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The first historical notice we have of Je- ! comes up in such clusters: the cause of richo is found in the book of Joshua, where which seems to me to be the warmth of the it is described as a walled city of consider- air, and the fertility of the waters; the able extent and importance. About 537 warmth calling forth the sprouts, and makyears after its miraculous overthrow by the ing them spread, and the moisture making Jews 1451, bc it was rebuilt by Hiel of every one of them take root firmly, and supBethel, notwithstanding the predictive curse plying that virtue which it stands in need of Joshua against the person who should

of in summer-time. Now this country is attempt it, and of which he experienced the then so sadly burned up, that nobody cares effects, by losing his eldest son Abiram, and to come at it, and if the water be drawn up his youngest son Segub. (Compare Josh. before sun-rising, and after that exposed to vi. 26. with 1 Kings xvi. 24.) This, how the air, it becomes exceedingly cold, and ever, must refer to the rebuilding of the old becomes of a pature quite contrary to the city, for the Bible narrative speaks of a city ambient air; as in winter again it becomes of palm-trees, probably the same with Jeri- warm; and if you go into it, it appears very deo, in Judges, iii. 13, and again in 2 Sam. gentle. The ambient air is here also of so x.4, 5. David's ambassadors, who had been good a temperature, that the people of the insulted by the Ammomites, resided at Jeri- country are clothed in linen only, even when cho until their beards were grown

afresh. snow covers the rest of Judea. This place After Hiel had rebuilt old Jericho it appears is one hundred and fifty furlongs from Jeno one scrupled to reside in it, for here He- rusalem, and sixty from Jordan. The counrod erected a very beautiful palace, as well try, as far as Jerusalem, is desert, and stony; as other works in its immediate neigh- but that as far as Jordan and the lake Asbourhood. (See Joseph. Wars of the Jews, phaltitis lies lower indeed, though it be lib. 1.c.21 $ 4.9.)

equally desert and barren. But so much In the time of Josephus Jericho appears shall suffice to have said about Jericho, to have been a city of some note. He thus and of the happiness of its situation.” describes its situation and produce: “Jeri

What a striking example have we in Jecho is situated in a plain, but a naked and richo, that the fashion of this world passeth barren mountain, of a very great length, away. Compare the city that was, and what bangsoverit, which extendsitself to the land now betokens its prior existence. Where about Scythopolis northward, but as far as the are now the schools of the prophets which country of Sodom, and the utmost limits of

once flourished there? Where now the once the lake Asphaltitis, southward. There are famous "city of palms ?” A few old walls in it many sorts of palm-trees, different from even with the ground, and an occasional each other in taste and name; the better chapiter and broken column, is all that sort of them, when they are pressed, yield remains of ancient Jericho, and an isolated an excellent kind of honey, not much in

palm-tree stands as a weeping mourner over ferior in sweetness to other honey. This the now barren waste! The balsam-tree country withal produces honey from bees: which produced the precious ointment worth it also bears that balsam which is the most

twice its weight in silver is also gone, and precious of all the fruits in that place, cy

in its place have come up thorny shrubs press-trees also, and those that bear myro- and bushes fit only to be burned ! balanum; so that he who should pronounce

(To be continued.) this place to be divine would not be mistaken, wherein is such plenty of trees produced, as are very rare, and of the most excellent How quick is the succession of human events ! sort. And, indeed, if we speak of those other The cares of to day are seldom the cares of to-morfruits, it will not be easy to light on any

row; and when we lie down at night, we may safeclimate in the habitable earth, that can well

ly say to most of our troubles, Ye have done

your worst, and we shall meet no more.be compared with it, what is liere sowed

Cowper.

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HEALTII.

If any

we find that the heart beats 100 times in a It is surprising how little care is taken of minute, and with such force as to produce a health, even while we acknowledge it to be beating sensation in the breast and a strong one of the greatest blessings, and although throbbing pulse at the wrist, we perceive we admit that it is necessary for almost every

that this important part does not perform enjoyment. This arises in some measure

its office properly—that disease exists, and from thoughtlessness, but more perhaps from

we must try to find out its cause. ignorance of what really constitutes health, previous excess in eating or drinking has and of the most simple rules that tend to

been committed, any immoderate exertion

made, or passion indulged, we may reasonaits preservation. Perfect health may be said to exist where every part of the body bly assign any one of these as the cause of performs the office assigned it by our wise

the malady, and its remedy will obviously

consist in abstinence, rest, or tranquillity of Creator. But we cannot strictly be said ever

mind. But if the cause be more obscure, to enjoy this perfect state of health, for with

the treatment becomes less obvious, and aid our limited powers of observation, we cannot exactly detect the special office of each

must be sought from the medical profession.

When we are acquainted with the natural part, nor can we avoid the various accidents, that are constantly tending more or less to

action of the heart, we can easily detect its derange our bodily parts. In ordinary lan

derangements, although they be very nuguage however we are said to be in health, such derangements

, it is folly to require the

merous, and when we know the cause of when no part of our body is so deranged in its action as to produce uneasiness, pain, or

doctor's aid in removing what we ourselves any other unusual sensation. When there

can so easily control. But it must be borne fore such a sensation exists we are assured

in mind, that the laws that regulate the ac

tion of the heart as well as that of all other that some part of the body does not perform its duty rightly, and we must try to disco- parts of the body, have been instituted by

an Omniscient God, and that independent of ver what part is deranged, what has been the cause of this derangement, and what

the temporal suffering weinflict on ourselves, means are best for making the part return

we are held responsible for every breach of to its natural office. Some knowledge of those laws. Indeed it may be mentioned the usual office of a part is required before

that there is only a difference in degree of we can detect its derangements, and altho' criminality, between the man who blows out

his brains and he who reduces his life one much study is required to make us familiar with all the functions, derangements, and

half by drunkenness and other habits that restorative means of the various parts of

outrage the rules of health.

P. our bodies, still much useful knowledge on these heads may be obtained by an ordi. nary degree of attention. In illustration of • But' is to me a more detestable combination of this, let us take loss of health from derange

letters than 'No' itself. No is a surly, honest felment of the heart. Here we must be in

low, speaks his mind rough and round at once.

But is a sneaking, evasive, half bred, exceptious formed that the use of the heart is to circulate

sort of a conjunction, which comes to pull away the blood to the various parts of the body the crop just when it is at your lips :-that it beats from 65 to 75 times in a

It does allay

The good precedent;fic upon but yet! minute, and at each beat it pumps about

But yet is as a jailor to bring forth two ounces of blood into the arteries, through Some monstrous malefactor. which it is conveyed to nourish the various

Sir Walter Scott. parts of the frame. That the heart not only beats a certain number of times in a minute, but that its beats correspond with the num

The MALTA PENNY MAGAZINE is published and

sent to Subscribers, in Valetta, every Saturday. ber and strength of the pulsation felt at the

Subscriptions at Is. per quarterreceived at No. 97. wrist. If therefore, on counting the pulse,

*

Str. Forni.

No. 82.

Saturday, 3rd. April 1841.

[Price ld.

MOUNT OLIVET.

days Olivet was not as now comparatively

desolate. The Jews of the present day The Mount of Olives forms part of a ridge shew a cave on the eastern side of the mount of bills which extend for some miles to the which they revere as the sepulchre of Hulnorth and south-west, and is situate east of dah the prophetess. (See 2 Kings. xxii. 14 of Jerusalem, separated from the city by -20.) the brook Kedron and the valley of Jeho- One of the most sacred spots on the hill shaphat. The mount has three summits : is a small section of the Garden of Gethsefrom the centre, which is the most promi- mane, growing eight old olive-trees, and nent in the annexed illustration, our Saviour separated from the rest by a low stone fence. is supposed to have ascended into heaven; This place appertains exclusively to the on that to the south Solomon built temples Latins, who have pronounced a threat of to his idols, (1 Kings xi. 7.) and hence is call- excommunication against the offender who ed the Mount of Corruption; (2 Kings xxiii. shall dare to cut a branch, or gather any 13.) and that to the north, which is the high-of the fruit, of the trees. With the seeds est, is commonly called Viri Galilæi,from the of the latter the monks of the convent at expression used by the angels, "ye men Jerusalem make beads for rosaries, which of Galilee." Acts i. 11.' From the gate of are eagerly bought up by the devout pilSt. Stephen to the bottom of the vale is about grims and visitors of their communion. fifteen minutes' walk, down a rapid des- Close by, tradition pretends to indicate the cent, barren and rugged. The ascent of precise spot where the three disciples slept, the mount is also very steep, and continues and that whereon Judas stood when he beso to the summit. Near the base a clus.trayed his Master with a kiss. Higher up ter of olive-trees forms the termination of the hill are the ruins of an old monastery, what is supposed to have been the Gar- said to have been erected on the site where den of Gethsemane. A goodly number of our Saviour taught his disciples the Lord's the same tree covers this side of the hill, Prayer. On the summit of the hill is the which otherwise partakes of the general small chapel of the Ascension, enclosed by dreary aspect of the country around. I saw a good wall, and occupying the site of a no other wood in the vicinity, though if we church called after Santa Pelagia, and built may rely on the testimony of Josephus, it by the pious Empress Helena. Within this once abounded in cedars, canes, and pipes. building is shown the impress of a foot in

The Talmudists say that anciently there the live rock, believed by the credulous to were shops on Mount Olivet, kept by the have been formed by the Saviour, as he children of Canaan, and that under two took his leave of earth for his kingdom in large cedar-trees which stood there were heaven. Near by are the remains of a four shops, where things necessary for pu- mosque, the minaret of which commands rification were constantly on sale, such as an extended view of the Holy City to the doves or pigeons for the women, &c. The west, and the whole country of the Jordan summit was also used as a station forsignals,

and the Dead Sea to the east. Just below, which were communicated from hence, on towards the south-west, is a hamlet

supposvarious occasions, by lights, and fires, es- ed to be the remains of ancient Bethphage, pecially on the return of the new moon. and lower down still stands Bethany, the From all this we may infer that in by-gone | village of Lazarus.

14

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The building on the left side of the Ke- ; Olivet, which are doubtless tame compardron, at the bottom of the valley, is a cha- ed with the majestic beauties of Lebanon, pel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, held in and many a hill and dale in otber parts of great veneration both by Christians and Syria, there is an attraction here peculiar Moslems. The descent after entering the to itself, and which renders Olivet surpassdoor is by a broad staircase of fifty steps, cut ing lovely. So many and varied are the out of the rock and covered with marble, half scenes recalling the most interesting reflecdown which are two crypts, one facing the tions which lie spread out before the sight other, believed to be the graves of the Virgin's from the summit of this mount, that he must parents. At the bottom is a rather spacious indeed be wanting in piety and christian area, where a number of candles are kept feeling who can survey them unmoved. constantly burning. One end of this space is Far more deserving of pity is such an one, taken up by a small chamber, thickly hung thap the pious pilgrim, whose devotion has with costly silver lamps, and held by some led him hither from his native home thro' to be the identical grave in which the mo

difficulties and danger he never anticipated, ther of our Lord was buried. On the

year

and who implicitly believes and reveres as ly festival of the Virgin, and especially at

such the numerous fabrications which suthe Easter season, many Mohammedans perstition and craft impose upon his creduworship with the devout Christians and pil- lity. The whole country around is big with grims, who flock hither to pay their vows at thrilling interest. Here the patriarchs lived the Virgin's shrine. The chapel belongs and died, and their bones and the bones partly to the Greek and partly to the Ar- of the prophets have mingled with its menian church.

dust. Here the chosen of Israel possessed Even as unconnected with

any

recollec- the promise made unto their fathers, and tions of history, the ascent of Mount Olivet here did Jehovah display the most signal is the most pleasant stroll in the vicinity of wonders of his providence. But to con- . Jerusalem. Being higher than any of the tract our view; opposite to the spectator un hills around, it commands a more extensive the mount is Jerusalem, reft of all her glory, prospect, and a cooler atmosphere. The nowacomparative waste;-Sionisstill there, fatigue of climbing up its rugged sides at an so is Moriah, but where is the temple? Alas! early hour, while the dew-drops still be- | . it is gone, the glory of the Jew has given sprinkle the leaves of the olive-trees, and place to the glory of the Moslem. Near ere the sun has arisen from behind the by is Siloam, and lower still in the vale the gloomy mountains of Moab, will be amply soft gliding Kedron. How oft, methinks, repaid. Or to wander hither when the day

has our Saviour slaked his thirst with its declines, to catch the refreshing breeze of cooling waters, as he passed over to his evening, and to watch here and therea solita- nightly retreat amidst the groves of Olivet. ry fellah returning to his village-home on the

It was hereabouts he sat when he predictmountain's side, or to listen to the tinklings ed to his disciples their future trials, the of the flocks browsing on the heights, or downfall of the Holy City, and that still seeking their fold at the note of the Ara- greater destruction which should precede bian goatherd's pipe;- to let the eye rest his coming again. It was as he journeyed for awhile on scenes like these, where all over this mount that the fickle multitude, around is nature and nature's wildness, in- fired with a sudden fit of gratitude, met him duces a pleasing melancholy, a sensation of with loud hosannas, and bestrewed his path delight novel to those who have been nur- with branches of the palm. But how short tured in the city's tumult, or where art and lived were their praises; only a few days gone civilization have covered with a garment and many of the same voices united in not her own the bold and rough beauties of the cry, “crucify him! crucify bin.” It our mother earth.

was hither he came on that awful night But apart from the natural charms of when men and devils conspired his ruin.

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