The spirit of laws. Transl. 1st Amer. ed, Volume 1

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Contents

In what governments the ſovereign may be judge
98
Of the ancient French laws
105
Of the Roman laws in reſpect to puniſhments ibid
113
Of the domeſtic tribunal among the Romans
128
Of female adminiſtration
134
Of the corruption of the principle of monarchy
140
The fame ſubject continued
146
A particular caſe in which the defenſive force of a ſtate is inferior
161
Of the right of conqueſt
165
Gelon king of Syracuſe
167
Of conqueſts made by a republica ibid 7 The ſame ſubject continued
169
Of one monarchy that ſubdues another
170
Of the manners of a conquered people
171
Alexander
172
Charles XIT
174
New methods of preſerving a conqueſt
175
Of conqueſts made by a deſpotic prince
176
Of the Laws that form Political Liberty with regard to the Conſtitution 1 A general idea
177
Different fignifications given to the word liberty 3
178
In what liberty conſiſts
179
The fame ſubject continued ibid 5 Of the end or view of different governments
180
Of the monarchies we are acquainted with
192
Ariſtotles manner of thinking
194
What other politicians thought ibid 11 Of the kings of the heroic times of Greece
196
In what manner the diſtribution of the three powers began to change after the expulſion of the kings
199
In what manner Rome while in the flouriſhing ſtate of the repub lic ſuddenly loft its liberty
201
Of the legiſlative powers in the Roman republic
203
Of the Executive power in the ſame republic
204
Of the judiciary power in the Roman government
206
Of the government of the Roman provinces 2 1 2
214
Of tbe Laws that form Political Liberty as relative to the Subject 2 Of the liberty of the ſubjet
215
The ſame fubject continued
217
That liberty is favored by the nature and proportion of puniſhments ibid 5 Of certain accuſations that require particular moderation and prudence
220
Of the criine againſt nature
221
Of the crime of high treaſon
223
The fame ſubject continued
225
The ſame fubject continued
226
Of indiſcreet ſpeeches
227
Of writings
228
Breach of modeſty in puniſhing crimes
229
Of the enfranchiſement of Naves in order to accufe their maſter
230
Of calumny in reſpect to the crime of high treaſon
231
In whát manner the uſe of liberty is ſuſpended in a republic
233
Of laws favorable to the liberty of the ſubject in a republic
234
Of the cruelty of laws in reſpect to debtors in a republic
235
Of things that ſtrike at liberty in monarchies
236
Of ſpies in monarchies
237
Of anonymous letters
238
Of the manner of governing in monarchies
239
That in a monarchy the prince ought to be of eaſy acceſs ibid 27 Of the manners of a monarch
240
Of the regard which monarchs owe to their ſubjects ibid 29 Of the civil laws proper for mixing a little liberty in a deſpotic government
241
The ſame ſubject continued
243
That it is bad reaſoning to ſay that the greatneſs of the taxes is good in its own nature
244
Of taxes in countries where part of the people are villains or bondmen
245
6 Of a deſpotic government in the like caſe
246
Of an exemption from taxes
256
Which is moſt ſuitable to the prince and to the people the letting out to farm or the adminiftration of the revenues
257
Of the farmers of the revenues
258
BOOK
259
Contradiction in the characters of ſome ſouthern nations
263
Of the cultivation of warm climates
265
Of monachiſm
266
An excellent cuſtom of China ibid 9 Means of encouraging induſtry
267
Of the laws relative to the fobriety of the people ibid 11 Of the laws relative to the diſtempers of the climate
269
Of the laws againſt ſuicides
271
Other effects of the climatë
273
Of the different confidence which the laws have in the people ac cording to the difference of climates
274
In what Männer the Laws of Civil Slavery are Relative to the Nature of the Climate 1 Of civil ſlavery
275
Origin of the right of Navery among the Roman civilians
276
Another origin of the right of ſlavery
278
The true origin of the right of Navery
280
Of the ſlavery of the negroes
281
Inutility of ſlavery among us ibid 9 Several kinds of ſlavery
282
Regulations neceſſary in reſpect to ſlavery
283
Abuſes of ſlavery ibid 12 Danger from the multitude of ſlaves
284
Of armed ſlaves
285
The ſame ſubject continued
286
Precautions to be uſed in moderate governments
287
Regulations between maſters and flaves
289
Of enfranchiſements
290
Of freedmen and eunuchs
292
Of domeſtic ſervitude 2 That in the countries of the ſouth there is a natural inequality be
293
tween the two ſexes
294
That a plurality of wives depends greatly on the means of ſupport ing them
295
That the law of polygamy is an affair that depends on calculation
296
The reaſon of a law of Malabar
297
Of polygamy conſidered in itſelf svives ibid 7 Of an equality of treatment in caſe of many
298
Of the ſeparation of women from men
299
Of ſavage nations and nations of barbarians
322
Of the law of nations as practiſed by the Tartars
328
Of the ornaments of royalty
334
3o Qf the authority of the clergy under the firſt race
340
That it is neceffary peoples minds Thould be prepared for the res
341
Of tyranny
342
Of the general ſpirit of mankind
343
That every thing ought not to be corrected
344
Of the Athenians and Lacedæmonians
345
Effects of a ſociable temper ibid 9 Of the vanity and the pride of nations
346
A reflection
347
Of cuſtoms and manners in a deſpotic ſtate ibid 13 Of the cuſtoms of the Chinele
349
The influence of domeſtic government on the political
351
Of the peculiar quality of the Chineſe government
352
A conſequence drawn from the preceding chapter
353
How this union of religion laws manners and cuſtoms amongft the Chineſe was produced
354
An explication of a paradox relating to the Chineſe
355
How the laws ought to have a relation to manners and cuſtoms
356
The ſame ſubject continued
357
The fame ſubject continued ibid 25 The ſame fubject continued
358
The ſame ſubject continued
359
How the laws contribute to form the manners cuſtoms and share acter of a nation
360

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Page 181 - When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner.
Page 187 - ... have the means of examining in what manner its laws have been executed; an advantage which this government has over that of Crete and Sparta, where the cosmi and the ephori gave no account of their administration.
Page 191 - It is natural for mankind to set a higher value upon courage than timidity, on activity than prudence, on strength than counsel. Hence the army will ever despise a senate, and respect their own officers. They will naturally slight the orders sent them by a body of men whom they look upon as cowards, and therefore unworthy to command them.
Page 181 - Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control ; for the judge would then be the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression.
Page 183 - ... there is an end of liberty; unless they are taken up in order to answer without delay to a capital crime, in which case they are really free, being subject only to the power of the law.
Page 26 - As most citizens have sufficient ability to choose, though unqualified to be chosen, so the people, though capable of calling others to an account for their administration, are incapable of conducting the administration themselves. The public business must be carried on with a certain motion, neither too quick nor too slow. But the motion of the people is always either too remiss or too violent. Sometimes with a hundred thousand arms they overturn all before them; and sometimes with a hundred thousand...
Page 190 - To prevent the executive power from being able to oppress, it is requisite that the armies with which it is...
Page 182 - ... in quality of legislators. They may plunder the state by their general determinations ; and as they have likewise the judiciary power in their hands, every private citizen may be ruined by their particular decisions.
Page 186 - The executive power ought to be in the hands of a monarch, because this branch of government, having need of despatch, is better administered by one than by many: on the other hand, whatever depends on the legislative power is oftentimes better regulated by many than by a single person.
Page 279 - These creatures are all over black, and with such a flat nose that they can scarcely be pitied. It is hardly to be believed that God, who is a wise Being, should place a soul, especially a good soul, in such a black ugly body.

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