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Mr. Sympson reads it as follows; “Marcus Laelius AETII Filius MAXIMO, CT (et) Maximo Iovi, and I suppose it dedicated to the Emperor Maximus.” In 1739, a discovery was made of three stone coffins at the south-west corner of the close, near the chequer gate. Beneath these was a tessellated pavement, and under that a roman hypocaust. “On the floor of strong cement, composed of lime, ashes, and brick-dust, commonly called terrace mortar, stood four rows of pillars, two feet high, made of brick, eleven in a row, in all forty-four, besides two half pillars. The round pillars being composed of ten courses of semicular bricks, laid by pairs, the joint of every course crossing that of the former at right angles, with so much mortar betwixt the two semicircles, rather form an oval, making the pillars look at first sight as if they were wreathed; the square pillars are composed of thirteen courses of bricks, eight inches square, thinner than those of the red ones. The floor of the sudatory resting on these pillars, is composed of large bricks, twenty-one by twenty-three inches, which lie over the square bricks on the pillars, the four corners of each reaching to the centres of the adjoining pillars. On this course of brick is a covering of cement, six inches thick, inlaid with a pavement, composed of white tesselae. The walls of this room were plaistered, and the plaister painted red, blue, and other colours, but no figures discernible in either painting or pavement. This pavement, which is on a level with the testudo of the hypocaust, is about thirteen feet below the present surface of the ground: so deep is old Lindum buried in its ruins".” In 1782 another similar discovery was made near the King's Arms. This appears to have been also a Sudatory. On a floor, composed of two courses of bricks, and two layers of ter- race * Camden's Britannia, by Gough, Vol. II. p. 257.


race mortar, stood a number of arches four feet high, their crown eight inches and a half thick, supported by pillars of bricks sixteen inches by twelve, which, as well as the arches, were covered over with two coats of mortar; and supported a floor composed of terrace and bricks, irregularly intermixed.—The intervals between the pillars were two feet three inches, two feet five inches, and two feet seven inches: several of the pillars were gone. To the north, beyond two rows of these pillars, whose floors rise one inch and a half from north to south, were passages, at the end of which the arches began again; but the discovery was pursued no further that way: for the external wall, which is six feet thick, of brick and stone intermixed, extends northward beyond the width of one arch; but how much further cannot be traced, the arches being broken in and filled with rubbish. Where the second set of arches commences was found a hole, that goes sloping up into the outer wall, beginning at the crown of the arches, and seems to have communicated with some part above. By the joints in the work it is conjectured, that the place with pillars, and the one with passages had been built at different times. On the south was an entrance, whose floor falls five inches, and is continued beyond the jamb. The surface of the floor is thirteen feet six inches beneath the pavement of the street, and seventeen feet five inclies below the garden in which it is situated. Numbers of fragments of urns, paterae, and other earthen vessels, but none very ornamental, were found amongst the rubbish; also earthen bottles terminating in a point, without any orifice. The external walls were built of stone intermixed with brick. The ruins of this hypocaust still exist, and are accessible at all times to the cu

rious traveller. In a communication made to the Society of Antiquaries, by John Pownall, Esq. published in the Tenth Volume of the Archaeologia, is a description of an ancient place of Sepulture, discovered in an open field, half a mile due east of the east-gate of the ancient Lindum. Mr. P. says, there was found in 1790, in digging about three or four feet below the surface, a very curious sepulchral sepulchral monument, evidently Roman, and of some person above the rank of the lower order; but as the urn, which the sarcophagus inclosed, contained nothing but sand, ashes, and burnt bones, the aera of interment could not be ascertained. The sarcophagus consisted of a large round stone trough, of rude workmanship, with a cover of the same; both the stone and its cover had originally been square, but the ravages of time had so worn off the angles, as to give it the appearance of rotundity. Another stone of the same kind was found near it, of a quadrangular shape, evidently used for the same purpose, but without a lid or urn. This, with many rare fragments of antiquity, were preserved by the Rev. Dr. Gordon, the Precentor of the Cathedral; who, in a letter to Mr. Pownall, dated March 2, 1791, gives an account of -several earthen and glass urns, which were discovered in the same field, some of which were of singular shape. He also describes a room, twenty feet by sixteen, which was discovered in -a quarry, about one hundred yards west from the other; the height could not be ascertained, but the bottom was about twelve feet from the present surface. The floor was covered with black ashes, and the walls bore evident marks of fire. Two skeletons were found lying on the floor, also a large stone trough capable of holding a man, but not of sufficient depth for the purpose of a coffin. This was probably a sarcophagus, in which, as Pliny informs us, in his Nat. Hist. Lib. II, that all bodies, previous to urn-burial, were accustomed to be burnt. The Doctor thinks the room might have been appropriated for the reception of bodies that were prepared for the funereal ceremonies. Suetonius in Nerone, and some other writers, have described similar places under the name of Libitina: where dead bodies were carried previous to interment.—“ Erat porro, Romae porta Libitina per quam cadavera ad Libitinam efferebantur”.” The same field having been broken up for the purposes of quarrying, several stone coffins of various shapes have at different times been discovered in the loose ground, which covers a substratum of of rock. From these and other circumstances, it is highly probable, that this was a Roman burial-ground for the great contiguous Muncipium; and continued so till a different mode of


* Lazius Comm. Reipub. Rom.

burial was established by the introduction of Christianity. Fragments of Roman pottery were found here in 1786. They consisted of fine close clay, cleared of heterogeneous sand; and so baked as to preserve an equal hardness and uniform red colour throughout. Between the Castle and Lucy tower, on the side of Fossdyke, have been found some glazed earthen pipes, two feet long, and between two and three inches diameter, fastened together by joints. These formed part of a set of conduit pipes, for the conveyance of waters to the town from a spring on the high ground near. In a field north-east of the town was discovered another supposed conduit of the same aera. About fourteen yards to the north of the Assembly Room was a large Well or cistern of very singular construction, called the Blind Well. It was built with neat walling; and at the top was eighteen feet diameter, narrowing towards the bottom. This has some years since been filled up.–Communicating with this, it appears, pipes were laid from a spring head, at the distance of forty-two chains. In a low ground, abounding with springs on the other side the hedge of Nettleham inclosure, are traces of a building, supposed a reser-voir, whence, from under a raised bank, parallel with a balk pointing to the spring head, are pipes to another such bank, forming with it an obtuse angle. In the bank, or road, to which the first series of pipes point, are in places raised parts, which bear a strong resemblance to a Roman Rampart; and a remarkable excavation is said to have been discovered in it some years since, by the breaking in of a loaded waggon. The whole length from the mound to the second pipe is sixty-three ellains and forty-six links, or nearly one thousand three hundred and ninety-seven yards. The pipes are about one foot ten inches long. They have no insertions, but are joined by an exterior ring or circular course, with an introceptive process of strong cement, like the bed in which the pipes are laid. Count Caylus, in his Receuil d'Antiq. Tom. IITom. II. describes a similar kind of aqueduct, which supplied Paris with mineral water from Chaillcot, in the time of the Romans. A plan of that at Lincoln is engraved in Gough's Camden. Within the area of the Cathedral cloisters is part of a Roman tessellated pavement, still preserved, and secured from the weather and injury by a small building erected over it. In 1788, in the area of Lincoln Castle, was found a Roman vessel, nearly entire, three feet and a half below what appears to be the natural rock, and fourteen beneath the present surface. It was of black pottery, and one side of it was corroded. An- other fragment of a Roman vessel, found in the rubbish of a Roman building within the castle, had been apparently * gilt; and was, according to Governor Pownall, who furnished the account, of a different kind of clay to any Roman earthenware he had ever seen. - From these, and other considerations, it is not improbable, that the Romans or Romanized Britons had a fortress on the site of the present castle, before its erection by the Norman Conqueror. Sir Henry C. Englefield, in a communication to the Antiquarian Society, describes an arch opening into the ditch, in a tower still remaining amid the ruins, which had escaped the notice of Mr. King, in his account of this structure. The tower fronts the west, having in the lower part a large semicircular arch, which is sixteen feet wide in the clear, turned with forty-five stones, each of which is two feet deep. Above, to the right hand is a small doorway, now walled up, having a semicircular arch, crossed by a transom stone in the Saxon style. This is six feet six inches high, by two feet four inches and a half wide. It led from the lower to the higher floor. To the left are two loop holes, covered with single stones, cut circular at top. It appears, that nearly eight feet of the original building is now buried beneath the surface. Up a hollow part in the rock went a flight of steps, which has been destroyed. The wall of the outer arch is five feet thick, but the VoI. IX. Q q superstructure

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