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Analyze word, yard, worship, yacht (o), poniard (y), between, coquette [In a few words from the French, u is silent after gl, zoology.
Represent the foregoing list; also, atheistic, acquaintance, auxiliary (gz), extension, dogma, convenience, square, familiar, quail, quadrille, distance, chance.
LESSON XVI. Pronounce sing. Omit s and utter ing. Now omit i, and sound only ng. Do this several times. Give the three sounds separately, si ng. The digraph ng denotes a simple sound. Represent this by an underlined n; thus, .
Sin, sing: which of these words, by the addition of k, .(sin-k, sing-k) forms to the ear the word sink? Pronounce plan; now, without changing the last sound of the word, add the sound k. You do not thus speak the word plank. Is there a difference in sound between the word fin and the first syllable of finger. What is the second syllable of finger? of singer? Is the sound ņ composed of the sounds n and g? Show what is the fact in the case. In analyzing, determine whether n has its own proper sound or that known as “the sound of ng.”
Practice in uttering the initial element in low ; also that in mow, and that in no. Represent these respectively by l, m, and n.
The sonants, l, m, n, r, and ņ are called liquids, on account of the freedom which they display in uniting, both among themselves and with other consonants; they have no cognates.
Analyze and Represent singer, linger, lynx, English (not e), blanket, conquer, yonder, watching, plumb, mongrel (u), congress, familiarity, wreath, anger, farewell, paltry, mother, donkey, quiescent, language.
LESSON XVII. Compare the initial breathings in the words hen and when. The former is simply unmodified breath. Represent this by h.
The latter breathing, represented, wherever it occurs in an English word, by wh, has usually been regarded by orthoëpists as compound : viz., as composed of h followed by w. Now w is a sonant; and if the common view were correct, we should hear a sonant before the “ short e,” in when, whet. Wh will be found to be the sign of mere breath emitted while the lips are in position for giving the sonant w. Represent this aspirate by hw (or, more briefly, by a written v attached to the stem of a written h). Call this “the modified aspirate”; the sound of h, “the unmodified aspirate.”
Pronounce the following words: whoop, where, which, who, what, whose, whom, whether, whole, while. Five of the foregoing words begin with “the unmodified aspirate.” Which are they?
Analyze and Represent the preceding list; also wharf, scarf, thwart, distinguish, original, distinct, tongue, liquid, experiment, opinion.
We have now studied forty elements. There remain four compound vowels, called diphthongs, as heard in isle, type ; oil, boy; out, cow; tune, few.
The first, called “long i," composed of ä and ē, denoted by i.
" ä and o, “ fourth, called “long u," " i and 2, " . See “Remarks on the Chart,” preceding Lesson I.
Pronounce the first syllable of the word music. Now omit the first element, and sound only ū. [The name of the letter u and the sound ū are not quite the same.] Does the u in music sound precisely like that in unit? What is the difference. Like which of the two is the u in manual ? When “long u" stands as the first letter of a syllable, the vowel-consonant y is heard before it; in the midst of a syllable it should not be. Unit is thus analyzed: y ū yū, nit, nit, yūnit. But mute has not the sound of y: m ū t, mūt. Use, yū; gradual, yū; lute, ū [not yū, not lyūt).
"Long u” is never immediately preceded in the same word by the sound of r, sh, or zh. When such might seem to be the case, the ū drops its initial element (i), and only o is heard. Hence true, fruit, cherubic, drew, sure, are pronounced tro, frot, çerobik, dro, shor. In treasure, garrulous, cherubim, the syllable containing the u not being under accent, u (short 00) is heard rather than o. Ch is regarded by most orthoëpists as having a like influence over U, as in chew, pronounced ço. Three Cautions concerning the Diphthongs.
1. Neither element of a diphthong should be uttered as distinctly as when not thus combined; nor should either be made so full as greatly to preponderate over the other.
2. Studiously avoid using å as the first element in the third diphthong. This is the very prince of errors. Say cow, not kâo; bound, down, found, gown, howl, loud, mouth, noun, proud, south.
3. The practice of omitting the first element of the fourth diphthong, except when preceded by r, sh, zh, or y, should be shunned. Say constitution, not constitootion ; prodūce not prodoos; dūty, not dooty; mūsic, flute, insti. tūte, lūminous, beauty, Jūne.
Each simple long vowel, except ő, has its kindred, or cognate, short vowel. Below, under each of seven of the long vowels, is printed the kindred explosive vowel. Pronounce the first upper, then the one beneath, and so on. A remarkable likeness will be observed.
e ě u į à Ô o o
i u e à à 0 11 The vowels of the second line are formed with a more open mouth than the corresponding long vowels; but their distinguishing feature is explosiveness. From both these causes the “short vowels ” are more difficult of utterance. Bean is more easily pronounced than bin, trade than tread, mate than met, mermaid than murrain ; and an indolent person or an invalid is not unlikely to say hând for band, ēp for up, and ôn for on.
Orthoëpists do not recognize any correspondent sor . We must pronounce h-o-l-e and w-h-o-l-e precisely alike; also h-o-l-y and w-h-o-l-l-y. Say rõ, road; bo, boat.
Close observation upon 7 will convince the student that it is not strictly an element: the close, or - vanish,”
is, quite distinctly, 0,-70. And though it is not well to give prominence to this " vanish,” it is not well to omit it altogether, except when ő is unaccented, as in idiocy, geology.
Analyze the words of the following lists, and guard against the errors set forth above:
1. Land, hand, pallid, stand, back, hag, famine.
2. Torrent, flock, on, fond, torrid, fondle, monarch, . onset.
3. Pin, thin, think, bidding, ambition, indivisibility. 4. Tub, but, nut, must, pluck, cuff, snuff, corruption. 5. Met, fence, pen, health, remedy, connection, bet.
6. Fast (brief ah), cast, last, lass, pass, grass, shaft, class, branch. [Shun ä, which is vulgar; a, which is affected; and â, which is intolerable.]
Each one should observe his own tendencies in speech. Many, perhaps most, young people need to guard watchfully and perseveringly against an indolent utterance, a style which is chiefly perceptible on the explosive vowels and on the eight sonants, b, d, j, g, v, th, z, and zh. • Analyze and Represent void, thou, shawl, musing, shining, wringer, clashing, prudent, useful, wherever, which, where'er, cerulean, boyhood, assurance, sumac, mercury, merry, council, European.
In some instances, the error referred to in the previous lesson is closely approximated by repeating the vowel,thus, ha-and or ha-und for hand; meet or me-ut for met. For this error, as for the substitution of the long cognate, the remedy is a quick, but clear and decisive, pronunciation.
No pains should be spared to acquire this, not only in recitation, but as a habit of speech. Pronounce the six lists given in the preceding lesson.
pt & k f th 8 sh
Þd j gv th z zh
The first four consonants in each line have been called abrupts; the remaining four, continuants. Why should these names be thought appropriate ?
In some languages, as the German, the difference between a sonant and its cognate is not so clearly marked as in the English. Thus, if you pronounce tok, you give very nearly the consonant sounds used by a German when he attempts to speak the word dog. Whoever fails to make unmistakably clear, in his speech, the difference between a sonant and its cognate cannot be a correct speaker of the English language.
Memorize and recite the sixteen sounds indicated in the list on the preceding page; thus, p, b; t, d. Also the list of simple vowels given in Lesson XIX.
Analyze and Represent apparel, tomorrow, terrify, passive, passing [The accented vowels in the last two words differ), music, forehead so, and only five elements), continued, curfew, precisely (not z), mischief, modulate, fulsome, seamstress, zealous, noisome, mustache, granary.
Pronounce bar, her, fir, for, cur. Monosyllables ending in r. (or rr) preceded by a single vowel, are so regular in their vowel-sounds that readers early learn the power of each vowel thus placed : a (unless preceded by w) has the sound of ä, o is ô, and each of the others, ē. This regularity is, of course, a great aid to the student.
When to such a monosyllable a consonant is added, the vowel if it is a, e, i, or u, is not changed in sound; if o, it may change to o; for, fort.
If to the first-mentioned forms e be added, the changes are quite noteworthy; far becomes fâr; her, hēr; fir, fir; for, för; and cur, kūr. Observe that each vowel except a [" Long a” is never followed in the same syllable by ro] now takes its “name sound”: here, ē; fire, i; fore, õ; cure, ū.
R and rur preceded by a short vowel.
RULE 1. If one of the combinations, ar, er, ir, or, yr, not preceded by another vowel, is immediately followed by a syllable beginning with a vowel, the vowel before the r has its proper short sound; thus, ar.id, ster-ile, mir-a-cle, or-ange.
EXCEPTIONS.—Parent, and derivatives from words ending in re, as staring, parer, wiry, curing.