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THE CAXTON COFFER.

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renounced within the last two years. The successor of Grandison may now, therefore, visit the churches of the deanery, excommunicate the without also producing evidence that it had

If I were to print the explanation which follows ministers and parishioners, and interrogate pre- escaped the notice of those to whose works all sentees, without let or hindrance; and, since the students in early English bibliography have relanguage of Cornwall died with old Dolly Pentreath, his lordship will not require the herme- course, it would seem like advancing a claim to neutic services either of the present or the late fore quote Ames, Herbert, and Dibdin.

discovery on very slight grounds. I must thereincumbent of St. Just.

E. SMIRKE.

The history of Lombardy, translated from the Latin

[by William Caxton), is mentioned by Pitts." - J. ON THE EXPRESSION RICHLY DESERVED."

AMES, 1749. I was a few days ago induced to consider whence “I take this History of Lombardy to be no other the common expression “richly deserved” could than the gestis of the Lombardes and of Machomet be derived. It is used by Addison and his con wyth other cronycles,' added to the life of St. Pelagyen temporaries, but I have not been able to find it in in the Golden legend, and printed separately for the writers of an earlier period. Possibly the reading large a folio.” — W. Herbert, 1785; T. F. Dibdin, 1810.

use of the commonality (sic), who could not purchase so of some of your contributors may supply instances of its occurrence which may prove more precisely

Both Bale and Pits ascribe to Caxton the its origin and history.

translation of a work entitled Historia Lumbardica. The phrase, in its literal sense, is anomalous and Ames, as we have seen, states the fact with regard unmeaning. We may properly say that a reward to Pits, but had met with no such work; Herbert, or punishment has been “fully deserved;” or, by by way of explanation, assumes the existence of a a common mode of exaggeration, we may say that publication of which no one had before heard ; a thing bas been “abundantly deserved :" but and Dibdin, who had far superior means of in“ richly deserved" seems a false figure of speech, formation, repeats the observations of Herbert and presents to the mind an obvious incongruity without the addition of one word expressive of of ideas. Dr. Johnson cites a passage from Addi assent or dissent. May we not infer their inability son, in which chastisement is said to have been to solve the problem ? "richly deserved,” and says that it is used ironi The conjecture of Herbert is very plausible. cally to signify truly" or "abundantly." One fact, however, is worth a score of conjectures ;

Of the meaning of the expression — now by and the fact, in this case, is that in the earlier usage become trivial - there can, of course, be no editions of the Latin legend the title is Legenda doubt; but how came so inappropriate a thought sanctorum sive historia Longobardica. Jacques de as wealth to be applied to desert ? The inaptitude Voragine, the author of the work in question, was a of the expression suggests the presumption that it Lombard by birth, and archbishop of Genoa. Now is a corruption of some more correct phrase; and Lombardi and Longobardi were synonymous terms I venture to throw out a conjecture, for confirma -as we see in Du Fresne; and so were their detion or refutation by the more extensive reading rivatives. With this explanation, it must be admitof some of your philological contributors, that it

ted that the Historia Lumbardica of Bale and Pits is is corrupted through the medium of oral pronun

no other than the Golden legend! Bolton Corner. ciation from “ righteously deserved." In one of the prayers of the Litany, in our Book tained that “ Caxton" in Cambridgeshire was also

Since my last communication, I have ascerof Common Prayer, is the expression, “Turn from us all those evils which we most righteously have

designated “Causton."

In the Abbrev. Rot. Origin., 41 E. 3., Rot. 42., deserved.” “Righteously” is itself a barbarous

we have corruption of an excellent English word, “right

“ Cantabr Johēs Freville dat viginti marcas p lic wisely," which is used by Bishop Fisher and other feoffandi Johēm de Carleton et Johēm de Selvle de old writers. Our ancient kings were said to be man'io de Causton,&c. “ rightwise” kings of England, and to hold their And in Cal. Ing., p. m., 4 R. 2., No. 23., we haveprerogatives and titles" rightwisely ;” and in the Liturgies of Edward VI. the word "right

Elena uxor Johēs Frevill Chr. Carton maner ga wisely” is found, instead of “righteously," in the pars-Cantabr.” prayer of the Litany above-mentioned. Now We have, then, in Cambridgeshire “Causton" “ rightwisely deserved” is an expression as strictly and “Caxton” used indifferently for the same logical and correct, as "richly deserved" is the manor. There need be no difficulty, therefore, in contrary; and as “ righteously” is clearly a cor- identifying the name of “Caxton” with “Causton" ruption of “rightwisely," may not “richly," when manor in Hadlow. applied to desert, be corrupted immediately from We have advanced, then, one step further in “ righteously,” and ultimately from “rightwisely ?” our investigation, and the case at present stands

D. JARDINE. thus : Caxton says of himself that he was born in

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the Weald of Kent. Fuller, as cited by Mr. Thomas Woodcock, a well known stationer, had Bolton Corney, says, “ William Caxton was born been confined in Newgate by the Bishop of in that town (sc. Caxton)."

London (Aylmer) for seMing it. It is dated 9th In the Weald of Kent is a manor called Causton Dec. 1578, and is subscribed by five of the most (to which we may now add) alias Caxton, which distinguished and respectable printers and pubmanor was owned in the middle of the fourteenth lishers of that day, soliciting Lord Burghley (to century by a family of the same name (from whom whom it is addressed) to interfere on behalf of it had passed a century later), and held of the the poor prisoner. It runs precisely in the followhonour of Clare, the lords of which honour, in the ing form: fifteenth century, were that ducal and royal house, Our humble duties unto your good L.

preby which William Caxton was warmly patronised. mised. May it please the same to be advertised,

From these data we will hope that some of your that one Thomas Woodcock, an honest young man, correspondents may deduce materials for satisfac- and one of our Company, bathe bin imprisoned in torily fixing the place of Caxton's birth. Is there Newgate by the L. Bishopp of London theis six upon record any note of armorial bearings, or of dayes, for sellinge of certaine bookes called the any badge used by Caxton ? Should there be, Admonition to the Parliament. Dyvers of the poore and we find such to be at all connected with the mans frendes have bin earnest suitors unto the bearings of the lords of Causton, it will be additional Bishopp of London for his libertie: his L. evidence in our favour. LAMBERT B. LARKING aunswere unto them is, that he neither can nor In the body of St. Alphege Church, Canterbury, nified by your letters or warrant. It may ther

will do any thinge without your L. consent, sig. is the following monumental inscription :

fore please your honor, in consideration of the Pray for the sawlys of John Caxton and of Jone

premisses and our humble request, either to direct, And Isabel that to this church great good hath done

your L. warrant for his enlargment, or els to In making new in the chancell Of Dexkys and Setys aswell

signifie your pleasure unto the L. Bishopp of An Antiphon the which did bye

London to take order herein accordingly, the said With a table of the martyrdome of St. Alphye poore man first puttinge in suflicient bond to Forthing much which did pay

appeare at all tymes when he shalbe called, and And departed out of this life of October the 12 day readdy to aunswere to any matters whatsoever And Isabel his second wiff

shalbe objected against him. Thuś prayinge, Passed to blisse where is no strife

accordinge to our duties, for your good L. long The xijt day to tell the trowth

and prosperous health with encrease of honor, we Of the same moneth as our Lord knoweth

commyt the same for this tyme to the protection In the yeare of our Lord God a thousand fower of the Almightie. At London, 9° Decemb. 1578. hundred fowerscore and five."

“ Your L. most humble at Command the Mr. What relation (if any) was the above to the and Wardens with others of the Company of typographer? They must have been co-existent,

Stationers, and the “Note” may perhaps be a step in the

“ RYCHARDE TOTTYLL, Joan Haryson, right direction for arriving at the true “stock” of

FRANCISCUS.

GEORGE BYSSHOP, the Caxton Coffer.

WillM. SERES,

John DAYE." From the above we may perhaps conclude, that

an edition of the Admonition to Parliament had I never had the good fortune to see a copy of been printed not long before the date of Thomas the book called An Admonition to the Parliament, Woodcock's imprisonment for selling it; but I do but I find a full description of it in Herbert's not find that any historian or bibliographer menAmes

, iii. 1631, under the date of 1572, from tions such an edition. Excepting in the letter of which I gather that it had been printed four the five stationers, Tottyll, Bysshop, Haryson, tines anterior to that year. It was written by Seres, and Daye, there seems to be no authority two puritanical divines, Field and Wilcox, and for connecting Woodcock with the publication, and contained such an attack upon the bishops, that his confinement did not take place until Dec. 6, they did their utmost to suppress it; but Whitgift, | 1578; whereas Neal, in his flistory of the Puritans, nevertheless, gave it additional notoriety by pub- as cited by Herbert, informs us that Field and lishing an answer to it, which came out originally Wilcox, on presenting the Admonition to the in 1571, and was reprinted in 1572 and 1573 House of Commons in 1572, were immediately (Herbert's Ames, ii. 934.). I have not Strype committed to Newgate. at hand to see what he says about the Admonition, Unless there were two puritanical ministers of and the reply to it; but some time ago I met with the name of Field, he, who was imprisoned with a letter anong the Lansdown MSS. (No. 27.) Wilcox, was the John Field, who, I apprehend, was wich relates to the Admonition, and shows that the father of Nathaniel Field, the actor in Shak

ADMONITION TO THE PARLIAMENT.

FOLK LORE.

speare's plays, and of Theophilus Field, who (in work of learning and genius not yet nearly so spite of his father's hostility to the church and well known as it deserves. The reviewer says: bishops, and in spite of his brother's devotion to

“In one of the Saxon spells, which Mr. Kemble the stage,) was afterwards Bishop of Llandaff from has inserted in his appendix, we at once recognized a 1619 to 1627, Bishop of St. David's from 1627 to

rhyme which we have beard an old woman in our 1633, and Bishop of Hereford from 1635 to 1636, childhood use — and in which many Saxon words, unwhen he died.

J. PAYNE COLLIER. intelligible to her, were probably retained.”

If my communication should meet the eye of

the gentleman who wrote this, I hope he will let New Year's Rain Saxon Spell. — I have just the readers of " NOTES AND QUERIES” become read a good-natured notice* in The Atheneum of acquainted with the rhyme in question. For it December 6th, in which your contemporary sug:

is obvious that among them will be found many gests that communications on the subject of Folk

who agree with him that “a very curious and Lore should be addressed to you. The perusal of useful compilation might be made of the various it has reminded me of two Queries upon the sub

spells in use in different parts of England, classed ject, which I had originally intended to address according to their localities,— more especially if to the editor of that paper, as they refer to articles

the collectors would give them verbatim," and which appeared in his own pages. On luis hint,

who would therefore be willing to assist towards its formation.

A FOLK-LORIST. however, I will transfer them to your columns ; and avail myself of the opportunity of thanking Fishermen's Superstitions. A friend recently the editor of The Atheneum for having for so long informed me that at Preston Pans the two followa period and so effectually directed the attention

ing superstitious observances exist among the of the readers of that influential journal to a sub fishermen of that place. If, on their way to their ject of great interest to many, and of considerable boats, they meet a pig, they at once turn back and historical value. The first relates to a song sung deter their embarkation. The event is an omen by the children in South Wales on New Year's that bodes ill for their fishery. morning, when carrying a jug full of water newly It is a favourite custom to set sail on the Sundrawn from the well. It is given in The Athe day for the fishing grounds. A clergyman of naum, No. 1058., for the 5th Feb., 1848, and there the town is said to pray against their sabbathseveral references will be found to cognate super breaking; and to prevent any injury accruing stitions. My object is to ask if the song is known from his prayers, the fishermen make a small elsewhere; and if so, whether with any such va image of rags, and burn it on the top of their rieties of readings as would clear some of the ob- chimneys.

U. seurities of the present version :

“ Here we bring new water

Froin the well so clear,
For to worship God with

So little is known of Butler, his life, as his
This happy New Year.

biographers have given it to us, is made up of so Sing levez dew, sing levez dew,

very few anecdotes and dates, that I have The water and the wine; The seven bright gold vires

thought any Note which contained a fact about him, And the bugles ey do shine.

would be an acceptable addition to “N. & Q."

(I shall value your space, you see, in future con“Sing reign of Fair Maid With gold upon her toe,

tributions). The following entries are copied

from Lord Carbery's Account of the Expense Open you the West Door, And let the Old Year go.

incurred in making Ludlow Castle habitable after Sing reign of Fair Maid,

Clarendon's “Great Rebellion" (query, Civil War); With gcid upon ber chin,

and the entries are valuable as specifying the Open you the East Door,

period of Butler's services as steward of' Ludlow Anu let the New Year in."

Castle, and the nature of the services performed The second is from The Atheneum's very able by the great wit:review of Mr. Kemble's Saxons in England, - a For sundry supplyes of furniture

paid for by Mr. Samuell Butler, We should not be doing justice either to our own late Steward, from January, 1661, feelings or to the kindness and liberality of our able to January, 1662, ixli. ijo vd., and and most influential contemporary, if we did not take more by him paid to sundry Bra. this opportunity of acknowledging not only his kindness siers, Pewterers, and Coopers, vjli. upon the present occasion, but also the encouragement vij'. iija. In both

xvli. ixs viija which The Atheneum has taken every opportunity of “ For sundry other supplyes of furaffording to “ NOTES AND QUERIES." Ev. N. & Q. niture paid for by Mr. Edward Lloyd

THE AUTHOR OF HUDIBRAS AT LUDLOW CASTLE.

the succeeding Steward, from Jan

" Whatever is, is in its causes just, uary, 1662, to January, 1667 clxli. xiiij. x4. Since all things are by fate; but purblind man “ For several Bottles, Corkes, and

Sees but a part o'th' chain, the nearest liok, Glasses, bought by Mr. Butler, late

His eyes not carrying to the equal beam, Steward, from January, 1661, to

That poises all above.'— Dryd." January, 1662, vjli. xiijs ja., and

It is addressed to Mr. James) R(alph), and for two Saddles and furniture for the Catererand Slaughterman, xxvjo.

commences : “Sir, I have here, according to your viij". In both

viji, xix". ixa.” , request, given you my present thoughts on the

general state of things in the universe;" and conI was at Ludlow Castle last antumn, and thought cludes, “ Truth will be truth, though it sometimes (of course) of Comus and Hudibras. I bought at the same time the three parts of my friend Mr, contains sixteen very closely printed pages in

proves mortifying and distasteful.” The pamphlet Wright's excellent History of Ludlow Castle, and octavo ; and the author proceeds by laying down paid in advance for the concluding part. Pray let his propositions, and then enlarging upon them, me ask Mr. Wright (through N. & Q.") by

so as to form, in his opinion, a regular chain of what time (I am a hungry antiquary) we may consequences. It displays, as might be anticipated, hope the concluding part will be published? considerable acuteness, though the reasonings, as I will gladly show Mr. Wright Lord Carbery's he admits in his Autobiography, were such as to his Account.

PETER CUNNINGUAM.

maturer intellect appe:ired inconclusive. He subsequently wrote another pamphlet, in which he

took the other side of the question; but it was DR. FRANKLIN'S TRACT

never published, and I suppose is not now in existence.

ON

AND

JAS. CROSSLEY.

LIBERTY

NECESSITY.

In Dr. Franklin's Autobiography, he mentions as

EARLY FLEMISI ILLUSTRATIONS OF EARLY his first work a pamphlet printed in London in

ENGLISH LITERATURE. 1725 on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain. It was written by him when he was eighteen years

The commencement of a new volume of " NOTES of age, and partly in answer to Wollaston's AND QUERIES" affords a favourable opportunity Religion of Nature. The object was to prove, for “ tapping" (to use an expressive phrase of from the attributes of God, his infinite wisdom, Horace Walpole's) a subject, on which it is reagoodness, and power, that nothing could possibly sonable to suppose much light may be thrown by be wrong in the world; and that vice and virtue some of your learned correspondents. I allude to were empty distinctions, no such things existing the connection which formerly subsisted between He printed, he says, only a hundred copies, of the literature of England, and that of the Low which he gave a few to his friends; and after- Countries. Fortunate, indeed, would it be if any wards disliking the piece, as conceiving it might communication to “Notes And QUERIES” might have an ill tendency, he burnt the rest except one

be the means of drawing some illustration from copy. This tract, most curious as the first publi- one qualified beyond all others to treat every cation of this extraordinary man, seems to have branch of this most interesting subject. Those of eluded hitherto every search. In Jared Sparks's your readers who had the pleasure of hearing the elaborate edition of Dr. Franklin's Works in admirable speech of a distinguished diplomatist at 10 vols., it is of course not to be found. In a the Centenary Dinner of the Society of Antinote (vol. viii., p. 405.), the editor observes, “No quaries, will probably understand to whom I refer. copy of this tract is now known to be in existence." Reserving for a future occasion some observaNor do I find that any writer on the subject of tions on the manner in which our English antiFranklin, or the history of metaphysics, or moral quaries have hitherto overlooked the materials philosophy, appears to have seen it. Sir Jas. illustrative of our popular literature, our popular Mackintosh was long in search of it, but was com superstitions, our early drama, our legends, and pelled ultimately to give it up in despair.

our traditions, which may be had for the gatherI am happy to inform those who may take an ing, from the popular literature, the popular interest in Dr. Franklin's first performance-and superstitions, the early drama, the legends and what is there in literary history more attractive traditions of the Low Countries — those Low than to compare the earliest works of great men Countries from which Chaucer married his wifewith their maturer efforts?—that I fortunately pos- those Low Countries from which Caxton brought us sess a copy of this tract. It is bound up in a his printing-press, and its long train of blessingsvolume of tracts, and came from the library of the those Low Countries, in which, as I believe, and Rev. S. Harper. The title is, “ A Dissertation on hope one day to prove, Shakspeare himself added Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, in a to his vast stores of knowledge - I shall for the Letter to a Friend :

present content myself with one example, and

that shall be a seasonable one, namely, of the that our manners and customs, that our general similarity between the old Flemish carols, and views, in short, are not at all times in unison with those with which, at this happy season, the nights those of the fifteenth century. But even if we were whilom blest here in Old England.

are always right in these and similar cases, still Hoffman von Fallersleben, in the second part we cannot deny that there often lies in these old of his Horæ Belgicæ, that great storehouse of poems what we, notwithstanding we are in the materials for illustrating the early literature of possession of the most exquisite skill, cannot at all the Netherlands (and which second part, by the reach, an infinite naïveté, a touching simplicity. bye, was separately published under the title of Especially rich in this respect are the songs

which Holländische Volkslieder), after showing that the describe the flight of the Holy Family into Egypt: sacred songs of the Low Countries are, like our

6. Joseph he did leap and run, own, separable into Christmas carols, Easter

Until an ass's foal he won, hymns, songs in praise of the Virgin, and songs

Whereon he set the maiden mild, of Christian doctrine, proceeds to characterise the And with her that most blessed child.' former in terms in which one might well describe many of those which were formerly most popular

“The whole idyllic life which they led in that in our country. “ The carols,” he remarks, " are country is told to us in a few unpretending traits : especially deserving of our attention. In them is ". Joseph he led the ass, most clearly shown the child-like religious spirit of

The bridle held he; the olden times, when men were not content merely

What found they by the way, to relate in the simple ballad form the story of

But a date tree? Our Saviour's birth as recorded in Holy Scripture, Oh ! ass's foal thou must stand still, but sought, by the introduction of little touches To gather dates it is our will, drawn from social and country life, to make that

So weary are we. story more attractive and more instructive, and so The date tree bowed to the earth, to bring it home more directly to the hearts of

To Mary's knee; their pious hearers.” How truly applicable these Mary would fill her lap remarks are to many of our own carols, must be

From the date tree. obvious to all who know Mr. Sandys' valuable Joseph was an old man, Collection; and the following instances, which

And wearied was he; Hoffman adduces in support of his views, will, I Mary, let the date tree bide, trust, satisfy your readers that I am right in We have yet forty miles to ride, maintaining the great resemblance between the

And late it will be. carols of Old Flanders and those of Old England. Let us pray this blessed child “Many of the descriptions in these carols," he

Grant us mercie.' remarks, “ bear a strong resemblance to some of “Nay, these simple songs even inform us how the Bible pictures of the old masters;" and he gives, the Holy Family laboured for their subsistence in as an instance, the following simple picture of the this strange countree :' Infant Jesus in the bath :

6. Mary, that maiden dear, ** The mother she made the child a bath,

Well could she spin ; How lovely then therein it sate;

Joseph as a carpenter, The childling so platched with its hand

Could his bread win. That the water out of the beaker sprang.'

When Joseph was grown old, “ But sometimes these religious poetical feelings

That no longer work he could, impress themselves so deeply in their subject,

The thread he wound, that the descriptions verge closely upon the

And Jesus to rich and poor ludicrous :

Carried it round.'”

WILLIAM J. THOMS ** Mary did not herself prepare

With cradle-clothes to her hand there,
In which her dear child to wind.

Minor Potes.
Soon as Joseph this did find,
His hosen from his legs he drew,

Family Likenesses. — I believe that a likeness Which to this day at Aix they show,

always exists in members of the same family, And with them those holy clothes did make though it may not always be seen, and, even then,

In which God first man's form did take.' not by everybody. I have seen at times a striking “It is true that we look upon these descriptions likeness in a pretty face to that of a plain one in with modern eyes, not taking into consideration the same family.

In one of the Edinburgh Journals (Chambers') The version is, of course, as nearly literal as possible. a stranger is said to have remarked the likeness

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