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'Tis a remarkable circumstance that whilst (or thick] that it bears up the heaviest things the Jordan daily discharges into the Dead that are thrown into it; nor is it easy for Sea an immense volume of water, the lake any one to make things sink therein to the loses none of its peculiar properties, but re- bottom, if he had a mind so to do. Acmains as pungent and salt as ever; nor cordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, does its size augment, but continues year

he commanded that some who could not after year, at all seasons, the same in extent. swim, should have their hands tied behind The old idea of a supposed subterranean them, and be thrown into the deep, when exit is now superseded by the calculation, it so happened that they all swam as if a that nearly equal the body of water receiv- wind had forced them upwards. Moreover, ed daily into the lake is carried off by evapo- the change of the colour of this lake is wonration. Before the awful judgment of God derful, for it changes its appearance thrice fell upon the cities bordering on this lake, it every day; and as the rays of the sun fall most probably emptied itself in the Gulf of differently upon it, the light is variously reAkaba through Wady Mousa, which was dis- flected. However, it casts up black clods covered by Burkhardt to extend the whole of bitumen in many parts of it, these swim of this distance from north to south.

at the top of the water, and resemble both Every two or three years a large quantity in shape and bigness headless bulls; and of jet black bitumen, of a high polish, and when the labourers that belong to the lake brittle, is found floating on the surface of come to it, and catch hold of it as it hangs the water, which is collected by the Arabs together, they draw it into their ships; but and brought to Jaffa for exportation. This when the ship is full, it is not easy to cut article was formerly more used in Europe, off the rest, for it is so tenacious as to make than it is now in the manufacture of cere- the ship hang upon its clods... This bitumen cloths. When burnt it emits a bright flame is not only useful for caulking of ships, but and a very fetid smell. The most probable for the cure of men's bodies : accordingly opinion as to the source of this mineral ap- it is mixed in a great many medicines. The pears to be the existence of active volca- length of this lake is five hundred and eighty noes under the lake, which at stated seasons furlongs, where it is extended as far as Roar, send forth their eruptions, and contribute to in Arabia, and its breadth is a hundred and preserve to the water its peculiar proper- fifty. The country of Sodom borders upon ties. Besides this, small masses of a hard it. It was of old a most happy land, both fetid igneous lime-stone are occasionally for the fruits it bore and the riches of its found on the shores of the lake; these are cities, although it be now all burnt up. It collected by the villagers of Bethlehem is related how, for the impiety of its inhabiand worked into amulets, small cups, and tants, it was burnt by lightning; in conseother fanciful articles. The natives call it quence of which there are still the remainders "Hagiar Mousa,” or the Stone of Moses. of that divine fire, and the traces (or shadMoreover the whole valley of the Jordan, ows) of the five cities are still to be seen, as far north as Bysan, retains to this day as well as the ashes growing in their fruits, evident signs of having been subjected to which fruits have a colour as if they were fit the powerful action of fire.

to be eaten, but if you pluck them with your The account given by Josephus of this hands, they dissolve into smoke and ashes. singular inland sea, tho' much tainted with And thus what is related of this land of Sothe superstitious exaggeration of his time, dom bath these marks of credibility which is very curious in its details, and deserves

our very sight affords us.” to be reproduced in the present description. In Holy Scripture this body of water has He writes :

received various appellations: it is called “The nature of the lake Asphaltitis is the Sea of the Plain, the Salt Sea, and the also worth describing. It is, as I have said East Sea; Josephus and the Greek and Roalready, bitter and unfruitful. It is so light man writers call it the Lake Asphaltitis, i.e.


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Christianity is not a system of well digested and orthodox doctrines, which enlighten the understanding, but neither affect the heart, nor are used as a lamp unto the feet and a light unto the paths.-Christianity is not the momentary ebullition of excited af fection, northegroundless and presumptuous hope of an unenlightened understanding and heated imagination. Christianity is not the cold, and regular, and mechanical observance of formal and ceremonial institutions, nor even of moral duties. The essence of Christianity consists neither in orthodox opinions, heartless services, visionary hopes, nor enthusiastic reveries : but Christianity is a systein of sound principles, engrafted by the Holy Spirit upon a renewed nature, exercised by a lively faith and pure affections, and thus rendered steadily and permanently operative :- principles which have Divine revelation for their authority: heaven and hell for their sanctions : essential truth for their bases: God in Christ for their object: and consequently eternity for their duration.

How wild and dim this world appears !

One long, deep, heavy sigh,
When o'er our eyes, half closed in tears,
The images of former years

Are faintly glittering by!
And still forgotten while they go;
As, on the sea-beach, wave on wave

Dissolves at once in snow.
The amber clouds one moment lie,

Then, like a dream, are gone!
Though beautiful the moon-beams play
In the lake's bosom, bright as they,
And the sonl intensely loves their stay,
Soon as the radiance melts away,

We scarce believe it shope !
Heaven-airs amid the harp-strings dwell ;

And we wish they ne'er may fade ;-
They cease--and the soul is a silent cell,

Where music never play'd ! Dream follows dream through the long night

hours, Each lovelier than the last; But, ere the breath of morning-flowers, That gorgeous

world flies past;
And many a sweet angelic cheek,
Whose smiles of love and fondness speak,

Glides by us on this earth;
While in a day we cannot tell
Where shone the face we loved so rell,
In sadness, or in mirth !

Professor Wilson.

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Since business and gaiety are always drawing our attention away from a future state, some admonition is frequently necessary to recall it to our minds; aud what can more properly renew the impression than the example of mortality which every day supplies? The great incentive to virtue, is the reflection that we must die ; it will, therefore, be useful to accustom ourselves, whenever we see a funeral, to consider how soon we may be added to the number of those whose probation is past, and whose happiness or misery shall endure for ever.


Give no quarter unto those vices which are of thine inward family, and having a root in thy temper plead a right and a propriety in thee. Examine well thy complexional inclinations. Raise early batteries against those strong-holds, built upou the rock of nature, and make this a great part of the militia of thy life. The politic nature of vice must be opposed by policy, and therefore wiser honesties project and plot against sin; wherein, notwithstanding, we are not to rest in generals, or the trite stratagems of art. That may suceed with one temper which may prove successless with another. There is no community or commonwealth of virtue, every man must study his own economy, and erect these rules unto the figure of himself.

Sir Thomas Brown.

There can be no end without means: and God furnishes no means that exempt us from the task and duty of joining our own bestendeavours. The original stock, or wild olive-tree of our natural powers, was not given us to be burntor blighted, but to be grafied on. -Coldrige.

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No. 87.

Saturday, 8th. May 1841.

(Price ld.

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to west.

Corinthian Tomb .

PE TRA The valley of Wady Mousa is at the to close without an outlet. There is howwestern point, a stony but cultivated valley ever one frightful chasm for the passage of of moderate size without much character the stream, which furnishes, as it did ancientor beauty, running in a direction from east ly, the only avenue to Petra on the eastern

A lesser hollow, sloping down to side. It is impossible to conceive any thing it from the southward, meets it at an an- more awful or sublime than such an apgle: at the upper end of the latter valley, is proach; the width is not more than just sufthe village seen over stages of hanging fruit- ficient for the passage of two horsemen grounds, which are watered by a spring. abreast.—the sides are in all parts perpenSome hundred yards below this spring be- dicular, varying from four hundred to seven gin the outskirts of the vast necropolis of hundred feet in height, and they often Petra. In advancing, the natural features overhang to such a degree, that, without of the defile grew more and more imposing their absolutely meeting, the sky is interat every step, and the excavations and cepted and completely shut out for one hunsculpture more frequent on both sides, till hred yards together, and there is little more it presented at last a continued street of light than in a cavern. The screaming of tombs, beyond which the rocks, gradually the eagles, hawks and owls, who are soarapproaching each other, seemed all at once ing in considerable numbers, seemingly annoyed at any one approaching their lonely strong nitric acid, nitrate of silver. Should habitation, adds much to the singularity of the tooth-ache have arisen from heat sudthe scene.

denly applied, or from sharing in the inflamOn arriving at the theatre, the ruins of mation of neighbouring parts, then the the city burst on the view in their full gran: mouth ought to be fomented with a warm deur, shut in, on the opposite side, by bar- decoction of camomile flowers, or poppy ren,craggy precipices, from which numerous heads, and some one of the essential oils be ravines and valleys, like those we had pas dropped into the painful cavity: or, what is sed, branch out in all directions;—the sides better, flannel dipped in spirits and sprinkof the mountains, covered with an endless led with pepper, laid upon the cheek. Hot variety of excavated tombs and private brandy may used, oil of cloves, cinnamon, dwellings, presented altogether the most cajeput, lavender; kreosote is extremely singular scene we ever beheld;—and we pungent, but very disagreeable to use. if must despair to give the reader an idea of the pain gets unusually bad, have recourse the singular effect of rocks, tinted with most to the warm bath, and let leeches be applied extraordinary hues, whose sunimits present to the temples. Where swelling of the gams us with Nature in her most savage and ro- is present, repeated scarification will do mantic form, whilst her bases are worked good. Tooth-ache is sometimes sympathout in all the symmetry and regularity of etic with a deranged and irritable state of art, with colonnades and pediments, and the alimentary canal. It grows worse toranges of corridors adhering to the perpen- wards the evening, and may come on at dicular surface.

night without any apparent cause, espe. This truly singular city- singular not cially when getting warm in bed. Local merely from its ruins, as exhibiting its an applications, in this case, are of little use. cient opulence and grandeur, but also from You must attend to the actual source of the its being literally a city hewn out of the pain. A gentle emetic has frequently cut rock-has been minutely illustrated in the short an attack of tooth-ache. About a Voyage de l'Arabie Pétrée,' by M.M.Leon wine-glassful of ipecacuan wine is a very de Laborde and Linant.

mild and safe emetic. To keep up nausea The tomb, of which a view is here given, until the pain abates, may be to many a deserves particular notice, there being a la- less formidable method of accomplishing tin inscription engraved on it with the name the same thing. An attempt is made now of a magistrate, Quintus Pretxt us Florenti- and then to burn out the dental nerve by nus, who died in that city, being governor means of heated wire. It may, indeed, of that part of Arabia Petrea, about the touch the tender point and give pain, but time of Adrian or Antonius Pius.

cannot destroy the nerve; for a wire of the thickness to be applied to the tender cavity cannot be carried from the flame to the

mouth, and through the moisture in the Remedies for the T'ooth-ache.

cavity, without being so much cooled as to The remedy for the tooth-ache should be of no service. In short, it is a barbarous always correspond with the exciting cause. practice, and has been followed by serious Pain from pressure is commonly relieved consequences. After all experience, extracby the removal of the offending substance tion is the sovereign remedy for decayed from the cavity. When sympathetic with

teeth. some organ of the system, it must always vary with the state of that part. Avoid, if you can, whatever may produce it. Toothache from cold may be cured by anodynes,

“Make no friendship with an angry man; and such as opium, hyoscyamus, belladonna, or

with a furious man thou shalt not go, lest thou

learn of his ways, and get a spare to thy soul." such astringents as concentrated acetic acid,


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ing a just right, rather than indulging conI have often tried to reckon in how many

tention; and as to matters of opinion, nothing ways a good man may be a blessing to the can be more foolish than to wish other peoneighbourhood in which he dwells; and I ple to see with our eyes, or to desire a law am continually adding to the list. My mind that all the clocks in the parish should strike at such times is sure to revert to my early and

at the same moment with ours. If we think venerated friends, whose whole character that others are wrong, we may with meekexemplified that saying of the wise man,

ness instruct those that


themselves. The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life.”

If called upon to defend our principles or One particular in which they were very use

our practice, our contest should be for truth, ful, was in promoting a spirit of peace and not for victory; and truth is best sought in forgiveness among the neighbours, who were

the spirit of peace. too apt to indulge a litigious or a malicious "If others neglect their duty to


you, spirit. It often happened that when a quar- sure that you perform yours to them." The rel began, both parties feeling sure that their rule is, “Do to them (not as they do to you, part was the right, proposed appealing to but) as you would desire them to do to you." Mr. N, and both were generally sent away

To return railing for railing is to return sin more out of conceit with themselves, and for sin. more disposed to peace with each other. “If you have an enemy,

make him see Blessed are the peace-makers, for they and feel that you love him.”

Love ip reshall be called the children of God;" and

turn for hatred, and good for evil, penetrates truly enviable is that person whose endeav- like oil in the bones; it subdues without ours, under the Divine blessing, prove the striking a blow. means of banishing the spirit of contention "Beg of God for universal charity." and discord, and promoting that harmony Whenever you pray for yourself, pray for and peace by which earth may be made in all mankind; especially remembering those some degree to resemble heaven.

who have done you evil, or attempted to Let me set down a few excellent rules for do it. Pray for grace to forgive them from living in peace.

your heart, and beg of God for Christ's “Mind your own business." Half the sake to forgive them too. Remember Him quarrels among neighbours arise from the who prayed for his cruel murderers, “Faidle curiosity, impertinent meddling, and ther, forgive them, for they know not what foolish talking about the affairs of others.

Keep your tongue from eyil.” If you "Be humble." Have no lofty claims, no cannot speak well of a neighbour, speak high conceits. Think how insignificant, no evil. “Never be afraid of the tongue undeserving, and guilty you are; then you growing rusty for want of use: give it no will be slow to perceive or to take offence, work but what is really profitable: keep it prompt in forgiving and forgetting, and inconstantly under the direction of the law of capable of revenge. When any injure you, wisdom, and the law of kindness; and they think, “If I did not deserve this particular must be quarrelsome people indeed that injury at the hand of my neighbour, I dewill quarrel with you. If a spark from their serve far worse at the hand of God.” Forill temper should fall, it will soon go out get the faults of others, and remember your for want of fuel. It is the second blow own. Forgive any body rather than yourself. makes the fray. A peaceful man is not “By faith wait for the providence of God.” likely to strike the first blow; let him re- Be not hasty in vindicating yourself, but solve not to strike the second, and the matter commit your cause to Him that judgeth will soon end.

righteously, and in due time he will bring “Do not contend for every trifle, whether forth your righteousness as the light, and it be matter of right or of opinion.” There your judgment as the noon-day. “Say nut is a great dignity and magnaniniity in yield- I thou, I will recompense evil; but wait on

they do."

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