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scheme for Wildmore and the West Fens ; but that some improvements may be made, not in the principle, but in the disposition of some drains in the scheme proposed for draining the East Fen. It was judged proper to be thus particular respecting these Reports, because the grand works therein specified are now carrying into execution, and when completed will not only occasion this part of the country to wear a more cheerful appearance, and be highly advantageous to the inhabitants, but be a lasting monument of the spirit of the land proprietors, and the skill and ability of the engineer. Amongst the many agricultural improvements, Irrigation, or the plan of watering meadows, so successfully practised in other counties, does not appear to have been pursued in this. Arthur Young mentions a solitary instance. But a plan of using water for fertilizing the soil is adopted, which is peculiar to this part of the Ringdom, and principally practised in this county. This is called WARPING, and is a perfectly simple process. It consists in permitting the tide to run over the land at high water, and letting it off at low. It is very different from irrigation, for the effect here is not produced by water, but by mud, which is not meant so much to manure the land as to create a surface. The kind of land that is intended to be warped is of little consequence; for the warp deposited will, in the course of one summer, raise it from six to sixteen inches, and in hollow places more, so as to leave the whole extent a level of rich soil, consisting of sand and mud, of vast fertility. Its component parts appear to be argillaceous and silicious earths, with portions of mica, marine salt, and mucilage. Whence this warp is derived has been a subject of dispute, because the waters at the mouth of the Humber, when the tide flows, are observed to be transparent. But whoever examines the Estuary further inland, and the tides as they roll up the Trent, Dun, Ouse, and other rivers, cannot be at a moment's loss to discover the cause. The soil of the rich lands through which P p 2 they
they shape their course, is carried down by the currents, and meeting with the sea water, which is charged with saline, silicious, and other particles, unite, and are carried back by the refluent tide. When the waters remain at rest, they instantly deposit their contents. Young says, “That in summer, if a cylindrical glass, twelve or fifteen inches long, be filled with it, it will presently deposite an inch, and sometimes more, of what is called warp.” -
PoliticAL CHARACTER of the county. It has been remarked, that Lincolnshire, like Yorkshire and the county of Tevon, from their extent and opulence, are neither of them under the influence of any individual, and that in cases of contested elections, the freedom of the people is not so liable to corruption as in small counties and property boroughs. Another evil, however, arises from this extent of territory and number of freemen: an opposition seldom occurs, for the men of greatest riches and landed property obtain a preponderating influence, and the dread of ruinous expense prevents any opposition. This county returns twelve members to the United Parliament; two for the shire, two for the city, and two from each of the following boroughs:–Bos
ton, Grantham, Great Grimsby, and Stamford. Spalding and
Waynfleet returned members in the eleventh year of the reign of Edward the Third. - -
A TABLE OF THE POPULATION, &c. OF LINCOLNSHIRE, As published by authority of Parliament, in 1801; with the names of the Divisions, Hundreds, Towns, &c.
In the “Abstract of the answers and returns made, pursuant to an Act (43 Geo. III.) for procuring returns relative to the maintenance of the Poor in England,” it is observed, respecting LINcoLNshi RE, “That in the year 1776, Returns were received from 691 ‘Parishes or Places;’ in 1785 the Returns were 693; and those of the year 1803 were 701.” It is then further stated, that “One hundred and thirty-one parishes or places maintain all, or part of, their Poor in workhouses. The number of persons so maintained, during the year ending Easter, 1803, was 1,112; and the expence incurred therein, amounted to 14,936l. 1 1s. 4d. being at the rate of 131. 8s. 7#d. for each person so maintained. By the returns of 1776, there were then forty-seven workhouses, capable of accommodating 1,114 persons.—The number of persons relieved, out of workhouses, was 17,733, besides 3,091 who were not parishioners. The expence incurred in the relief of the poor, not in workhouses, amounted to 80,638]. 10s. 8; d. A large proportion of those who were not parishioners, appear to have been vagrants; and therefore it is probable that the relief given to this class could not exceed two shillings each, amounting to 3091. 2s. which, being deducted from the 80,638l. 10s. 8; d. leaves 80,3291. 8s. 83d. being at the rate of 41. 10s. 7d. for each parishioner relieved out of any workhouse.—The number of persons relieved in and out of workhouses was 18,845, besides those who were not parishioners. Excluding the expence supposed to be incurred in the relief of this class, all other expences, relative to the maintenance of the poor, amounted to 100,586l. 8s. 5d. being at the rate of 5l. 6s. 9d. for each parishioner relieved.—The resident population of the county of Lincoln, in the year 1801, appears, from the Population Abstract, to have been 208,557; so that the number of parishioners relieved from the poor's rate appears to be nine in a hundred of the resident population.—The number of persons belonging to friendly societies appears to be four in a hundred of the resident population.—The amount of the total money raised by rates appears to average at 14s. per head on the - Pp 4 population.