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cular swing, made by fixing a and inimitably ugly, differing en. wheel on a high post, from which tirely from a turban; and fome. hang many poles, with feats attach- times a famour or black fur cipo ed to them, I have seen several of which is principally worn by drathese bearded children taking this gomen and phyficians. In oulier amusement with great glee, aud respects they are dressed as the contrasted with the gravity of their Turks, Yellow flippers, or bootsy habits 'nothing could be more ridi. are indulged only to those under culous. The Greeks have an uni an:baffadorial protection, and are versal license, dance through the an envied diftinction. When the îtreets to very rude music, and are present sultan came to the throne, in the zenith of their vivacity; he issued an edict that no uniicens. bat the festivity of the Armenians, ed ravah Mhould appear publicly in a saturnine race, seems to consist yellow slippers. At that time he chiefly in being intoxicated, and took great pleasure in walking the jumping with the preposterous acti- ftreets in disguise; when meeting vity of an elephant. In the Campo an ill-starred Jew dressed contrary de Morti, near Pera, so called from to law, he ordered his head to be being the cemetery of the Franks instantly struck off. This was his and Armenians, many of these first act of severity, which crested drell scenes may be then contem- most unfavourable conjectures, pot plated by an investigator of the altogether confirmed by his subíe. precise traits of character which quent reign. discriminate the mass of all na- 6 The Turks of better rank, and tions.

the regular citizens, wear what is “ The Turks have fumptuary called the long dress, with outer laws, and habits peculiar 10 protes robes of fine cloth, thalloon, or pel. fions. By the turban differing in lices, which are in general use tor size and 8 ape every man is known; the greater part of the year, and and fo numerous are these distinc. commonly of the most costly furs. tions, that a dragoman, long con. They are seldom seen without a verfant with Constantinople, told tespi in their hands; it is a string melie knew not half of them. of ninety beads corresponding The Emirs, real or pretended je. with the names of the deity, fcendants from the prophet, are which they carry as much for a. diftinguifsed by the green muflin, mufement' as devotion. Hamid the others wear white round a cap Ali, a late vilier, wore one of pearl, of cloth, and the head is universally fo perfect as to be valued at zoool. very closely ihaven. In the tur. sterling. bans of the oulemah there is a “The common people, especially greater profusion of muslin, from those belonging to any miitary ten to twenty yards, which are pro. corps, have a jacket richly ornaportionably larger, as the wigs of mented with gold or folk twift, professional men were formerly. trowsers of cloth, which close to The military, as the janitlaries, bos- the middle of the leg, the other tandjis, and topjis, wear #Caps of the part of which is bare, and red flip most uncou h iliape and fashion, pers. Their great pride is to stick such as defy defcription. The into their girdles a pair of large rayahs are kiown by a head-dress horse pistols, a yatagliàn or long called a kalpac, made of lamb-lkin, knife, à hanjiar or dagger, all pro

fusely

fusely inlaid with silver in a gro- oars, and in dexterity or civility no tesque talie, which, with pouches for watermen exceed the Turks. amounition and tobacco, are ex

Coaches are not in use, excepto tremely incommodious and several ing that the clumsy, nondescript vepouuds weight. Witb these wea: hicles, which convey the ladies of pons they frequently do mischief, great harems, can be so called. In often from childishnets, sometimes his pipe an opulent man is extremetron intention. Such are seen in ly sumptuous; the head must be of every town in the empire, except. pale amber, the stick of jafinina ing the capital, wbo glory in their wood, with the bark preserved, and privilege, as no rayah is permitted the bowl of a delicate red clay, to carry arms.

manufactured at Burgàs, in Rome. “ By the laws of Islamism the lia, and highly ornamented. ACTurks are forbidden vesels and cording to the dignity of the smoa utensils of gold or silver, and are ker is the length of his pipe, often directed to greit fimplicity in eve- or seven feet, when it is carried sy habit of life. This injunction by two of his servants from place does not extend to women, whose to place with much ceremony; and pride coulilts in the number and the bowl is supported by wheels, as coftliness of their trinkets. The an aid to fupreme indolence. In chief luxury of the men is display- the summer, for greater coolness, the ed in the number of their atiendants, stem of the pipe is covered with and their horfes with superb capac cotton or muflin, and moiftened risons, often of embroidered velvet, with water. This sovereign reand plates of filver embolied and creation is vot confined to the men; gilt. No rich man appears in pub- the ladies, especially those advanced lic, but en borseback with a train in life, partake of it largely, and, as of footmen, in any part of Con- a delicacy, they mix the tobacco ftantinople, the number of whom is with frankincense, musk, or aloes urnecelurily great, and much of wood. The sultan alone abftains his income is expended in their from etiquette ; as kalife, or repredaily maintenance, and new clothes sentative of the prophet, he de. at th: fcast of Deyràm. Their clines deciding, by his own pracwages are incoafiderab.e. No do- tice, upon the propriety of any cusDietic performis more than one of tom, about which the law is not fice; this ferves the coffee, and specific and declaratory, that hands the napkid, but no e. “ Notwithstanding their grave nergency can command any other exterior, which might prepossess fervice.

foreigriers with an idea of conceal“ The horses of the Arab, or ing as much stupidity as sense, and Tourcoman breed, are eminently apparently to ungenial with mirth beautiful, and are taugot to prance or vivacity, the Turks, in superior under the perfe& manège of the life of both sexes, indulge a vein rider however infirm. Great ex- of sarcastic humour, and are not pence likewise is lavished on the behind more polished nations in boats, which are elegant in a high the delicacy or severity of their redegree, carved, giided, and lined partees. Most gentlemen of the with rich cullions. They cost seraglio, or capital, have been edu- . from a hundred to a thousand pi- cated in their seminaries of learn.

stres each. The rank of the own- ing, and are conversant with orier is ascertained by the number of ental literature. Many of them quote the Persian poets as happily, “A man of rank, remarkably and refer to the Arabic philoso: unpleasing in his countenance and phers with as complete erudition, figure, was married, according to as we can do to the Greek or Roc custom, without having firft leen man. The · Leilat u alf leilah,' her unveiled, to a lady whose preor Arabian Nights, first introduced tensions :o personal attraction did into Europe by Monsieur Petit de not exceed his own. On the mordla Croix, are familiarly known by ing after their marriage the dethem, as well as the fables and al. manded of him, to whom of his legories of Piipay and Lokman, friends she might thew her face from which sources they store their with freedom. Shew it,' said he, minds as well with sentiment as 'to all the world, but hide it from expreslion. To excel in colloquial me.' Patience,' rejoined the facility and elegance, is the first lady. I have done,' returned the ambition of every cheliby, or man bridegroom. “Ah! said the, 'I of breeching.

quote water,

• think you must have had a gond " I repeat a specimen of Turk. Thare;' for you have carried that ish wit, related to me as having abominable great nose about with been occasioned by a recent cir- you all your life-time.' cumstance.

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[From Townson's TRAVELS in HUNGARY, &c.]

T
HERE

are' two theatres. bulls would have disputed the That in Bude, which was · ground with him to greater adoriginally a church, and was applied vantage: an Hungarian ox, and a by the emperor Joseph to this pur- Bos ferus, are very unequally matchpose, is a very good one; that in Pest ed. Then came a Raube bear; this is small, and with wretched scenery is a bear that has been kept witband wretched decorations. The out food for several days, and ren. pieces are generally played in Ger- dered favage by hunger: on anman, but within these few years other bear being let out a battle some have been given in the Hun. ensued: the latter was so much garian language.

inferior in size that the conteft did “ On Sundays and great festi- not latt long: the Raube bear kept vals, the public is entertained as the other, which seemed no way at Vienna with the Hetze. The ferocious, down with his paws, and proprietors have two very fine wild. strangled him, by seizing him by bulls. The day I was a fj ectator the throat, and then carried him of this polite and humane amuse. into his den. The great disparity ment one was turned out on the in size and strength rendered this a arena, and at the same time most disagreeable light. The white an Hungarian ox: this attacked Greenland bear' afforded more enj the former, but was immediately tertainment. In the middle of the throwo down: but our English arena there was a small pool of

water, with a duck in it. As soon nent; but he was brought out onas the bear came to the edge of the ly for show. From the hole in the pool, the duck laid itself fai and upper part of the gate of the arena, motionless on the surface of the a handkerchief was put out, and water ; the bear leaped in, the instantly drawn back : he flew at duck dired, and the bear dived af- this in an instant. Some other aniter it; but the duck escaped, mals were turned out, and were through its superior diving. The glad to get into their dens again. next piece was a bold attempt of One of the keepers shewed his adone of the keepers to wrestle with dress in spearing a wild boar, which an ox. As soon as the keeper ran at him as soon as he came on came upon the arena, the ox ran at the arena. I found few other hiin. The man, who was not a- public amusements. Being fumbove the middle size, seized his an- mer, most of the grand monde was tagonist by the horns, who pushed out of town; for the Hungarians him indeed from one side of the are like the English, they live a arena to the other, but could not great deal upon their estates. In toss hiin. After the battle had winter no doubt I should have lasted some time, and the ox had found the usual amusements, as got the keeper near the side of the concerts, balls, card parties, conarena, and might have hurt him, versaziones, &c. The citizens have some assistants came out, disen- a ball sometimes on the Sunday gaged him from the wall, and gave evenings, and in the neighbourhim his dagger, which he immedi- hood there are several inns pleaately struck between the cervical fantly fituated in retired situations, vertebræ of his antagonist, which where the great and small often go instantly fell lifeless to the ground; for recreation. Coffee-houses are but small convulsive motions con- little known in the northern part. tinued for a minute or two. In this of the continent; but in the southmanner the oxen are killed by the ern they are places of resort, timebutchers at Gibraltar, who, I am killing places at least, if not places told, have learned it from their A. of amusement. This town has sefrican neighbours. Might not the veral good ones; but that facing magistrates of towns recommend the bridge is, I think, not to be ethis method to their butchers, and, qualled in Europe. Besides a very if found better than the usual man- large handtome room elegantly fit. ner of knocking them down, even ted up, and with two or three bil. compel them to adopt it? Every liard-iables, there is a private bilmeans of diminishing the suffer- liard-room for those who do not ings of the brute creation should smoke; and two or three other be recommended, not only from rooms for giving entertainments humanity towards them, but for in; and very comfortable dinners the sake of our own society. Men may be had. And here, accord, accustomed to be cruel towards ani- ing to the continental custom, all mals, will require but a small in- ranks and both sexes may came : ducement to be so to their own and hair-dressers in their powdered species. A lion came next upon coats, and old market women, come the stage, and one with all his na- here and take their coffee or drink tive majesty; conscious of his their rofolio as well as counts and strength, he looked undauntedly barons." about, to see if he had any oppo. 1797

PARTI .

[98]

PARTICULARS concerning the present Pope, the Roman NOBILITY, and

the MANNERS of Modern Rome.

[From the first Volume of Travels through GERMANY, SWITZERLAND,

ITALY, and SICH.Y, translated from the GERMAN OF FREDERIC LED-
Poln, Count STOLBERG, by THOMAS HOLCROFT.)
To-day and yesterday, I have “ Cardinal Borgia is a man of

been in company with mo- great ardour, intelligence, and dern Romans. This morning, I knowledge. He loves the learnwas presented to the pope. This ed; and is glad to see them affemold man, who exercises bis office ble round him, at his table. with so much folemn dignity, is “ A tranlation of the poem of exceedingly pleasant, and familiar, the Argonauts, by Apollonius Rhoin personal intercourse. I found dius, is now preparing, by cardinal him fitting at his writing desk : Frangini. His knowledge of the he desired me to fit by him, and modern Greek, which he speaks conversed with me, with anima- with facility, was serviceable to tion and intelligence, on different him, by rendering the ancient subjects.

Greek more familiar. "Pius the fixth occupies himself “The fenator, prince Rezonico, in the cabinet, gets up in winter and a count of the fame family, before day-light, and performs the understand and love German lite. weighty duties of the papal chair rature. I have made an acquaintwith a knowledge of present cir- ance with the Marchese Rangone, cumstances, and with a firm mind. formerly the first minister of the

« The disputes between himself duke of Modena. He likewile and the king of Naples, have been reads the Gerinan authors with deadjusted by him with great pru- light; and, to a noble character, dence; he having preferved, in- adds extensive learning and real stead of renouncing the least of, genius. his rights. He has conducted him- “ You perceive that interesting self in the affairs of France with men are still to be found, among equal wisdom and dignity; and the great. I grant indeed they las escaped all the snares that are rari nantcs in gurgite vasto. have been laid for him, openly Most of the Principi Marches, and and in secret, by the national al- titled nobility, here, are ignorant ; sembly, which might have led him and have that arrogance which to take steps that would have given sleeps in barren ignorance, like an appearance of justice to their ra- earth unbroken by the plough. pacious views.

• But are there no such men among “The secretary of state, cardinal us? Zelada, is properly the prime mi- “ I am well aware that, in Gernister. He is a man of much many, there is a certain degree of understanding, and uncommon af- information greater than in Italy ; siduity. He rises, at this season of but would it not be increased, were the year, at four in the morning; we, who perhaps are more inclined and he seldom leaves the walls of to do justice to foreigners than any the Vatican.

other nation, to overcome our pre

judices

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