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RULE 2. Rr not terminal in sound is uniformly preceded in a primitive word by a short vowel; as marry, herring, mirror, morrow, horror, furrow, Pyrrhus.

Even in derivatives, the effect of a vowel following ro is sometimes felt. For example, though from abhor we have abhörd, we also have abhorens; from concur, konkurent; and from conspire, konspirasi.

The following list embraces words often mispronounced, from a non-observance of the principle laid down in Rule I. of this lesson. Re-state the principle; also note that in words where the r is initial in a syllable, the preceding vowel, if accented, is long, as in mu-ral, period, a-re-a.

Arab, arable, arenaceous, Areopagus, arithmetical, aril, apparel, marigold, barometric, carat, caravan, parachute, paradox, parallel, prevaricate, harass, paramount, hilarity, farinaceous, Saracen, larynx, rarefy, rarity, character, guarantee, caparison, carol, maritime, disparity, disparage, peroration, peril, perigee, perish, peradventure, cerebral, therapeutics, verify, very, peregrination, stereotype, derivation, sterile, ceremony, derelict, derogate, querulous, ferule, heron, kerosene, seraph, heroine, imperative, sheriff, cherub, erudition, heresy, pyrotechnic, miracle, empyreal, delirium, empirical, tyrannous, lyrical, pyramid, florid, foreign, orange, coral, florin, Doric, forage, forest, quaran. tine, horologe, orator, origin, orifice, oriflamme, chorister.

Represent and analyze the first thirty words in the foregoing list. A


Which syllable can you utter more easily, laçd or lact, helpt or helpd, bagd or bagt ? It is found that either two non-sonants or two sonants may be more easily spoken with a single impulse than a combination embracing one of each class.

ASSIMILATION is the act of changing into a likeness; in Pronunciation, it consists in sounding a sonant for its cognate non-sonant written in the word, or the reverse, for the purpose of making it coälesce with an adjacent sound. Thus t is sounded for printed d in oped, and z for s in odes. Notice that, as written, the two consonants in oped are of unlike classes; so, also, in odes: in speaking, they are brought to a likeness, assimilated.

Show what assimilation takes place in pronouncing the words in each of the following lists :

1. Latched, lapped, cracked, laughed, passed, lashed.
2. Eliab’s, David's, dove's, crag’s.
3. Clods, eggs, tubs, wives.
4. Ebbs, treads, begs, loves.

Form a preterit, or past tense, in ed, as in list (1), but let the non-sonant preceding the termination be t. Ed now becomes a syllable. Why does not d assimilate with t? Try it.

Form four possessives, in the singular, whose nominatives end in four different non-sonants. What assimilation here?

Form four plurals, ending respectively in ps, fs, ts, and ks. Why does the terminal s retain its sound ?

Blackguard is pronounced blag-ard, and cupboard, kub-ord. Why?

Represent and Analyze the second thirty words in the list at the close of Lesson XXI.


The following seven words, bath, cloth, lath, mouth, oath, path, wreath, change the non-sonant th of the singular to sonant th in the plural, the added s, of course, becoming sonant. Pronounce the seven plurals. No other nouns show this irregularity; the plural of truth ends with two non-sonants.

The terminal consonants dth and dths do not assimilate. Give to d its full sonant power in width, breadth, hundredth, hundredths, thousandth, thousandths.

Why are l, m, n, r, and n called liquids ? Are they sonant or non-sonant ? Consider the words millo, harp, pant, tempt (p silent), length, drink (in which a liquid precedes a non-sonant), and state whether any one of the liquids compels the following consonant to assimilate. What of assimilation in prow, flay, shrine, smart,-in which the liquid follows a non-sonant ? Is it the same with chasm, spasm, prism, microcosm? What other combination than sm can you find, in which the former of two consonants assimilates to the latter ?

Represent and Analyze the last twenty words in Lesson XXI.; also while, uniform, truths, plural, smoked, baths, sheaths, sheathes, quartz, chintz.


In the formation of the consonants, the tube or passage of the voice is closed at three different stations; at the lips, at the anterior part of the hard palate (or roof), and at its posterior part. Consonants formed at the first station are called labials; those formed at the second station, dentals or linguo-dentals; and those at the third, gutturals or palatals.

Utter the list of consonants in Lesson XIX., and tell at which station each is formed. To which station will you assign v? y ? hw ? 1? r?

While uttering the sounds b, d, and g, the pupil has been cautioned against allowing a resonance in the nasal cavity. When this is allowed while the lips are in contact as for forming b, m is sounded and not b. Mis properly called nasal; it is also labial. Each other station also furnishes a nasal. The second, closed as for d, gives n; and the third, closed as for g, gives n. In what respect does m differ from b? n from d? p from g?

With one closure of the first station we can form the combination, mb; with one of the second, nd; and with one of the third, ng. In pronouncing cabman, amber, candy, goodness, younger, the stations are not opened between b and m, n and d, n and g; but the former consonant is left without being articulated,—that is, it is not disjoined from the succeeding consonant element. So of double consonants: though in chilly we give less time to the ll than in coolly, in felly (a felloe) less than in felly (fiercely), and less to the nn in pennon than in penknife, yet even in the latter we do not articulate two l's or two n's. We dwell upon the former consonant for a moment, and then, without opening the station, give a new impulse, thus forming the latter perfectly.

It is well in representing penknife, coolly, &c., phonetically, to write the consonant twice, distinguishing the utterance from that of the duplicate consonants in banner, folly, &c., which are strictly simple in power.

Few persons need be cautioned lest they form the habit of over-exactness in enunciation. It would be a violation of good usage, however, fully to enunciate the closing element of the adjective in uttering the phrase small larch, or the k in the phrases dark green and black cobbler.

Pronounce the following expressions with due regard to smoothness on the one hand, and freedom from ambiguity on the other: this sail ; his tears; his precepts are recorded ; last still night ; lasts till night ; from more than niné; all left this city; God's commands.

Represent and Analyze stagger, phlegmatic, unnatural, accent, soulless, missile, misspell, mission, breadths, hundredths, allotted, appetite, acquiesce, currency, wheyey, rapine (not ē), sacrilege, sacrilegious (a), ordinance, ordnance.


There are certain syllables, mostly terminal, which contain no vowel-sound. These usually, perhaps always, contain the letter l or n; thus, table, given, mantle, deacon,-pronounced tā-bl, giv-n (not giv-en), man-tl, de-kn.

Pronounce bl, dl, fl, gl, kl, pl, sl, tl, vl, zl.

Pronounce, with the vowel, bel, del, fel, gel, kel, pel, sel, tel, vel, zel. Now, alternately with and without, bl, bel, al, del, fl, fel, gl, gel, kl, kel, pl, pel, sl, sel, tl, tel, vi, vel, zl, zel. Do this until you can readily omit or insert the vowel at will.

Most words ending in el have the e sounded. Indeed, the following list contains all the common words ending in el in which the e is silent. Memorize the list, carefully avoiding the utterance of either “ short e” or “ short us before the l. Remember that in all other words ending in el the e is sounded.

E before l is silent in chattel, drivel, casel, grovel, hazel, mantel, navel, ravel, shekel, shovel, shrivel, snivel, swingel (g), swivel, teazel, weazel, and their derivatives.

Pronounce vl, vil, zn, zin.

I before terminal'l or n is commonly sounded; but it is suppressed in the words devil, evil, weevil, basin, cousin, raisin.

O is sounded (as “short u") in Briton, cordon, diapason (2), ebon, horizon, piston, ribbon, sexton, tendon, wanton; also (as o) in pentagon, hexagon, heptagon, octagon, &c. When terminal on is preceded by cor k, as in deacon, bacon, beckon, the o is suppressed; also in many other words.

Represent and Analyze sword, sward, slough, stanchion, sovereignty, audacious, audacity, rapacious,

civil, matin, doughty, compromise, indict, tunnel, presentiments, courte-sy, quarrelsome, exordium (sonant x).


Pronounce vn, ven, tn, ten, dn, den, shn, shen, In, len, pn, pen, fu, fen. The termination en, unlike el, usually drops the e. E before n is sounded in aspen, chicken, hyphen, gluten ), kitchen, lichen (ik), linden, marten, mitten, rowen, sudden, and in any word not a participle, in which terminal en is preceded by l, m, n or —as pollen, women, woolen, omen, cognomen, linen, siren.

All participles in en (except, possibly, bounden), all verbs of this ending in which the en means “to make," and all adjectives in which the terminal en signifies “made of,” suppress the e; thus, given, gladden, wooden. The adjective yewen, made of yew, is a necessary exception, as to make the e silent would reduce the word to a monosyllable. Find three words to illustrate each of these three classes.

Represent and Analyze spirit, tortoise, Palestine, Niagara, isolate, widen, patent, pretty (not e), amenably, soften, barrel, legible, linguist, Xenophon, suffice, sacrifice, discern, tournament (ē), joust, pommel (not o).


C, s, and t are often equivalent to the sound of sh, and are then said to be “ aspirated," as in dimension, censure, ocean, negotiation. This takes place only when the consonant is immediately followed by ē, i, or ū-vowels intimately related to the vowel-consonant y. [If the pupil would know why the element y should have this effect, let him attempt to pronounce in quick succession pres-yus, ko-črs-yun, lēz-yur, 7-vāz-yun.]

Of the three elements, s, y, and sh, which is formed with an intermediate position of the tongue ?

S is also said to be " aspirated” when it has the sound of zh. This occurs in the termination sion when preceded by a vowel, as in collision, cvasion ; also in many words in which terminal sure or sier is preceded by an accented

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