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that Ælius Antonius Pius built a great tem
ple to Jupiter at Heliopolis, near Libanus Baalbec signifies in the Syrian language ders of the world. (Joan Malalæ, Hist.
in Phænicia, which was one of the wonthe city of Baal, or the Sun; the Greeks,
Chron, lib. xi.) Julius Capitolinus, who in changing it into Heliopolis, as in many
wrote the life of this emperor, does not other cases, translated the Oriental name,
mention the temple of Heliopolis.which the Romans appear to have retained, The universal tradition of the country, until it was again changed into its original Wood informs us, is, that Baalbec as well Syriac name, Baalbec.
as Palmyra, was built by Solomon. Many The city is pleasantly situated on a rising stories, it seems, are told by the inhabitants ground, near the north-east extremity of
of the manner in which the celebrated the plain of Bocat,* and immediately under Jewish king spent his time in this retreat. the mountain-range called Anti-Libanus.
Some cities have supposed that some buildThis plain extends from Baalbec almost to
ing at Baalbec may possibly be that spoken the sea, in the direction of N. E. by N. to
of in his writings as “The tower of Lebanon S. W. by S.: the width appears to be in few that looketh towards Damascus." One of places more than four, and not in any less
the stories current on the spot is that the than three leagues.
city was built by him as a residence for the When the city was in a flourishing state,
queen of Sheba. It is believed, of course, it is probable that the advantages arising that in this, as in all his other similar unfrom its commerce with Tyre, its connec
dertakings, the wise monarch availed himtion with Palmyra, and the traffic with India
self of the agency of genii or spirits. may have been very great, and possibly (A recent visitor to Syria has favoured the source of its wealth, and the means of
us with a view of the great temple, which erecting those edifices, the ruins of which
intend to publish in our next number.) still exist. The ruins in front of the great temple, of which we shall speak hereafter, were most probably designed for Fora (mar- The strict honesty of the Bedowins among kets or places of business,) and are therefore themselves is proverbial, however little regard provided with suitable shady porticos and
they may have to the right of property in others.
If an Arab's camel dies on the road, and he exhedræ, in which the merchants could
cannot remove the load, he only draws a circle conveniently transact their affairs. The
in the sand round about, and leaves it. In this history of the place itself is very obscure; way it will remain safe and untouched for but from two Roman inscriptions of the time
months. In passing through Wady Sa'l on our of Antonius Pius, there can be no doubt
way to 'Akabah, we saw a black tent hanging on
a tree: Tuweilib said it was there when he pasthat it was then a place of some importance sed the year before, and would never be stolen. under the name of Heliopolis. These facts Theft, he said, was held in abhorrence among are confirmed by several coins of Roman the Tawarah, but the present year the famine
was so great that individuals were sometimes emperors.
driven to steal food. He had just returned At what time and by whom the city was from Egypt with a camel-load of grain for his first founded, is wholly unknown; even the family, which he had put into one of the magaepoch when the temples, which from their zines as a place of safety, but it had all been
Burckhardt relates that he was shown style must be attributed to the Roman pe.
in Wady Humr a point upon the rocks, from riod, were erected, is a matter of much un
which one of the Tawarah, a few years before certainty. “The only historical authority had cast down his son headlong, bound hand for the building of the temples of Baalbec, is and foot, for an offence of the very same kind. that of John of Malala, from whom we learn
- ROBINSON's Palestine.
The Malta PENNY MAGAZINE is published and Bocat is variously written-Bocat, Bekka, sent to Subscribers, in Valetta, every Saturday, Beka, Bquam, and Bokah, (see Wood and Daw- Subscriptions at Is. per quarter received at No. 97. kins, Bruce, De la Roque, Rennell, &c.
Saturday, 11th. December 1841.
invasion; the Arabs probably envied the Christians so noble a possession. In the
subsequent wars, it was converted into a After surveying the extraordinary mag-place of defence. On the outer wall, on the nificence of the temple of Baalbec, remarks pavilions and at the angles, were built the M. Volney, one is with reason astonished battlements which are still to be seen; and that the Greek and Latin writers have from that period, the temple fell rapidly into scarcely spoken of it. Mr. Wood, who has decay. What, indeed, with earthquakes consulted them on this subject, has found and the Turks, it is only a wonder that so no mention of it, except in a fragment of much remains standing of this majestic pile. John of Antioch, which attributes the con- The minutest description of these magstruction of the edifice to the Emperor An- nificent ruins is furnished by Dr. Pococke. toninus Pius. The inscriptions which still Speaking of the great temple, he says: The remain accord with this opinion, which several members of the columns and pedeswould sufficiently account for the Corinthian tals of the pilasters, both within and without, order being employed, since that style of are carried all round the building, and the architecture was not much used till the third
whole temple is built as on one solid basecentury of Rome.
The worship of the Sun existed at Baal- The entablatures of the temple both bec from the most remote period of anti- within and without, are exceedingly rich; quity. A statue like that of Osiris had in the quarter-round of the cornice without, been transported there from the Egyptian | there are spouts, carved with a lip and flowHeliopolis, and the ceremonies of the wor- ers that do not project; and the frieze is ship are described by Macrobius. We have adorned with festoons, supported by heads no account of the ancient state of the city, of some animal. Nothing can be imagined but it may be presumed that its position, niore exquisite than the door-case to the on the road from Tyre to Palmyra, would temple ; almost every member of it is give it a share of the commerce of those adorned with the finest carvings of flowers wealthy capitals. Under the Romans, in and fruits; the frieze, particularly, with ears the time of Augustus, it is referred to as of corn, is most beautifully executed. a garrisoned place; and an inscription This fine temple is deservedly admired remains, which proves this to have been as one of the most beautiful pieces of anthe fact, for the words in Greek letters, tiquity that remain; and yet it is a melanKenturia prima, are still legible. A huncholy thing, to see how the barbarous dred and forty years after this period, An- people of these countries continually destoninus Pius built the present temple in the troy such magnificent buildings, in order place of the more ancient one, which had to make use of the stone. They privately po doubt fallen to ruin. But when, in the chip the pillars, for the purpose of underreign of Constantine, the Christian religion mining them; and when they fall, the stones had acquired the ascendancy, the modern are so large, that they can carry away temple was at first neglected, then convert- but very few of them. The pillars of the ed into a church, of which there yet remains portico before the temple are ruined, except a wall that concealed the sanctuary of the four on the south-east corner, and four of idol. The church existed till the Saracen the pillars on the south side are fallen.
PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE.
There is likewise a wall built across the portico before the temple, insomuch that a great part of the beauty of it is destroyed; It is of no use talking, for if a man have and yet the admiration of every one must
no correct principle, and if his practice be be greatly raised, who has the least taste not in agreement with it, all the advantages for architecture and considers all the parti- in the world will never make him what he cular parts of it.
should be. Burckhardt had visited the ruins of Pal- A poor man came to me to ask
admyra only a few months before he came to vice about companions. "Why," said I, Baalbec. His impression was, that the companions inay be found as plentiful as first view of Palmyra as a whole, when it thorns upon a gooseberry bush, and the first breaks upon the traveller, is infinitely one will prove as sharp to your bosom as more striking, but there is not any one spot
the other will be to your fingers, if you are in those ruins so imposing as the interior not careful: but let Principle and Practice view of the temple of Baalbec. The tem- be your companions; the first will direct ple of the Sun at Tadmor is upon a grander you, in all cases, what is best to be done, scale, but it is choked up with Arab houses,
and the last will enable you to do it in and the architecture is decidedly inferior. At
the best manner. So long as you and PrinBaalbec he observed, he says, no Greek in- ciple and Practice agree, so long will you scriptions, but a few in Latin,* and in Arabic, prosper; but the moment you begin to and one in Cufic characters on the side of differ, your prosperity and your peace will a staircase leading into some subterranean melt away like a snow-ball in a kettle of chambers below the small temple, which the boiling water." Emir has walled up to prevent a search for A rich man stopped to talk to me about hidden treasures. The walls of the ancient a new carriage. “Never mind your carcity may still be traced, they include a larger riage,” said I, “but take special care of space than the present town ever occupied, your horses. Principle and Practice are a even in its most flourishing state. Its cir- pair of the best coach-horses in the world; cuit may be between three and four miles. while they run neck and neck together, you
The ruined town of Baalbect contained, and your carriage will bowl along safely; in 1810, according to Burckhardt, about but hold them up tightly, for if one trips, seventy Montouali families, and twenty-five it will go hard with the other, and you of Greek Catholics; but he does not men- may find yourself in the mire a day sooner tion any Maronites, though there are cer- than you expect.” tainly some of this persuasion among the
Said a merchant to me, “I am about to inhabitants.
send off a rich cargo, and must have a Modern Traveller. captain and a mate who are experienced
pilots on board, but it is hardly in your * Near a well on the south side of the town,
way to assist me in this matter.” Yes,
Yes, it is,” replied I, “and I shall recombetween the temple and the mountain, Burckhardt
mend Principle and Practice to you, the found upon a stone the following inscription: C.
best commanders you can have, and the ARRIANVS MONUMENTUM
safest pilots you can employ. The one SI BI-OCO SUO VIVUS FECIT.
possesses the best compass in the world, + in 1751, according to Volney, it contained and the other is unrivalled at the helm. 5000 inhabitants; but the earthquake of 1759 was You may securely trust your ship to their most ruinous in its effects, and the subsequent care, even though she be laden with gold. wars of the Emir and Djerzar Pasha so entirely Draw your nightcap over your ears, and destroyed its commerce, that, in 1785, it numbered sleep in peace, for Principle and Practice only 200 inhabitants.
will serve you well, and if they cannot
ensure your prosperity, your hope is but a to build me a house, and to lay out a garleaky vessel, and not sea-worthy.”
den on the ground which I have bought on “I wish, Mr. Humphrey,” said a neighbour the hill yonder.” Happening to pass at of mine, "that you would recommend my the time, I laid hold of him by the button, son to some respectable house, for I want and advised him in all his plans and hỊs sadly to put him apprentice.”
projects to consult Principle and Practice, "That I will," said I, "and directly too; as they were by far the most able architects, my best shall be done to get him a situa- whether a man wanted to build a house tion under the firm of Principle and Prac- for this world or the next. tice, and a more respectable establishment The poor man and the rich man, the is not to be found. So long as the parties merchant and the father, the beau, the wiin that firm hold together, they will be as dow, and the gentleman, may, or may not secure and as prosperous as the Bank of follow my advice; but if, in adopting any England ; but if a dissolution of partnership other plans, they disregard correct Princishould ever take place, in a little time ple and upright Practice, they will prepare neither the one nor the other would be for themselves a meal of wormwood, and worth a single penny."
a bitter draught; and a nightcap of thorns, “I want a motto," simpered a beauish and a bed of briers; a life of vexation, and young man, who was about to have a ring a death of sorrow. Old Humpry. engraved for his finger.
“And I will give you one,” was my reply, “• Principle and Practice. You may wear that motto on your finger, and in
Well begun, is half done. your heart too, perhaps with advantage;
This ancient proverb is found in Horace, and but if you neglect it, though yoa wear there is one in Italian like it, The beginning only rings on all the fingers you have, and bells on all your toes too, it is ten to one if ever We often have great reluctance in setting you will meet with a better.
about an appointed task, the apparent difficulty He who
continuing to increase with delay : but once adopts this motto may boldly appear with
engaged in it, we proceed with pleasure until our ornaments in the presence of a king; it is completed. It is the case in those trifles while he who despises it, though adorned which make the sum of human things. The with all the trinkets in a jeweller's shop, is
young scholar wants courage to set about his not fit to associate with an honest cobler."
lesson in time; the friend, or man of business,
to answer a letter, or to some point of useful “I wish to take in half-a-dozen boarders,” information. And to go higher in application said a sharp, shrewd, over-reaching widow of the maxim, it tells us, that to begin to do lady, “If I could meet with any that would good leads on to continued improvement. So
the Italians say, Begin your web, and God will be agreeable, and not give too much trou
supply you thread. Akin to this, are two valuble, and pay regularly; but I am sadly able proverbs, which chide us for indecision afraid that it will be long enough before I
Procrastination is shall be able to suit myself.”
the thief of time; and,
To do what's right make no delay, “Take my advice,” said I, “be content
For life and time slide fast away. with two boarders to begin with, Principle and Practice. You cannot do a better
ക്കുള്ള thing than to get them into your house, PRIDE- It is difficult to say whether pride is and to keep them there as long as you can;
more hateful to God, or injurious to man. It
leads the train of those vices and villanies, which for they will pay you better, behave more
distract and desolate society, and turn the world peacibly, and do 'you more credit, than
into one great field of fierce sanguinary conflict, twenty boarders of a different character." of deplorable and aggravated misery.
“If I had a proper plan,” said a gentleman to his friend, “I should be half inclined
Sold at No. 97 Strada Forni.
is hard and costs dear.
and needless hesitation.