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no unfavourable specimen of Chi- which might lead them to the af. nese tragedy; and the Pleahng Hif sertion of independence. It is said, tery, of which an English transla- that in the French zeal for propation, under the care of a learned gating principes of democracy, and ingenious prelate, was publith their Declaration of the Rights of ed several years ago, is an instance Man had been translated into one of Chinese novel-writing, that is of ihe languages of India, and interesting and simple ; and for distributed there. It is not, in. serious readers, the zeal of Christia. deed, likely to cause any fermente nity had induced the misfionaries ation in the tranquil, fubmiffive, to procure the publication of seve- and religned minds, with the weak ral works in the Chinese tongue, and delicate constitutions, of the in proof of the tenets which they Hindoce; but it might be otherpreached.
wise among the Chinese people, “ Notwithstanding the vigilant who are more susceptible of such police of the Chinese magiftrates, impressions, their difpofition being books disapproved by them are pri- more confonant to enterprise." vately printed and diffeminated in “ The Itate of phylic is exChina. " It is not easy to prevent, tremely low in China. There are or even al ways to detect, the ope- no public schools or teachers of it. rations of a trade which, beside A young man who wishes to bepaper and ink, requires little more come a physician, has no other way thao fome pieces of board, and a of acquiring medical knowledge, , knife to cut out characters upon than by engaging himself to some them. The books thus publided practitioner, as an apprentice. He furtively, are chiefly those which has thus the opportunity of seeing are offensive to decency, and in his master's practice, of visiting his Bame the imagination of young patients with him, and of learning minds. It is not laid that any are such parts of his knowledge and levelled against the governinent. secrets as the other chooses to comThe mandarines asserted, however, municate to him. The emoluthat a sect had for ages fubfisted in ments of the profession seldom exthe country, whose chief principles ceed the skill of the practitioner, were founded upon an antipathy As many copper coin as scarcely to monarchy; and who nourished are equal to lixpence sterling, is hopes of at lait subverting it. said to be the usual fee among the Their meetings were held in the people; and perhaps quadruple utmost secrecy, and no man avow. among the mandarines. The latter ed any knowledge of them; but a of high rank have physicians in fort of inquisition was said to be their household, who reside conestablished in order to find them stantly with them, and accompany out. They who were suspected of them when they travel. The emLuch sentiments, were cut off, or peror's physicians as well as most hunted out of society; somewhat of his domestic attendants, are like those who were accused for chiefly eunuchs. Medicine is not merly of Judaism in some Roman divided in China intó distinct catholic kingdoms.
branches, as in most parts of Eu“ The political, moral, and his- rope. The fame person acts as torical works of the Chinese con. physician, surgeon, and apothecary. faiņ no abstract ideas of liberty, The surgical part of the profession Atill more backward than the others. is not imposible, that it may be Amputation in cases of compound owing parily to the insertion of the fracture and gangrene, is utterly variulous master lo near the feat unknown, Death is the speedy of the optic nerve, to which the consequence of such accidents. inflammation it occasions may exDeforned perfons, no doubt, there tend. are in China ; but they must be “No male physician is allowed very few in number, or live much to attend a pregnant woman, and netired; for no such happened to ftill less to practife midwifery ; in fall in the way of the embaffy, the indelicacy of which, both fexes through the whole of its route, seem to agree in China. There from the northern to the southern are books written on that art for extremity of China.
the ufe of female practitioners, 4. The mortality of the mall. with drawings of the State and popox, when of the confuent kind, htion of the infant at different pejoined to the observation that it riods of gestation; together with a attacked, once only, the fame per- variety of directions and prescripfon, induced the Chinese to expose tions for every supposed case that young persons to its infection, may take place : the whole mixed when it happened to be mild. with a number of fuperftitious obm The success of this method, led at fervances. Terrgth to the practice of inocula- Mapy practitioners of phyfic tion amongst them. The aboals of take the advantage, as elewhere, China frit mention it, at a time of the obscurity in which that art answering to the beginning of the is involved, and of the ignorance tenth century of the Chriftian and credulity of the people, to era. The general method of Chi- gain money by the sale of noftrums nese inoculation, is the following: and secrets of their own. They when the diseafe breaks out in distribute band-bills, setting forth any district, the physicians of the the efficacy of their medicines, plaee carefully collect a quantity with a tetted cures annexed to of ripe matter from puftules of the them. But it was reserved for the proper fort: which being dried, seat of Taotse, or disciples of Lao and pulverized, is closely shut up koun, already mentioned, to arroin a porcelain jar, fo as to exclude gate boldly to themfelves, the posfrom it the atmospheric air ; and letion of a medical secret, Dos to in this manner it will retain its die. To thofe who had all the properties for many years. When enjoyments of this life, there rethe patient has been duly prepared mained, unaccomplished, no other by medicines, generally of an ape. with than that of remaining for rient kind, and ftri&ly dieted for a ever in it. And accordingly tere. hort time, a lucky day is chofen to ral sovereigns of China have been Sprinkle a little of the variolous known to cheriff the idea of the powder upon a fmall piece of fine poffibility of such a' medicinc. cotton wool, and to insert it into 'They had pnt themselves, in full the nostrils of the patient. If health, under the care of those reblindness, or sore eyes, be more ligious empirics, and cook large frequent in China than elsewhere, draughts of the boasted beverage which the gentlemen of the em- of immortality. The compofition baffy were not able to ascertain, it did not consé of merely harınlefo
ingredients; but, probably, of such science. For some there is not extracts and proportions of the even a name. The Chinese books poppy, and of other substances and are full of the particular processes liquors, as occafioning a temporary and methods, by which a variety exaltation of the imagination, part of effects are produced in chemical ed for an indication of its vivifying and mechanical arts; and much effects. Thus encouraged, they might probably be gained from the bad recourse to frequent repetitions peroral of them, by perfons versed of the dose, which brought on
at the fame time, in the language quickly languor and debility of of the describers, and acquainted fpirits; and the deluded patients with the subject of the description. often became vietiins to deceit and As soon as the product of anvart or foliv, in the flower of their age.
manufacture has appeared to an• There are in China no pro- swer the general purpose for which feffors of the sciences connected it was intended, it seldom happens with medicine. The human body that the Chinese discoverer is eiis never, unless privately, dit- ther impelled by his curiotity, or fected there. Books, indeed, with enabled by his opulence, to endeadrawings of its internal structure, vour to make any further progress, are sometimes published; but these either towards fuperior elegance, or are extremely imperfect; and con- ornament, or even increas-d utility. fulted, perhaps, oftener to find out
The use of metals, for the common the name of the spirit under whose purposes of life, has made the Chi. protection each particular part is nese search for them in the bowels placed, than for observing its forin of the earth, where they have and situation.
found all those that are deemed “ It is a matter of doubt, whe- perfect except platina. Perhaps ther natural history, natural philo. they have not the knowledge, or sophy, or chemistry, be, as sciences, means of using the cheapest and much more improved than anato- mortest method of separating the my in China. There are several precious metals from the subitances treatises, indeed, on particular fub amongst which they are found; jects in each. The Chinese like. nor of reducing the ore of others wise possess a very voluminous en- into their respective metals; but cyclopedis, containing many facts they perfe&tly succeed in obtaining and observations relative to them; thein, without alloy, wbenever but from the few researches which their object to do so; and in the gentlemen of the embally had making such mixtures of them as leifure or opportunity to make, produce the results they desire. during their thor visit to the coun- The mines which are said to be in try, they perceived no traces of any China, containing gold, a metal general fyftem or doctrine by which esteemed chere more precious from separate ta&ts or obfervations were its rarity than its use, are seldom connected and compared, or the permitted to be worked; but in all common properties of bodies afcer- grains of it are collected in the protained by experiment; or where vince of Yunnan and Se-chuen, kindred arts were conducted on si. among the sand in the beds of the milar views; or rules framed, er
rivers and torrents which carry it deductions drawn from analogy, or down along wjih them as they deprinciples laid down to constitute a scend froni the mountains. It is 3797
pale, foft, and ductile. A few and no lead or arsenic, fo common mandarines, and many women of in the calamine of Europe; and rank, wear bracelets of this metal which extraneous substances conround the writt, not more for orua- tribute to tarwith the compofitiones iment, than from a notion that they made of it, and prevent them fron preserve the wearer from a variety taking so fine a polith as the pe of diseases. The Chinese artists tung of the Chinese. Doctor Gil. beal it into leaf, for gumming it lan was also informed at Canon, upon paper to burn in their tri- that the artists, in making their pods, and for gilding the statues of pe.tung, reduce the cop, er into as their deities. The filk and velvet thin theets or laminæ as pollible, weavers use it in their tillues and which they make red hoi, and ia. embroideries. Trigkets are also crease the fire to such a pitch, as made of it at Canton, which the to soften, in some degree, the la. Chinese do not wear; but which mina, and to render tbem ready are sold in Europe as Eastern or. almost to flow. In this state they naments. Beside the use of silver are suspended over the yapour of as a medium of payment for other their purest tu-te-nag, or zinc, goods, when it paties according to placed in a subliming velfel over its weight, it is likewise drawn in- a brisk fire. The vapour thus peto threads like gold, to be used in netrates the heated laminà of the the filk and coton manufactures. copper, so as to remain fixed with For bell-metal, they use, with cop- it, and not to be easily dissipa'ed per, a greater proportion of tin than or calcined by the succeeding fuis usually done elsewhere, by which lion it has to undergo. The whole means iheir bells are more fono- is suffered to cool gradually, and is sous, but more brittle, than those then found to be of a brighter coof Europe. Their white copper, lour, and of a closer grain, than called in Chivele pe-tung, has a when prepared in the Euro; can beautiful filver-like appearance, way. The iron ore of the Chinese and a very close grain. It takes is not well managed in their inel. a fine poiiih; and many articles of ing furnaces; and the metai is neat workmanship, in imitation of not so soft, malleable, or ductile, filver, are made from it. An accu- as British iron. Their smiths' work rate analygis dias determined it to is exceedingly brittle, as well as consist of copper, zinc; a little fil. clumsy, and not polished. They ver, and, in fonie ipecimens, a few excel, indeed, in the art of cafting particles of iron and of nickel iron, and form plates of it much have been found. Tu tenag is, thinner than is generally knowa properly speaking, zinc, extralied to be done in Europe. from a rich ore, or calamine. The the tin imported by tbe Chinese, is ore is powdered and mixed with forined into as thin a foil as ponte charcoal duft, and placed in cartijen ble, in order to gum it afterwards jars over a flow fire, by mearis of upon square pieces of paper, which wbich the metal rises in the form are burnt before the image of of vapour, in a common distilling their idols. The amalgan: а of tin apparatus, and afterwards is con- and quicksilver is applied, by the densed in water. The calamine artists in Canton, in making imall from whence this zinc is thus ex. mirrors, with glass blown upou lhe bacted, contains yery little iron, spot froin broken pieces of that
material imported whole from Euc powder of the crystal falls as it is rope. The glass beads and but- cut by the revolution of the wire. tons of various fhapes and colours, With this mixture, the wire and worn by persons of rank, are chietly the groove it förms in the crystal, made at Venice; and this is among are often moistened. The powder the remnants of the great and al- of the crystal, like that of the diamost exclusive trade which the mond, helps to cut and polith its Venetians formerly carried on with self. The workmen did not seem the East. The Chinese make great to understand any principle of opuse of spectacles, which they tie tics, fo as to form the eye.giasles of round the nead. They are formed. such convexities or concavities, as of crystal, which the Canton ar- to supply the various defects of vitists cut into laminæ, with a kind fion; but left their customers to of steel faw, formed by twisting choose what was found to suit two or more fine iron wires toge- them best. The few lapidaries ther, and tying them like a bow- who cut diamonds at Canton, used Itring to the extremities of a imall for that purpose adamantine spar, flexible bamboo. They undo one which băing mixed in small proend of this string in order to pass portions with grey granite, the the wire round the crystal, where it mass was imagined to contain nois meant to be divided, and which thing else, and excited a doubt, as then placed between two pivots. whether it could be real diamond, It is thus fawed, in the manner which pure granite could affect. which European watch-makers use The Canton artists are uncommon. in dividing small pieces of metal. ly expert in imitating European Below the crysial is a listle trough works." of water, into which the filicenus
SKETCH of the FEMALE ECONOMY of the Seraglio, and of the real
CONDITION of the FEMALE SEX at CONSTANTINOPIE. [From DALLAWAY'S CONSTANTINOPLE, ANCIENT and Modern.]
HE inhabitan's of the fera. seventh. The first of them who
glie exceed fix thousand, of gives an heir to the empire becomes which about five bundred are wo. the favourite, and has the title of men. Many who are employed Hafreky-Sultàn. There are many there during the day, have their others in the harein, but they selhouses and families in the city. dom are suffered to infringe the
“ When the sultan comes to the exciusive privilege of producing throne the grandees present him with heirs to the empire, which the kavirgin flaves, who, they hope, may dinns claim; for with the oi hers become their patronefles.-From the most infamous means of preventhese principaily, fix are then chos. tion are forcibiy adopred. ' If the en, who are styled Kadions, but the child of the first baffek y-fultan late Sultan Abdul-hamid added a fhould die, her precedence is loft.