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about one pound and a half of each to a gallon of water. This part of the business is performed by machinery. The piece is next wound upon a roller, whence it goes through a trough filled with the solution before mentioned; then passing between two cylinders, placed so near together as to press out all the superfluous liquor as it passes through; it is then carried over hot stoves, by which means it is completely dried before it reaches the opposite end of the building, where it is wound upon another roller, and carried away for the purpose of undergoing the process of singeing. In this wonderful operation the piece passes three or four times over a semi-cylindrical mass of red hot iron, called a fireman, being in complete contact with the glowing metal during its passage. This is to take the map off the piece, and render its surface smooth and equal. After having hung up for four or five days, that the cloth may be sufficiently impregnated with the color, it is removed to the dye-house, where it is boiled in a mixture of madder, logwood, and water, about one pound and a half of each to a piece, which raises the bloom ground, leaving the object printed in the first instance with lime-juice and pipe-clay, perfectly white. It is then put into a wash-wheel, and cleansed from the color and bits of logwood which had adhered to it; and being perfectly dried, it is again calendered and padded with the same liquor, and in the same manner as before. It is now again taken to the dye-house, and boiled in wold-liquor, about one pound and a half of wold to a piece. This raises a beautiful yellow color in those parts that were previously white, without affecting the bloom ground. This color is called a fast yellow, as it cannot be washed out. The piece is then taken to be packed for sale. This is one of the simplest examples in the business, as what are called chints-patterns, with eight or even ten colors, are frequently obliged to be bleached after every color is put on; and accordingly passes through a much more complicated process. There are two other departments, called penciling and half. grounding: the former is done entirely by girls, and consists in putting on the different colors with a brush. This is only done when the object is too difficult or complex to be worked by a block, block, and is practised with the greatest ease and dexterity. The latter is the coarser kind of block-work, and is chiefly done by the apprentices, to instruct them in the business. These works are reckoned the most compact, and better adapted to the purposes of printing than any in Lancashire. The shops are all detached from one another: in one the patterns are drawn; in another the blocks are cut; in a third the cloth is printed, &c.; so that every different department is conducted by a separate person, called an overlooker. As these works are detached from any town, Messrs. Miller, Burys, and Co. have opened a shop, from which their men are supplied with every thing they may require at prime cost; and meat has frequently been sold at twopence in the pound under the market price. In and about these works are employed nearly 2000 persons; and many of the printers earn above 100l. and none less than 50l. per annum *. This manufacturing hamlet being some distance from the parish
church, the proprietors of the works were induced, some time back, to build a chapel here at their own expence, and have also engaged to pay a clergyman a regular yearly salary for performing divine service.
Is a small market town, advantageously situated on a dry and elevated ridge, in the eastern extremity of the hundred. Br. Whitaker asserts that this place “is unquestionably the Columio of the anonymous Ravennas, and was probably never abandoned entirely in the long and obscure period of Saxon history. Ecclesia
* In a subsequent part of this volume, when describing Manchester, I intend to detail some further particulars concerning the Cotton Manufactures, &c. For all account of some Machinery, with a Memoir of Sir Richard Arktright, who was a native of Preston, in this county, the reader is referred to Vol. III. of this work.
de Calna is expressly mentioned in the charter of Hugh de la
Val, which was probably not sixty years posterior to the conquest;
and as it was a chapel dependant upon Whalley, the silence of Domesday-book, with respect to it, by no means disproves its
existence at an earlier period. Here was one of the four manor
houses of the Lacies, from which several of their charters are
dated, now, in the mutability of all human things, degraded into
the work-house of the town”.” Mr. Gough observes that Colne “has no other marks of a Roman station,” than what arose from
the discovery of some Roman copper coins, and others of silver,
which have been found here at different periods. The latter were
discovered in a silver vessel, and consisted of some of Gordian's, and some belonging to one of the Antonines +. The chapel of Colne is subordinate to the church of Whalley. It is “a spacious and decent building,” and appears to have been restored, or rebuilt, about the time of Henry the Seventh, or Henry the Eighth. The font is angular, and bears the name of Townley. On three sides of the choir are portions of an old wood screen, “ extremely elegant,” and resembling one in the chapel at Townley, which Dr. Whitaker considers to be of the age of Henry the Eighth. In this building are two chantries; one on the north side of the choir, belonging to the Banister family of Parkhill, and one on the south side belonging to the Townleys of Barnside. Attached to the wall of the former, is the following singular inscription cut upon oak:-
Dr. Whitaker, after printing the above inscription, says, “I am ashamed to notice the absurd and disgusting reading which has been palmed upon the last excellent editor of Camden's Britannia, and the equally offensive conjecture that accompanied it, from his correspondent". The whole was evidently a prayer addressed to the virgin, by one Hyrd, probably a chaplain, or clantry priest of
the place, against diabolical illusions (larvas) in the hour of
death.” The manufactories of Colne formerly consisted in woollen and worsted goods; and it appears from the aquisitiones post mortem of the last Henry de Laci, Earl of Lincoln, fourth of Edward the Second, that here was “one fulling mill,” charged at 6s. 8d. This clearly implies that cloth was manufactured here at an early period, and “plainly contradicts the generally received opinion, that English wool was universally manufactured in Flanders, till the act of the tenth of Edward the Third, inviting over Flemish manufacturers, and granting them considerable privileges. The first fulling mill known to have been erected in the parish of Halifar was seventeenth of Edward the Fourth +.” See Watson's History of Halifax, p. 66. The cotton-trade now prevails here, and the articles of manufacture consist chiefly of calicoes and dimities. For the accommodation of trade, a Cloth-Hall, or piecehall has been erected here. The Leeds canal, passing within a mile of the town, has proved eminently serviceable to the manufactures of this place. The country is hilly, and abounds with coal,
* The inscription and conjecture given by Mr. Gough, are
“Hac tentare via dobes lattara Maria
IJr. Cowper of Chester found, 1747, an inscription in the church, or chapel, in relief, in Saron characters; and the Dr. believed that Madona was sometimes invoked as a Christian Lucina, but did not know she previously interposed." Gough's Additions to Camden, Vol. III. p. 138, from the ‘Antiquarian Society's Minutes.’
+ History of Whalley, p. 366,
coal, stone, and slate: and about four miles distant from the town is plenty of lime-stone. Here is a weekly market on Wednesdays, and two fairs annually. Besides the parochial chapel, here is also one for the methodists", another for the baptists, and a freeschool. In 1802, the township contained 182 houses, and 3626 inhabitants.
At BARNSIDE is an old house belonging to the Townleys. It has been strongly and durably built. About half a mile south of this is -
EMMott-HALL, the seat of Richard Emmott, Esq. who is descended from an ancient family of that name; of whom, Robert de Emot held lands here in the fourth of Edward the Second. The house, says Dr. Whitaker, “is respectable and convenient, with a front of rather heavy modern architecture, and contains many portraits of the family by Mr. John Emmott, who was fond of painting. By the way side, near the house, is a perfect Cross, with the cyphers, 1. p. 8. and M. half obliterated upon the capital. A very copious spring in an adjoining field, now an excellent cold-bath, is called the Hullown, i. e. the Hallown, or Saints-well +.”
ALCANcoATs is another old mansion in the neighbourhood, and belongs to J. Parker, Esq.
OR, as Dr. Whitaker writes it, Brunley, is a populous and thriving market town, in an advantageous and central situation, upon a lingula of land, formed by the confluence of the Calder and the Burn, from the latter of which the name is probably derived. A vicinal Roman way, from Ribchester to Slack, having passed
* This was erected by Mr. Westley, and in 1777 one of its galleries fell, and many persons were much injured.
+ History of Whalley, p. 380.