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whole districts are laid in ashes. At such rencounters ro crowned Houses are so foon re-erected, that head need ervy sultan Selim his the former appearance of the streets situation. As this is the only priis speedily restored, and little altera. vileged time of conveying the voice tion is ever made in their form. of the people to his ears, and as Notice of a fire at Conftantinople, women in Turkey say any thing or at Gaiata, is given by beating a with impunity, it is presumed that great drum from two high towers; many of the fires are not accidenthe night watch then patrole the tal. ftreets, striking the pavement with “ As a grand spectacle, detachtheir staves thod with iron, and cry. ing the idea of commiseration of ing out Yangen var'_'There is the calamity from the present view,

a fire,' naming the place. The ful- if a volcanic eruption be excepted, tan is then summoned three times, none can exceed a great fire at and when the conflagration has Conftantinople. The houses being lafted one hour he is forced to at- constructed with wood, and freteud in person, and to bring mules quently communicating with mawith him laden with piastres, which gazines filled with combustible he distributes with his own hands materials, a vast column of Aame, to the firemen, who are very in- of the most luminous glow, rises active before his arrival. These from the centre, which lighting up are armed against accidents in the the mosques, and contiguous cyfame manner as they are in London, press groves, produces an effect and are equally expert and adven- of superior magnificence. In other turous. Fires are extinguished, by cities, where the buildings are of pulling down the adjoining houses, stone, the fames are seen partially, for the engines are very small, and or are overpowered by smoke. borne on the shoulders of two 66 The merchandise and trade of men.

Constantinople are carried on prin. “The perfect refignation with cipally in the khans, bazars, and which a good musulman sees his bezesten, according

bezestèn, according to the custom house consumed by the flames, and of the East, each of which requires himself reduced from affluence to a summary description. poverty, has been often and justly “ The khans are spacious strucremarked by others; he exclaims tures, with quadrangles erected by • Allah Karim'- God is merci. the munificence of the sultans, or

ful, without apparent emotion, some of the royal family, for the and has assured himself that the public benefit.' They are entirely same providence which hath made surrounded by a cloister and colonhim poor and abject, can once nade, into which numerous cells more restore him to wealth if open, generally repeated for three it be his fate. For the women, ftories ; are built with ftone, and they have not the praise of such fire proof. Here the merchants philosophy. They affemble in a from every part of the empire, who groupe near the sultan, and unmer- travel with caravans, are received cifully load him with the bitterest with accommodations for themrevilings, particularising his own selves and their valuable traffic. crimes, and the errors of his go- “ In the bazars are assembled vernment, and charging him with dealers of each nation under the the cause of their present calamity. Turkish government, who have


small shops in front, and a room is fixed to his shop-board with his behind, for their wares. These are legs under him for many hours, and very extensive cloifiers of stone, never relaxes into civility with his lofty, and lighted by domes; are Frank cuftomer, but from the hopes admirably adapted to the climate, of advantage. One may venture and in summer are extremely cool. to give him two thirds of his oeOne called the Misr Charithè, or mand; but to those of other naEgyptian market, is set apart for tions not more than halt. The the merchandise of Cairo, chiefly Greek, more pliant and prevaricatminerals and drugs, and is a great ing, praises his commodity bevond curiofity for the naturalist.

measure, and has generally to con“ Other quarters are occupied gratulate himself upon having outby the working jewellers, where witted the most cautious dealer. taw jewels may be advantageously The Armenian, heavy and placid, purchased'; and by the booksellers, is rouled to animation only by the who have each his assortment of light of money, which he cannot Turkish, Arabic, and Persian MSS. withstand. As for the Jew, erery of which they do not always know where a few, he is more frequente the value, but demand a confiderable ly employed as a broker, a business price. The oriental scholar may which that people have had addrets here find MSS. equally beautiful enough to engross; and fome acand rare, as, fince the civil coinmo. quit themselves with honefty and tions in Pertia, the most elegant credit. Those of the lower fort books, taken in plunder, have been are walking auctioneers, w bo tramp feit to Constantinople for sale, to over the bazars, and carry she avoid detection.

goods with them, vociferating the "" The ftaple articles of importa price laft offered. Each of these tion from England are cloth and nations, which constiute the vaft block tin, as the consumption of population of Conftantinople, has a both is very great. English watches, different mode of covering the prepared for the Levant market, are head; a circumstance foon learned, more in demand than those of oitier and which renders the groupes of Frank nations, and are one of the figures, tufficiently amuing, as it first articles of luxury that a Turk breaks the famenefs of their other purchases or changes if he has mo- dress. The Armenians, Jews, and ney to spare,

the niechanical Greeks, ufuaily “ The national character is here wear blue, which the Turks conadmirably discriminated, and to in fider as a dishonourable colour, and veftigate it with success no place have their flippers of a dirty red offers such opportunity as these mar. leather. kets.

“ The common trades are dif" A stranger will wonder to see pofed, all of one kind in fingle so many of their fhops left open, streets. Shoe-makers, furriers, and without a mafter or guard; but pil pipe-makers, with many others, ocfering is not a Turkish vice. cupy each their distinct district, and

" He should be informed previare feldom found dispersed, as in ously, that no article of commerce our cities. has a stated price; bargains must “ A room of very considerable be made, and the baseft imposition dimensions, is called the bezetten, is counted fair gaia. The Turk or public exchange, where are col



le&ted second-hand goods, which fome during the greater part of the are hawked about by the aucti. day, which passes there, consume oneers. In another part are the thirty or forty pipes, and as many sarraffs, or money-changers, Arme- cups of coffee, hoiling hot, thick, nians and Jews.

and without sugar. “I regret my incompetency to “ Beside these, vear the Osmanie, describe the various mechanic arts, are teriaki-lanà, where (afioni) which are practised in the East, and opium is fold; and taken in gradaparticular y by the Turks, fo dif- tion from ten to a hundred grains ferent from our own; and leave it in a day. Intoxication with this to some future visitant, well qua- noxious drug is certainly less prevalified to give the history of their lent than we have been informed; manufactures, and the divers modes and he who is entirely addicted to by which the lame effect is pro- it, is considered with as much pity duced, and the same utensils are or disgust as an inveterate fot is made.

with us. The preparation of opi" The necessaries of life are well um is made with several rich symanaged, and the shops of cooks, rups, and inspillated juices, to renconfectioners, and fruiterers, are der it palatable and less intoxicatexcellently stored, and served with ing, and resembles elder rob. It is neatness. For the greater part of either taken with a spoons, or hardthe year, sherbets with ice are cried ened into small lozenges, stamped about the streets, at a very cheap with the words Mali allàh,' literate. The bakers exercise a lucra- rally the work of God.' tive, but a dangerous trade, if they 6. The Turks take opium as an are not proof against temptation to intoxicant, or occasionally under an fraud. T'heir weights are examined idea of its invigorating quality, at uncertain times, and a common when unusual fatigue is to be enpunishment on detection is nailing dured. The Tartar' couriers, who their ear to the door-poft. Upon travel with attonishing expedition, a complaint made to the late vifir generally furnish themselves with Mehmet Melek against a notorious Mash allah.' A leading cause of cheat, he ordered him to be instant- its disuse is, that the prejudices rely hanged. The master escaped, specting wine are daily relaxing, but the servant, a poor Greek, per- which accounts for the scarcely crefectly innocent, was executed. It dible quantity and universality, menwas remarked to a Turk, that this tioned by old writers being unacinjustice was foreign to the charac. cordant with modern practice. ter for clemency, which Melek 6 The administration of justico bore, when he sarcastically replied, in Constantinople is notoriously • The visir had not yet breakfast. corrupt. It is placed solely in the ed.'

hands of the oulemah, or ecclefiaf. “The coffee-houses, which a- tical body, who are confirmed in bound, are fitted up in an airy Chi. their rapacity by being secured nese taste, and curiously painted. from the interposition of the body Within, they are divided into par- politic, as they receive no salary titions or stages without seats, for from the state. In these two causes the Turks fit as the taylors in Eng. originates a system of enormous peland. The resort of all ranks to culation and bribery, so that for them is universal and constant; and the poor there is no redress. Turkin jurisprudence professes the im- are not frequent, excepting in the plicit direction of the koràn, but great roads through dftant provinmore attention is paid to the mule ces, whiere they are always punishtèkah, or fonhèt, containing the ed with impalement. There is no traditional injunétions; after all, the place of public execution; and intereft or çaprice of the judge when a criminal is condemned, he biasses the decision.

is led down the nearest street by “ The rank of Turkish lawyers the executioner, who is provided is the mufri, or deputy to the with a large nail and cord, which sultan; as kalife or oracle of the he places over the door of any hop law, the kadilescars of Roumily and where he is not paid for forbearance. Anadoly; fupreme in their distinct The body is raised a few inches ondistricts, mollahs, muselims, and ly above the ground, and muft be kadies. These hold their meke- left untouched for three days. In mehs, or halls of justice, where instances of decapitation, the more they try criminals and hear causes, honourable punishment, it is ex. in which oral testimony always pre- posed as long in the street, with the vails again it written evidence. head under the arm, if a musızl. Three MSS. of the Koran, the man, but if a rayah between the Evangelists, and the Pentateuch, legs. So horrid a spectacle excites are kept by the kadies, who admi- no emotion in the mind of a Turk, nister oaths upon them, according for it is certain, that by no nation, to the religion of the person to be be it as savage as it may, is the life sworn. Faise witneties are easily of a man so lightly regarded as by procured; they frequent certain them. This is a disgusting, but coffee-houses, where these infa. true sketch of their laws and execumous transactions are arranged. If tive justice. one of these wretches be too often “ Personal combat, unknown to detected, or has forfeited the inte. the ancients, but so universal in rested connivance of the judge, he modern Europe fince the days of is given over to the punishment of chivalry, is not practised amongst the law. Mounted on an ass, with the Turks, nor is afatsination, the his arms and legs tied, and his face disgrace of many nations, in any toward the tail, he is led through degree frequent. Comiections with the streets and bazars, where he is women, the great cause of inveteinsulted with every grofsnefs, and if rate quarrels, are fo arranged as to a Turk, fares very ill.

rend interference with each other “ It is truly remarkable, in fo almost impofüble. Before marrigreat a population, that criminal age they are not seen by their causes do not occur more frequent. lovers, and after only by their bus. ly. Murders are seldom heard of, bands and near relatives. There and happen amongst the soldiers is likewise an inviolable point of oftener than other descriptions of honour between men respecting people; they are certainly prevent their harems, and an avowed libered by the prohibition of wearing tine would be banithed from focie. arms in the capital. If the mur. ty. Poison, secretly given, is the derer escape justice for twenty-four punishment he would probably inhours, he is not amenable to the cur. law; at least, has a good chance of “ To another occasion of person- evading its vengeance. Rubberies al provocation they are aqually



Strangers.' Gaming is prohibited by tioners, and the coffee houses, are che Mohammedan law, and as chefs unusually decorated and frequentis their favourite amusement, their ed. There are exhibitions of low fingular proficiency is a proof that humour, and the kara-guze, or pupthe love of gain may not be the on- pet-Now, represented by Chinese .lv inducement to excel. Wagers, thades. or anticipating the cbances of any “ For the graver sort, most cof. crial of skill or common event, they fee-honses retain a raccontatorė, or consider as unlawful.

profeffed story-teller, who entertains “ To the absence of these power- a very attentive audience for many ful incitements to anger, and to hours. They relate eastern tales, their national suavity of manners or sarcastic anecdotes of the times, as confined to themselves, may be and are sometimes engaged by goattributed much focial harmony, vernment to treat on politics, and though with fewer examples of to reconcile the people to any redisinterested friendthip than cent ineasure of the sultan or vifier. mongst us. The Turk shews in- Their manner is very animated, Colence or moroseness 10 those and their recitation accompanied only whom his prejudices exclude ' by much gesticulation. They have from intercourse.

the finesse, when they perceive the “ The Rammezan, or Turkish audience numerous, and deeply enLent, lasts for one complete moon, gayed, to defer the sequel of their and takes every month in the year, itory. The nightly illuminations in rotation. No institution can be of every minareh in the city, espemore strictly or more generally ob- cially those of the imperial mosques, served; it enjoins perfect abstinence produce a very singular and splenfrom fun-rise to fun-fet, from every did effect. Within each of these, kind of aliment, even from water. the vast concaves of the domes are Mohammed did not foresee that lighted up by some hundred lamps coffee and tobacco would become of coloured glass; and externally the chief luxury of his followers, cords are thrown across froin one and various were the opinions re- minareh to another, and the lamps specting the legality of taking them fantastically disposed in letters and in Rammezan;, which were finally figures. I was not more agreeably determined in the negative. These surprised by any thing I saw in are indeed days of penance to the Conftantinople, than the whole apă labourer and mechanic, but to the pearance of ihe first night in Ram- . opulent only a pleasing variety, for they sleep all day, and in the even- “ As an indulgence from the seing feast and make merry; as if verities of Lent, the Turks have they exulted in cheating the pro. their Beyràm, and the Christians phet. The only tow of mortig. their Easter. At this season, those cation is a prohibition from enter- of every nation appear in new ing the harem during the twelve clothes, and exhibit all possible hours of fasting. Every night of gaiety. Places of public refort are this season is some appointed feast then particularly frequented, and amongst the officers of the court. the paftimes and groupes, ex

“ Nor are the inferior orders de- cepting in their dress, exactly reprived of their share of relaxation; semble an English wake. The for the shops of cooks and confec- Turks are much delighted by a cir



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