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shrubs, affording neither cheer to the hungry | cinity of the town. This double source of or to the weary, but barely a refuge for the river is now, however, generally explodjackals and foxes, or an undisturbed retreat ed. Burkhardt says it rises about four miles for beasts of more savage name.

north-east from Baneas, in the plain, near There is one time in the year, however, a hill called Tel-er-Radi, it is soon after joinwhen the banks of the Jordan are enlivened ed by the river of Baneas, which runs east by the concourse of some thousand pilgrims of the Jordan for some distance, and the from every part of Christendom;-I mean united streams, now a considerable piece of the season of Easter. On this occasion the water, fall into the Bahairet el Houli, or the band of pilgrims set off from Jerusalem ac- lake Semechonitis, which has several other companied by a Turkish guard to protect tributary streams, and is, perhaps, better them from the attacks of the Bedooeen, entitled to be considered as the source of who are ever on the alert to plunder any the Jordan than any other place to which stragglers who may break off from the main this honour is assigned. Leaving this lake, body, and not unfrequently is the troop en- the river runs in a southerly direction for dangered by these hardy and daring free- one hundred and twenty or thirty miles, in booters. Nothing can look more grotesque its way passing through the lake of Tibethan the caravan of pilgrims, clad in the rias, and finally losing itself in the Dead Sea. costumes of their several countries, winding Being the principal river in the land of through the mountain passes, or traversing Canaan, and dividing as it did two and a the plain towards the banks of the Jordan. half tribes of the children of Israel from those When arrived at the river such as can swim whose lots fell to the west, the Jordan is plunge into the stream in ecstacy, those eminently famous in Scripture history. Here who cannot, men, women and children, rush God miraculously interposed to make a way forward with shouts of rapture as far as they for his chosen people, by stopping the stream safely may, whilst others, more timid than in its most rapid course, making the waters their companions, are obliged to content to rise up in a heap on one side whilst they themselves with a partial dip as they hang passed over. (Josh. iii.) Here Ehud freed suspended from the branches of the trees the Israelites from the yoke of the king of and shrubs which grow on the banks. Some Moab, by seizing the fords on the eastern of the more devout affect to be baptized in side of the river, and thus effectually prez the same manner as our Saviour, and stand venting the Moabites from crossing over still in the river while their friends pour into their country. (Judges.iii.) By the brook water on their heads. In these aquatic fro- Cherith, near to the Jordan, Elijah was sulics, however, accidents often happen fatal | pernaturally fed, morning and evening, by to the lives of some poor pilgrims, who ven- the ravens ; (1 Kings xvii. 3.) and by the turing beyond their depth have been carried mantle of the prophet were its waters a down the stream to a watery grave in the second time parted asunder to make a way Dead Sea. The spot chosen by the Latin for him and his attendant; (2 Kings ii. 8.) christians is four miles above that selected Here Elisha made an iron axe to swim which by the Greeks for their bathing-place. By had sunk to the bottom; (2 Kings, vi. 6.) the former the stream is narrower and and here Naaman, captain of the host of consequently more rapid, and accidents of the King of Syria, was miraculously cured the kind I have mentioned more frequently of an inveterate leprosy, by immersing him

self in the stream seven times. On the Chiefly on the authority of the Jewish his-hanks of the Jordan the Jews frequently torian Josephus, the source of the Jordan was listened to the preaching of John annonncing believed to be the lake Phiala, about five miles to them the advent of their great Messiah, distant from Baneas, or Cesari Philippea, and in its waters multitudes were baptized whence it passed under ground, and emerg- for the remission of their sins. And here ed again from the cave of Baneas, in the vi- it was that the Redeemer himself sanctified


the stream by submitting to the same holy rite at the hands of the Baptist, whereupon the heavens were opened, and, as the Holy Spirit descended upon him, a voice from the excellent majesty proclaimed to all around: "this is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased.” (Matt. iii.)

The regular passages over the Jordan were: (1.) Jacob's bridge, between the lakes Semechonitis and Tiberias, said to be the place where Jacob met bis brother Esau, and where he wrestled with an angel. This still exists under the name of Djisr Nabi Yaakoob. (2.) A bridge at Chammath, at the issue of the river from the lake of Gennesareth. (3.) A ferry at Bethabara, 2 Sam. xix. 18. 2 Kinys ii. 8. (4.) Another at Bisan, or Scythopolis, which is also extant at the present day.

The Talmudists say that that.“the waters of the Jordan are not fit to sprinkle the unclean, because they are mixed waters; meaning, mixed with the water of other rivers and brooks which empty themselves into it. The reader will compare with this the opinion of Naaman the Syrian, (2 Kings v. 11, 12.) who probably had received the same notion. Perhaps, too, this their in. feriority was well understood, and not forgotten by the prophet of Israel.

(To be continued.)

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Love purifies the heart, and its divine
Passion in itself contains all reason.
How oft the wayward youth, forgetting all,
On the world's wide torrent madly embarks.
Nor fearing, heading th' honest voice of friends,
And dares to sound the horrid depths of vice,
Till one happy day, when some sight, or sound,
Orthought, brings to his mind his love's fair image,
The dear form of her who once won his heart;
Ab, then ! bow deep his stains appear, how black,
The stingings of conscience how paintul,
Th’agony which rends him how horrible !
He would plunge dowu the abyss of his shame,
Deeper, deep'r sink to ruin; but, th' angel
Of his deliverance is nigh and saves,-
She beckons, weeps and smiles, and looks all love,
All pity, opes her arms to catch the los',
The lung desolate, now repenting youth,
Can be resist so much of tenderness?
No.; he turns strait away from sin, from guilt,
In his new-found love learns truth aud virtue, -
Her pure spirit banishey all thought of sin.


“We are saved hy hope."—Romans ViiL 24. Men talk of hope, yet scarce know what it is ! The hope of scripture is full confidence,Almost possession of the thing desired : The hope now spoken of seems rather doubt, Or expectation faint that what we wish May possibly in time be brought to pass. The saint is "saved by hope ;” but this blest

trust Proceeds from faith, and is indeed its fruit; Like faith 'tis substance, and the soul feeds on it.

It is a bright reality ; which so Attracts the mind, and so dilates the heart, So fills with heavenly light the inner man, Compared with fairer scenes revealed to faith, A dim mirage about to disappear.

Christ saves the soul, and hope of this salvation Best nerves the hand for warfare with the powers That, whether in heaven* or earth, our course

oppose. Such hope is certainty ; and nothing short Of it can “save” the saint; can give niin strength To break the trammels which are round bim cast, And free himself from this world's hurtful thralls. Through faith the soul is snatched from endless

death; By hope our present ills are overcome ; And 'twas through lack of it and dread of death, The saints of old were unto bondage subject, t

Like love, it casteth out all servile fear; It cuts the cords that bind us down to earth, And lends thewings wherewith we mount to beaven. Then, happy they whose hope is in the Lord ! Such have the God of Jacob for their help, And through his arm of strength e'en here are

saved! This is the hope which maketh not ashamed !

Anne Elliot. “Wicked spirits in heavenly places." Eph. vi. 12.

* Heb. i I.

There are three means of believing; by inspiration, by reason, and by custom. Christianity, which is the only rational institution, does yet admit none for its sons who do not believe by inspire ation. Nor does it injure reason or custom, or debar them of their proper force: on the contrary, it directs us to open our mind by the proofs of the former, and to confirm our minds by the authority of the latter. But then it chiefly engages us to offer onrselves, with all humility, to the succours of inspired grace, which alone can produce the true and salutary effect. Pascal.

The MAŁTA PENNY MAGAZINE is published and sent to Subscribers, in Valetta, every Saturday. Subscriptions at 1s, per quarter received at No.97 Str. Forni.

No. 86.

Saturday, 1st. May 1841.

(Price ld.


road to Jericho, and like them are extremeJORDAN, AND THE DEAD SEA.

ly barren. On the western side they are ( Continued from No. 85.)

very precipitous, but less so on the eastern.

The exact extent of the lake is by no means The Dead Sea.

correctly ascertained; for whilst ancient hisWe followed the course of the Jordan to torians differ widely in their caculations, no the Dead Sea, and after a wearisome jour- successful attempt has been made in modern ney of one hour and a half reached its north- times to decide the question. About six ern shore. The heat was excessive, all was years ago Mr. Costigen an Irish traveller had still as death, and this together with the a boa: conveyed to the Lake of Tiberias, striking wildness of the scene around pro- in which through many difficulties he deduced a silent melancholy in our whole scended the Jordan into the Dead Sea which party. Neither the muleteers nor the guards he intended to survey as he had done the felt at their ease, and hurried us to depart. waters he had passed. Unfortunately his There was nothing, however, in the appear. praiseworthy undertaking cost him his life. ance of the sea itself to depress the feelings: After rowing for some time, under a scorchthe water was smooth and clear as crystal, ing sun, in company with a Maltese attendand seemed so inviting that we all deter- ant, he became tired and fell asleep. The mined on a bathe. I had read much of the servant finding it hard labour to row alone buoyancy of the Dead Sea and now felt glad thought to lighten the boat by emptying the at an opportunity to test it. At first I only cask of fresh water they had with them. doubted, but no sooner did I go beyond my Thus deprived of the best means of alleviatdepth, than I felt myself borne up as upon ing thirst, necessity led the traveller to resort some solid body, which sensation increased to brandy, the only liquid they had with them. the farther I swam from the shore. This The consequence was fatal. Poor Costearises doubtless from the specific gravity | gen was seized with a fever, was carried up of the water, which according to Dr. Mar- to Jerusalem where he died, and was buried cet’s analysis, holds in solution one fourth in the burial-ground of the Latins. It was of its weight in salt. The taste is extreme- reported that he had expended all the line ly bitter and pungent, and our eyes felt he had with him without reaching the botquite sore for a long time after we had bath- tom. Josephus and Diodorus Siculus neared, while our faces and hands were covered ly agree in their statements as to the extent with a thin coat of salt. The shore of the of the lake, the former makes it

seventy-two lake was strewed with shrubs and branches and a half miles long, by eighteen and three of trees wbich had been thrown up from time quarters broad. Some modern travellers to time; but we could not find a single assert that it is not half this size. The fact shell, or any other vestige, to lead us to is, no proper estimate can be formed of its conclude that any creature lived inits waters. dimensions, unless it could be viewed from Maundrell mentions that he picked up se

the north and south, as a projecting cliff far veral marine shells on the shore; 'tis pos- down in the lake breaks off the view, and sible, however, that these had been washed

effectually hides the extent of the water down by the Jordan, which to my know- behind. Moreover the winding direction of ledge breeds several species.

the mountains on either side preclude any The rocks around the Dead Sea partake of adequate survey except by navigation. the peculiarity of those Thave described on the


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