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vowel, as in treasure, leisure, osier, and in ambrosia, elysium, scission, and their derivatives.

The changing of t or ti to ç, thus kwes-chun for kwestyun, is authorized, as is also the substitution of j for d or di, as in sõljēr for sõld-yer. In oral drill, however, it is well to aim at a pronunciation not less rigorous and labored than that employed in dignified discourse. Our leading orthoëpists, while countenancing the pronunciation indicated in the second column below, more heartily approve that of the first.

Say kwest-yun rather than kwes-cun.

sõld-věr " " sõl-jēr.
fer-nit-vür 66 « fer-ni-cur.

krist-yan " 6 kris-çan. For kuv-e-çus and tē-jus there is no defense: say kuvet-us, tēd-yus.

Pronounce without the “ aspirate," calceated, caseous, osseous, roseate, enthusiast, odious; with the “aspirate,” issue, conscientious, nausea, pronunciation, denunciation, enunciation, facial (in two syllables), oceanic, tissue, visual; also prescious (prē-shi-us), prescience (pre-shi-ens).

Represent and Analyze covetous, tedious, tremendous, satiate, sumac, sugar, officiate, partiality, plenteous, onerous, beauteous, licorice, osseous, noxious, mensuration, issue, mechanician, manufactory, usury, figure.

LESSON XXVIII. In sceptic and schirrous, c has the sound k. In discern, sice (six), suffice, and sacrifice, it has the force of z. In all other English words, when followed by e, i, or y, and not“ aspirated,” it has the sound s, as in reciprocity, and is called sic soft.

G, when followed by e, i, or y, has the sound j, and is said to be soft. Fortunately for the learner, the exceptions to this rule, though many, are chiefly words which he hears every day,—such as geese, longer, gift, foggy. The following exceptions may be less familiar: gelding, gergaw, conger, gibber, gibberish, gibbous, gimbaló, geest, gerrymander, geyser.

When h intervenes between e, i, or y and a preceding I, the g is hard, as in ghee, burgher, gherkin.

Blamable is from blame, the final e of the primitive

fied]: Chaise, harade, a still ret

being dropped; so, too, in reversible, receivable. Why not from change, manage, peace, and trace, write changable, peacable, &c. ?

Ch has three values in English, as exemplified in the three lists below:

1. Child, chaff, chalk, chap, char, check, cherry, chest, chicken, church, churl, charm [from the Anglo-Saxon); chance, chair, chalice, challenge, chamber, champion, chain, chancel, chancery [from the French, but modi

2. Chaise, chagrin, challis (s silent), chamois, (s silent), champagne, charade, chenille, chevalier, chicanery, chute [from the French, and still retaining the French sound of ch).

3. Character, chameleon, chalybeate, chaos, parochial, archetype, bronchitis, chirography, magnacharta, choral, chronicle, chyle [from the Greek or Latin).

Represent and Analyze dost, tertiary, apothegm, apothegmatic, February, conjuror, sacrament, chasten, portentous, sagacious, nether, giaour, cosmetic, elongate, humor, humble, hospital, herb, hostage, geyser.

clonetan portbegmatina A Groekon mag

PRINCIPLES

AND

GENERAL DIRECTIONS: a

in Well has forbarh, revised This definitima rin nnuguide to

1. Good * reading is expressing, in vocal tones, the thoughts and feelings of a written or printed composition.

2. There are many kinds of thoughts and feelings, and consequently, many kinds of tones will be required to express them.

3. Some thoughts are vigorous, energetic, betokening that the mind is thoroughly aroused and ready to put forth its powers forcibly. Others are indicative of a cool and deliberate state of inind, in which it is prepared to

y deal with every-day matters of fact. Again, the mind may 2.6 be weighed down by sorrow, animated with joy, distracted

with fear, or softened with pity, and each of these states
may be adequately expressed by the tones of the human
voice.

4. Tones may differ from each other in several ways,
as in pitch, in volume, in rapidity of utterance, and in
force; and it is by a judicious adjustment of these differ-
ences that the voice is made expressive.

5. It is convenient to consider about three degrees
each, of Force, Speed, Pitch, and Volume of Voice.

Force may be moderate, soft, or loud.
Speed may be moderate, slow, or fast.
Pitch may be medium, low, or high.

Volume may be moderate, slight, or full.
6. When the mind is in an unexcited state, it expresses
itself with moderate force. When pressed by sorrow, or
filled with pity or affection, it uses soft tones. When
aroused to resistance or indignation or defiance or denun-
ciation or joy, it speaks in loud tones.

commerces *** The reading here meant is reading aloud. maw wa

7. The same state of mind that requires moderate force requires also moderate speed. Joy, animated cheerfulness, sport, &c., require fast utterance. If the thoughts are solemn, sad, dignified, or noble, the utterance is slow.

8. The same state of mind that requires moderate force and speed, usually requires medium pitch. Solemnity, sadness, despair, require a low pitch. Joy, lively description, fear, hilarity, are expressed in high tones.

9. Moderate volume is usually required where moderate force, speed, and pitch are demanded. All grand and noble thoughts require full round tones. Trifling utterances need but slight volume of voice..

10. Another difference in tones is usually called Quality. In respect to this, tones may be pure or impure. Impure tones are accompanied, more or less, by unvocalized breath. In pure tones, all the breath emitted is vocalized. Aspirate sounds, as of f, p, s, occur in all compositions, and, so far as they go, always interfere with purity of tone. But the amount of these is nerer sufficient to destroy the entire effect in a sentence that requires to be uttered in pure tone. Pure tones are used to express elevated and pure thoughts. Impure tones are used in the expression of fear, disgust, hatred, and other evil and unpleasant feelings.

11. Force must not be confounded with volume. A full volume of voice may be heard only at short distances, when a voice of less volume and more force would be heard at much greater distances. Volume is quantity; force is intensity.

STRESS AND EMPHASIS.

[Under Force we may consider Stress and Emphasis.]

STRESS. 1. Stress is the application of force to a particular part of an accented syllable. It differs from emphasis and accent, in that it distinguishes the different parts of a single syllable, while emphasis discriminates between the words of a sentence, and accent between the syllables of a word.

2. Anger, defiance, command, call for an explosive utterance of words. The accented syllable is abruptly spoken, the full force coming upon the very beginning of

it. Dr. Rush and Prof. Russell call this the radical stress, or the force given to the radical, or opening, part of a syllable. For examples, take the latter part of the 24th paragraph, Selection VI., page 55. Also Elocutionary Exercise IV., page 53.

3. All noble thoughts,-patriotism, reverence, affection, etc., require a flowing and smooth utterance, with a force gradually increasing to the middle of the accented syllable, and then gradually diminishing. Force thus applied is called the median stress, because it comes upon the median, or middle, part of the syllable. The following pages furnish beautiful illustrations of the median stress. Among them may be mentioned Selection XXII., page 124. Also Elocutionary Exercise XVIII., page 69.

4. Contempt, scorn, impatience, revenge, etc., require the force to be thrown upon the very last of the accented syllable. It begins gently, swells on towards the close, and ends with a sudden burst or jerk. This is called the vanishing stress, because the force is applied to the vanishing, or closing, part of the syllable. Elocutionary Exercises VII. and XII., on pages 57 and 64, may be taken as examples.

5. In irony, sarcasm, and generally when the circumflex is used, we may hear both the radical and vanishing stress upon the same syllable. That is, both the very beginning and the very close of the syllable are uttered with marked force. This mode of utterance is called the compound stress. It is illustrated in Elocutionary Exercise XIII., page 65.

6. In calling to persons at a distance, and in military command, the same high degree of force is continued through the syllable. This is called the thorough stress, because the force is applied through the entire length of the syllable. One of the best examples of this is Satan's address to his hosts, in Paradise Lost: “Awake! arise! or be forever fallen !” Also, passages in Elocutionary Exercise I., page 51.

7. Feeble old age, or excessive grief, joy, tenderness, or admiration, expresses itself in a tremulous succession of swells. This kind of stress is called the tremor. Elocu- & tionary Exercise VI., page 55, requires it.

EMPILASIS. internet

1. In reading, some words,-those expressing new or important thoughts,-are spoken louder, and are more

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