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OF TEACHING

ENGLISH GRAMMAR,

WITH EXERCISES ADAPTED THERETO.

New Edition, Enlarged and Improved.

TO BE HAD OF THE AUTHOR

WILLIAM HORSFALL,

SAVILLE GREEN, HALIFAX.

[ENTERED AT STATION BRS’ HALL.]

HALIFAX :-
N. BURROWS, PRINTER, WATERHOUSE STREET.

1852

302.0.54.

A BC

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

1. Noung.--All things you see are nouns. Example : Day, night, man, horse, town, street, soldier, &o.

All things you hear are nouns. Ex. : Sound, noise, &c.

All things you feel are nouns. Ex.: Pain, anger, grief, sorrow, joy, love, hatred, envy, malice, benevolence, &c.

All things you taste are nouns. Ex.: Sweetness, bitterness, &c.

All things you smell are nouns. Ex.: Stench, savour, &c.

Every cause is a noun, every effect is a noun, every thing material is a noun, and every thing immaterial is a noun. Remark: That language can displace one noun or name by another is certain; but that language can reach nothing but noun or name, is equally certain ; nevertheless there is something more than noun or name, to which the powers of the mind can reach.

2. COMMON NOUN8.—The noun that applies to every individual of the species, is common; as man, woman, child, horse, tree, plant, day, night, week, month, year, century, &c. · Man, applies to every man; woman, applies to every woman; child, applies to every child; horse, applies to every horse ; tree, applies to every tree; plant, applies to every plant; day, applies to every day; night, applies to every nignt; week, applies to every week; month, applies to every month; year, applies to every year ; century, applies to every century; then man, is cominon to all men; woman, is common to all women; child, is common to all children; horse, is comnion to all horses; tree, is common to all trees; plant, is common to all plants ; day, is common to all days ; night, is cominon to all nights; week, is common to all weeks; month, is common to all months ; year, is common to all years; and century is common to all centuries.

3. PROPER NOUNS.—The name which does not apply to every individual of the species is proper; and, when writing, the first letter of every proper name or noun must be a capital. There is no exception to this statement. City is common, because it applies to all cities; but London is proper, because it does not apply to all cities; street is common, because it applies to all streets; but Cheapside is proper, because it does not apply to all streets; town is common, because it applies to all towns; but Halifax is proper, because it does not apply to all towns; tea is common, because it applies to all teas ; but Hyson is proper, because it does not apply to all teas ; piece is common, because it applies to all peices; but Damask is proper, because it does not apply to all peices; man is commom, because it applies to all men; but John is proper, because it does not apply to all men.

How many proper names soever apply to the same person or thing, when written, the first letter of each must be a capital. Abbey is common, because it applies to all abbeys; but Westminster Abbey is proper, because it does not apply to all abbeys.

Whatsoever name, or names, distinguish an individual, or individuals, from the other individuals of the species, is, or are, proper: hence all trades, professions, titles, &c., are proper names or nouns. King, Queen, Lord, Lady, Duke, Duchess, Shoe Maker, Dress Maker, Woollen Manufacturer, Pump Maker, Weaver, Comber, Wool Sorter, John, James, Timothy, Charles, Mary, Susan, Nancy, are proper names, or nouns, because all Men and Women are not Kings, Queens, Lords, Ladies, Dukes, Duchesses, Shoe Makers, Dress Makers, Woollen Manufacturers, Pump Makers, Weavers, Combers, WoolSorters, Johns, Jawleses, Timothies, Charleses, Maries, Susans, and Nancies.

4. NUMBER.-One thing is a noun of the singular number, two or more things expressed by one word, are à noun of the plural number-as man, men; woman,

women; child, children; day, days; night, nights; horse, horses; town, towns; river, rivers ; field, fields; country, countries ; sea, seas; rook, rooks; drunkard, drunkards; &c. A singular noun is one thing. A plural noun is two, or more things of the same kind.

6. Case.—Case means the state, in which a noun is. A noun is in the vocative case, when addressed ; as, “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem,” “Lord how are they increased that trouble me!" "Lord who shall abide in thy tabernacle?” “Lord, thou hast been our dwelling place in all generations.” Jerusalem, Lord, Lord, and Lord in the above examples, neither possess anything, nor have they existences ascribed to them; neither do they operate, nor does anything operate upon them ; nor are they related to anything, but they are simply addressed; consequently, they are in the vocative cases A noun is an agent, when an operation of any kind is ascribed to it; and a noun is an agent, when an existence in any place, or in any state, is to it ascribed. Agents are sometimes called nominative cases. Ex. : “ the Lord reigneth ;”“ praise waiteth for thee;" God standeth in the congregation of the mighty;" “the Sun ariseth ;" “my knees are weak ;” “a soft answer turneth away wrath.” In the above examples, "reignethis ascribed to Lord ; “waitethis ascribed to praise; standeth " is ascribed to God; and “ariseth" is ascribed to Sun; reigneth, waiteth, standeth and ariseth are four operations ascribed to the four agents, Lord, Praise, God and Sun. Are is a plural existence in a state of weakness, and it is ascribed to knees: then konees” is a plural agent. A noun is in the possessive case, when it possesses anything. Ex. : “Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king's son;" “ for he is like a refiner's fire, and fullers' soap. king possesses son, and fullers possesse soap, in these examples: then king and fullers are in the possessive cases. The apostrophe is before the s for king, because king is an individual possessor ; but the apostrophe is after the s in fullers, because fullers is a plural possessor; the like of which is always the case, except the plural end without 8, as in men for example; “men's hearts failing them

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