of mental qualities decidedly pre- design in this part of my subject is to exdominates; there the feelings of nature are plain the foundation of military obedience, 80 rooted and powerful, that the grand ob it will be necessary fully and distinctly to ject ought to be to find out a principle of suf trace the connexion between general prinficient force to counteract their effects; and ciples and particular regulations, in order although at first view, this may appear im that we may be enabled to separate what is practicable, on account of the potent in- essentially necessary to the existence of the Äluence wilh which they act upon the miod, system, froin what is merely accidental, and yet this very circumstance furnishes a sure liable of course to be altered and modified ground from which they may be successfully on grounds of practical expediency. In con. assailed. All perilous professions afford the templating the constitution of the regular means of their own support; they are pecu army, the nature of that relation which liarly favourable to the growth of enthu exists between a private and his officer, when siasm, and are upheld chiefly by the fear of attentively examined, will be found to es. shame, and the love of glory ; two princi- hibit a very striking illustration of the docples which spring from the same root, and trines which I have already premised, and operate in the same direction, with this dif will prove that it is not so much on mecha. ference, that the first is only calculated to nical dexterity, as on the acquisition of peprevent an open breach of duty, while the culiar moral habitudes, that the distinctive other is of more unlimited efficacy, and ani superiority of disciplined troops incontestibly mates to exertions of aciive heroism. These depends. As those moral habitudes are in two passions are the materials which must
a great measure artificial, and as their pro. be employed; they are the seminal princi- gress is impeded by the prevailing disposiples originally implanted in the mind, and tions of the human mind, they must be ihey must be matured into moral habitudes, created and supported by the unintermitted by a long course of patient cultivation. As action of very powerful causes.
For this 'the heart, if it were left unassisted to the
parpose the power of an officer is absolute pure workings of its own natural feelings, and complete, and the mutual connexion would undoubtedly skrink in the hour of between him and those whom he commands, trial, those qualities by which it is enabled is fixed by an irrevocable obligation. He can bravely to confront peril, must be called
resort also in extreme cases to the coercion forth, and propped by a variety of collateral of vigorous punishment; an authority of supports. The employment of a sailor leads
which the frequent use is not only odious, him into a perpetual intercourse with dan. but very inexpedient;t but, of which the gers of the most terrific kind, and the preliminary tuition which he receives, before bę + That portion of Sir R. Wilson's work, acquires a knowledge of his art, disciplines which relates to the infliction of punishmeat, him into intrepidity and presence of mind. not only displays singular benevolence and Among sailors a reluctance to execute any bumanity, but contains many sound and je: hazardous duty, affixes infamy to a man's dicious observations susceptible of a more character; those who exhibit indications of general application. The known experience a timid spiris
saros treated with every spocies of dae author on the subjects which he treating
possession is absolutely necessary, not only / perilous and important occasions. It bringe for creating and streogthening the infant | the man constantly under the eyes of his offifeeling of obedience, till it shoots into the cer; it forces bim perpetually into a contact
vigorous hardihood of a fixed habit; but with his power; it gives substance to theo: * for facilitaring the development of other retical rules, by connecting them with prac.
principles, which acting upon the mind by a lical regulations; it preserves the control of more grateful influence, soften the original authority in perpetual vigout, by rendering, vigour of those 7. :lations which grow out of it plain and palpable to the sense ;* and mais military subordination, and eventually lead tiplics and strengthens those ties by which to the most heroic exertions of voluntary military discipline at leogtli enchains the zeal. The fear of punishment is, however, mind. An officer, is therefore, placed with the primary spring of obedience; honour, respect to his men, in the most commanding though it rises higher than the source from position which can well be conceived; he is which it flows, and by addressing nian as a the dispenscr of rewards and punishments; moral agent, is unlimited in its effects, is and it is not surprising that he at length obonly a secondary principle. In all political tains a complete ascendency over their minds.' structures, indeed, however splendid their Power being thus placed on a secure foonda.' cxternal appearance, we uniformly find that tion, it is the province of political skill, by the foundation is formed of the same coarse stripping it of jis terrors, to conciliate those materials. On examining that process of whom it subjects, and to create in its favoor's moral culture which the mind of a soldier artificial supports drawn from passions conreceives before it is thoroughly subjected, it genial to the hu.nan mind. These supports will be found thai all the regulations of the. very naturally grow out of military subjec. regular army are relative to two principles, tion, for, as it is of all others the most odious fear and honour.
and disgraceful situation to live in habitual When the raw recruit is first placed under dread of punishment; and, as a zealous and the care of a drill-serjeant, he has the firm active service never can spring from terror, conviction impressed upon his mind, that the mind very naturally opens to an ambiobedience can be enforced by punishment, tious desire of gaining the good-will and esand all the jastructions which he receives, teen, of those who must otherwise inspire tend to strengthen him in this belief, and 10 emotions ungrateful in the extreme. It cantraia bia to a familiarity with the peremp not be doubted, but ihis is the foundation of tory decrees of martial law. Submission io honour; for whatever collateral aids it may orders is not merely inculcated by a naked receive, witlout the severe coercion of mar.' catalogue of dry precepis; strong inotives 10 tial law, the intractable passions of mankind' action never can arise from a hnowledge of could never be inoulder icto habits sơ addaty merely theoretical; in order thoroughly verse to the genuine feelings of nature. The to sabject men to the control of discipline, situation of soldiers rendering them, there. their miods must be rendered constantly con forc, accessible the infuence of this prin• versant with the authority which admits of ciple, various means are devised for fostering neither modification nor dispuse. For this its growih. They are instructed to pay a purpose it is of essential importance in the scrupulous regard to personal cleanliness, to tconomy of the regular army, to enjoin the keep their bodies in an erect attitude, and to strictest attention to commands apparently execute all their motions with a certain pretrivial; 10 exact flie most rigorous com cision and alermness. They are separated pliance with forms and etiquette, not merely from the cominon people, by the distinction on account of their abstract and iodividual of a more slowy dress, and are taughi to importance; Bat, because a constant, puncti consider themselves as consecrated to a lious observance of orders in the miouriæ of more honourable service. All these minuriæ discipline tends to secure obedience on more of discipline are in therrelves trifting and
u eless, for; it is not supposed, that'a slovenly and the manly independence with which he appearance, or an awkward or stooping gait
, declares his sentiments, give a weight and or a plain and sober garb, detract from the imr portance to his opinions, which naked de physical powers of the human body. But ductions of principle never can possess.
they are to be considered as leading to a There is a lurking propensity among man more important end; as tending to create in kind to disregard theoretical speculations. the mind of the young soldier a principle of However well founded they may be, they are honour, which is a nobler and far tnore effi. generally classed with those ingenious re cacious motive of action than the dread of tinements of
. philosophy, which are of no power. His affections are gradually engaged practical utility.
by ste splendid solemnity of military guing,
by martial bands of music, by the gran cling; be is neither controled, by command, deur of reviews, and other public exhibitions nor by the dread of losing his character and of professional skill. He begins to take a honour; and, he is besides, not at all acpride in performing with correctness and ce customed to the associations conitected with lerity the most coinplicated evolutions, his this new and peculiar mode of peril. The duty becomes a pleasure; he is familiarised terror which he feels obviously results from to warlike associations, and being constantly the want of previous training, which is nein the society of his comrades, he hears withi cessary to fortify the haman mind in the hour eager wonder tales of past difficulties and of danger. hardships, imbibes their habits and modes of As bonour becomes a predominating prin. thinking, and glows with the same emotions ciple in the relations of military subordinaof mərtial enthusiasm. His passions throw tion, they assume a different character, their brilliant colours over those scenes of peril natural vigour is softened, and both the sol. and adventure which chequer a soldier's ha- dier and his officer are disposed to indulge zardous career. The dangers of war, far in the mutual sentiments of affection and atfrom appearing to him through the medium tachment. All those relations in society of despondency and gloom, form the most which to the individuals concerned are of conspicuous and splendid objects in the vic primary importance, have a tendency to prosionary pictures of his enraptured" fancy. duce a desire of mutual conciliation, which Such are the effects of this wonderful prin- | manifests itself in an interchange of good ciple, when it is judiciously managed, and offices. In this respect the officers of the brought to bear with a vigorous and constant regular army possess peculiar advantages. action upon the human mind.
When a man has enlisted, he is in general Honoor, however, though a far more ef-withdrawn from that circle of friendship or fective spring than fear, requires to be con- patronage, where he could look for advice or stanuy ivvigorated by its influence; if the assistance in those temporary embarrassrestraint of martial law were withdrawn, the ments, by which human life is so frequently old inveterate habits of nature would at distressed. All the social relations in which length recur, and the frail fabric raised with he formerly stood being thus dissolved, or at so much care, and upheld by so many arti- least, rendered wholly ougatory as to any ficial supports, would soon crumble inio view of immediate diility, to whom can be pieces. Honour by disarming authority of apply for advice in straits or difficulties, or its terrors, operates as a corrective to its for protection against injustice and oppresnoxious effects, while authority keeps alive sion, but to those with whom he is coonectthe principle of honour, and prevents the ed by the lies of military subordination, and mind from springing back to the direction who are qualified to assist him with their from which it was originally bent. It does council, or to interpose by the weight of not appear, however, that we are ever ena- their rank to vindicate his rights. I do not bled to effect any fundamental change in the state this circumstance as being in itself of radical dispositions of our nature, or that any extreme importance, but as it constitutes one process of ntoral discipline can subclae those of those many concurring principles indiviemotions which are originally implanted in dually weak, and inefficient, but which being the human heart. Accordingly, those who combined, materially contribute to sopport in trying scenes of danger, where they were the constitution of the army in its pristine supported by a variety of auxiliary princi- vigour. By the complicated operation, ples, have behaved with undaunted fortitude, therefore, of authority, honour, and à ta. wlien placed in different circumstances, and riety of collateral and accidental supports, Jeft to the unassisted influence of their own the soldier at length attains to the highest feelings, have betrayed unequivocal symp- possible perfection in his profession. The toms of alarm and dismay. Many soldiers artificial principles created in his mind, pre. who have secured. an honourable character dominate at last over those on which they) by their conduct in the field, have been to were originally engrafted, and the habit of tally overpowered by the terrors of a storm obedience to command is formed into a conat sea. This proves beyond a doubt, that stituent feeling of his sou). their former steadiness had been wholly Having thus endeavoured to analyse and owing to the preliminary training which explain the interval mechanism of a standthey had received, and that it is vain to 'ex ing army, and to point out the mutual conpect, that without ihe formation of powerful nexion and dependency of its complicated babits, men can encounter danger with cool. springs, I shall now consider, whether its ness and intrepidity. In a storm a soldier fundamental priociples cas ever be incorpohas ao adventitious supports to which he can rated into the volunteer system. If the
theory of regular discipline already premised two springs of considerable vigour ; namely, be formed on just views of the subject, then the dread of invasion, and the apprehension it is evident that absolute power is the only of the ballot. The first is completely enfoundation on which a structure of military feebled, and the last annihilated. Indeed, subordination can be solidly reared; and that it was impossible that an alarm founded on all provisions of inferior importance, though exaggerated representations of immediate not, perbaps, directly relative to this essen danger could last for any time.
The tial principle, do yet indirectly originate animated representations of the dangers from its influence, and derive their effects to be apprehended from invasion, certainfrom its vigorous operation. In contriving, ly kindled an uncommon ardour throughtherefore, a system of discipline and instruc out the whole nation ; bot no effectual tion for any number of individuals, wlio may plan was, or indeed, could be devised, agree 10 train themselves to an inferior de for giving permanence to the fleeting irra. gree of proficiency in the use of arms, a wise diations of popular enthusiasm. The invastatesman would first direct his attention to sion, perhaps, without any just ground, is the nature of the controling power which now considered as a standing jest, and the he possessed over them, in order that all su. vigour, which arose from this transitory ilbordinate regulations might act in harmo. lusion seems to be fur ever fed. There nious co-operation with the primary princi does not exist in the constitution of this im. ple from which they originate. The want portant branch of our national defence any of an efficient control is an inherent defect Other control whatever ; the officer possesse for wbich no effectual and permanent cor. es no power by which he can command rective can possibly be provided. The whole respect or enforce obedience, no authority contrivance must be adapted to this its fun by which he can render his favour or apdamental spring; otherwise its subsequent probation of the slightest consequence to movements will
be languid, feeble, and con ihose whom he is appointed to command. tradictory. Nothing can be more vain and The connexion which subsists between a foolish than to imagine that moral habitudes volunteer and his officer, is intersected by can be brought to any degree of perfection so many other relations, that it never can without the continued coercion of an effi rise into primary importance; it never can cient authority. It may easily be conceived, be cemented, as in the regular army, by indeed, that the human mind cannot be any of those secondary ties, which, though forced into a direction purely artificial, and they relax the original boud, yet give it a quite contrary to its naiural bias, without more secure hold of the human mind. No. the permanent influence of powerful causes. thing appears to me, therefore, to mark Under a control, therefore, of inferior effi more strongly the total want of a discrimi. cacy, all those regulations which are relative nating mind, than the blind servility with to any of those moral habitudes, to the prin which all the frippery and tinsel of the reciple of honour for instance, and which de gular army has been su faithfully transferred rive their effect solely from the fundamental to the volunteers, without considering how energy of a more vigorous system, are totally radically dissimilar they are both in their nngatory and useless; they are parts of the character and circumstances, from a force machine, which possess no peculiar property permanently kept up, and exclusively emthemselves, but are only useful as they faci ployed in military duties. A strict and litate the applicatioa of the primary mecha. punctilious compliance with all the minutie nical power, to the matter on which it is of discipline, where there is a vigorous sudestined to act ; ibèy are not like the screw, perintending.control of sufficient efficacy to the pulley, or the lever, which admit neither coerce the mind into artificial habits, tends of modification, nor of change; and, which, to facilitate the development of those auxthough the whole copstruction be taken to iliary principles, by which the main design pieces, are still the disjecta membra, with of the system is pron.oled; the trifling ce• which the work of renovation must be remonies of etiquette are means subsidiary begun.
to an important end; they are parts of a In appreciating the merits of that plan of great whole, which must stand or fall with discipline and instruction which has been its fundamental supports. But, in a body contrived for the perfection of the volunteer so constituted as the volunteers, where the force, it will be necessary first to consider private possesses the unqualified power of what is the nature and extent of that power resigning, and of thus dissolving, for reaby which the immense body can be con sons wholly arbitrary, all connexion betroled. At the period of its formation, tween him and his officer, the essential rethe volunteer system, undoubtedly possessed quisites for the formation of military habits
* do not exist. · Where an officer is invest strict discipline, it is impossible to infuse
ed with no direct power over those whom that energy into any body of men, by which he is appointed to iostruct, it never can be alove they can be enabled to withstand the expected that they will put themselves to shock of regular battalions, and amid all any serious inconvenience or trouble, in or the destruction and carnage of a battle to der by acquiring perfection in discipline, to execute the necessary maneuvres and evoconciliate bis favour, or that they can ever Jutions with steadiness, precision, and rebe brought by the operation of a feeble and gularity. The volunteers may attain to an
Precarious control, to take either a pleasure inferior degree of perfection in that sort of or a pride in attaining expertness in military military mimicry, io which so much attenexercises ; more particularly, when their at tion seems to be paid; but, it appears to tention is distracted by a variety of more me to be the height of folly to indulge an pressing and important avocations. How expectation, that they ever can acquire by radically different is the constitution of the means of discipline, those moral qualities army! There a soldier is placed under the which constitute by far the most important
eye of authority, which has power to pu- l part of a soldier's character, when they nish or reward; his obedience to orders want the fundamental spring from which and his alacrity in executing them, result. discipline derives its energy and effect. It *ing at first from a natural inclination to would be quite as reasonable to expect, conciliate those on whom his happiness emi- that a passenger should return from a voyage nently depends, is formed at length into a with the weatherbeaten face of an expehabit, and the obligations of duty being in-rienced sailor, as that the human mind corporated with the feelings of honour, are should be forced without any control into at last entirely divested of their natural habitudes entirely artificial, Both suppoharshness. All those regulations, therefore, | sitions are equally ridiculous, with this difwhich in the regular army are intended to ference, however, that the absurdity in the act as collateral supports to authority and one case is evident to the coarse observa. -honour, are pointed to no determinale ob. tion of sense, in the other visible only to
ject in the volunteer system, where neither the nicer perceprions of the moral eye. authority nor honour can have any exist Many attempts have been made by the ience. In the original structure from which admirers of the volunteer system to heal its they have been copied with such a stupid constitutional infirmity by means of partial exactness, they are elegant and appropriate remedies; all of which have proceeded from ornaments, and they add materially io the the same fatal misconception of the true nasolid strength of the building; but they har, ture of the military character. It was sug: manise so ill with all the relative proportion gested by Mr. Pict, that by the aid of ofof the new erection, in which they have ficers froin the line, the discipline of the been so injudiciously placed, that the whole volunteers might be materially improved. I exhibits a most striking appearance of in do not believe ihat the imperfect state of the congruity, mutilation, and deformity. Des volunteer force ought to be attributed to any titute, therefore, of all the genuine charac- incapacity in the officers; among such a teristics of an army, how foolish it is to number of individuals there must no doubt cling with such fondness to the unsubstan be men ignorant of their duty; there are tial form, the inanimate reseinblance, the others, however, perfectly capable, and well mere husk and shell without the substance; qualified, if they were invested with adewhen we know we cannot possess the real quate authority; for successfully discharging character, to indulge a puerile vanity, and the daties of the respective stations which decorate ourselves with the suppositious they fill. But their exertions even if they plumes, to amuse ourselves with contri were assisted by officers from the line, weuld vances for protecting the plant, and for be rendered vain and nugatory by the innate warding its growth, when we want the depravity of a system, where professional root from which it must spring. It cannot skill, not being backed by the vigorous opebe too often stated, that the distinctive su ration of martial law, it is maimed and crip periority of disciplined troops, depends not pled in its most efficient members. A ni. upon the attainment of mechanical preci- litary officer without power, is like a well sion or dexterity in certain motions, but on without water,; he may instruct men in a the cultivation and perfection of moral qua mere theoretical knowledge of their duty; Jities; that those qualities can only be at but he never cav, by establishing the con tained by a long process of strict discipline; viction of his authority, produce habits of and, that without the power to enforce obedience, or principles of honour, or any