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of retaining the feveral branches of " The early marriages of men in a family under the same roof, is at- easy circumstances have been altended with important effects. It ready mentioned; with the poor, Tenders the younger temperate and marriage is a measure of prudence, orderly in their conduct, under the becaule the children, particularly authority and example of the older; the fons, are bound io maintain and it enables the whole to subfiit, their parents. Whatever is strongly like soldiers in a mess, with more recommended and generally prace economy and advantage. Notwith- tised, is at length confidered as standing this arrangement, the la- a kind of religious duty; and this bouring poor are reduced to the use union, as such, takes place when. of vegetable food, with a very rare ever there is the least prospect of and icanty relish of any animal sub- subsistence for a future family. stance; the price of labour being That prospect, however, is not al. generally found to bear as small a ways realized ; and children born proportion every where to the rate without means being had of provide demanded for provisions, as the ing for thein, are sometimes aban.. common people will consent to doned by the wretched authors of lutter.
their being. It must have been the “ The crowds of people at Pekin moft dire and absolute neceffity do not prevent it from being which led to this up natural and healthy. The Chinele live, indeed, shocking act, when first it was much in the open air, increafing or committed. It was reconciled afdiminishing the quantity of their terwards in some measure, to the apparel according to the weather. mind, by superftition coming in aid The atmosphere is dry, and does to render it a holy offering to the not engender putrid disorders; and spirit of the adjoining river, in excesses productive of them seldom which the infant was thrown, with are committed.
a gourd fufpended from its neck, to “Great order is preserved among keep it froin immediate drowning. fuch mulcitudes; and the commit The philosophers of China, lion of crimes is rare. Every tenth who have with equal ability and housekeeper, somewhat in the man. effect inculcated ihe maxims of finer of the ancient cithing.men in lial piety, have left in great mea. England, is answerable for the con- sure, the parental affection to its duct of the nine neighbouring fa. own natural influence, which does milies, as far as he may be fuppofed not always maintaiıı its empire as capable of controlling it. The po- effectually as sentiments enforced lice is observed with particular by early and repeated precep! strictness within the walls. The Thus, in Chiva, parents are iets city partakes of the regularity and frequently neglected than infants interior safety of a camp; but is are exposed. The laws of the ein. fubject also to its constraints. In pire, to corroborate the dispofirion the suburbs only, public women are to filial obedience, furnith an ope registered and licensed. They are portunity for punishing any breach noi indeed very numerous, being of it, by leaving a man's offspring proportioned to the small number entirely within his power; and haof single men, and of husbands ab- bit seems to have familiarised a nosent fiom their families, to be found tion that life only becomes truly in the metropolis.
precious, and inattention to it cri minal, after it has continued long ways clearly indicating that, whe enough to be endowed with a mind ther better or worse fitted for the and sentimient; but that mere same purpofes, than those in use in dawning existence may be suffered other countries, the one did not to be lost without scruple, though serve as a model for the other. it cannot without reluctance. Thus, for example, the upper
“ Female infants are, for the surface of the anvil, elsewhere flat most part, chosen as the less evil and somewhat inclined, is among for this cruel facrifice, because the Chinese Twelled into a convex daughters are confidered more pro. form. perly to belong to the families “ In the forges near Pekin, on into which they pass by marriage; the road to Zhehol, where this parwhile the fons continue the support ticularly was observed, another also and comfort of their own. Those attracted the attention of the tra. infants are exposed immediately on yeller. The bellows used by the the birth, and before the counte- cominon smiths of Europe are vernance is animated, or the features tical. The blaft is impelled, partly formed, to catch the affections rif- by the weight of the machine, rening in the parent's breast. A faint dered heavy for that purpose; but hope, at least, is generally enter. it is opened or raised by muscular taided, that they may yet be pre exertion overcoming the gravity served from untimely death, by the useful in the former instance; and, care of those who are appointed by during that operation, the blast is the government to collect these discontinued." But the Chinese bei miserable objects, for the purpose lows are horizontal. The workof providing for such as are found man is not aided at any one time alive; and for burying those who by the weight of the machine, but already bad expired.”
he is not burdened with it at an. “ The Chinese appear indeed to other. It is an advantage that the have Itrong-claims to the credit of labour Phould thus be equable and having been indehted only to them. never excessive. The bellows are felves for the invention of the made in the form of a box, of tools necessary in the primary and which a moveable door is so closely necessary arts of life. The learned fitted, as when drawn back to and attentive traveller will have create a vacuum in the box, into observed, in relation to common which, in consequence, the air tools, such as, for example, the rushing with impetuolity, through plane and anvil, that whether in an opening guarded by a valve, India or in Europe, in ancient or produces a blast through an oppnmodern times, they are found to site aperture. The same is conhave been fabricated in the same tinued when the door is pushed precife forın, scarcely ever differ- forward to the oppofite extremity ing, except perhaps in the rough- of the box; the space within it be ness of the materials, or of the ing diminished, and the air commake, and all denoting a common pressed, a part of it is forced out origin, being almost a fervile imita- through the fame aperture. When, tion of each other. In China alone, instead of a moveable door, a piston those tools have something peculiar is placed within it, the air is comin their construction, some differ- preffed between the piston and ence, often indeed flight; but als both extremities of the box alter
nately, and forced out upon the those inventions, and of the state of Same principle in both operations. Chinese artists at this time. In the This double or perpetual bellows, is firft discovery and eftablishment of worked with equal cafe, and with an art, it is practised awkwardly, double the effect of the common even with the help of tools ; and in or single bellows. A model of the this state it is supposed to be long Chinese bellows, not eafly intelli- stationary, until at length it advances gible by description, has been to its second period, when it bebrought to England, and will be comes improved, and the artift is submitted to the curious.
enabled to avail himself to the ut. “ The common plane of the Chi. most of every tool and machine pese carpenter is like the anvil, that can afsit him. The laft pe. diftinguished by some minute par- riod of perfection is that in which ticulars which characterise it to be the artist is become so dexterous, as original. It differs not only in the to complete his work with few, or way of fixing the chisel in it, but awkward tools, and with little or in the manner in which it is used. no affistance. And such is the chaThe ends of the frame itself serve, racter of the Chinese potter, weaver, elsewhere, for handles by which the worker in the precious metals, and tool is held, and applied to the in ivory, and of most others in the wood of which the surface is to be several trades commonly practised made smooth; but to the Chinese in the country. And such attainplane are fixed particular handles mentis, no doubt, the utmoft across the frame, by which the same effort of the art, and the strongest purpose is effected perhaps with test of a very ancient poffeffion greater eate.
of it. "The histories of the first re- “ It is not surprifing that the mote ages of Chinese transaction method of making gunpowder, and attribute the most useful inventions of printing, should be discovered in fociety to the first or oldest mo. by the Chinese long before they parchs of the country: It is much were known to Europeans. With more probable that they were the regard to the first, in whatever gradual result of the efforts of fe. country nature creates pitre (one veral obfcure individuals, who felt, of the chief ingredients for making in the course of their own labours, gunpowder) in the greatest plenty, and endeavoured to supply, the there its deflagrating quality is want of such mechanical assillance; mot likely to be firft observed; and that subsequent historians, not and a few experiments founded on able to trace the real inventors, that observation, will lead to the substitui:d the names of the en- composition that produces such couragers or promoters of those sudden and violent effects. Nitro arts. There is, however, reason to is the natural and daily produce of believe that not only the inven- China and India, and there, actions of fift neceffity, but thofe of cordingly, the knowledge of gundecoration and refinement, were powder seems to be coeval with known among the Chinese in re. that of the most distant hiftoric mote antiquity. The annals of events. Among the Chinese, it the empire bear testimony to the has been applied at all times to fact, and it is confirmed by a con- useful purposes, such as blasting fidei ation of the natural progress of rocks, and removing great obftruc
tions, and to those of amusement in antiquity, that the invention of making a vast variety of fireworks. printing, as here described, and It was also used as a defence, by coming so near to mere engravings undermining the probable page was likely foon to follow whenof the enemy, and blowing him up. ever the number of readers should But its force had not been directed be so great as to insure reward to through ftrong metallic tubes as it the inventor. The Itate of society was by Europeans soon after they in China, from the mot early ages, discovered it. Yet this invention rendered that number prodigious. did not prove so decifive for those Unlike to the rest of the world, who availed themselves of it, as to where valour and military talenta mark distinctly in history, the pre- occafionally united with naturalelocise period when its practice first quence, were originally the fountook place. And though, in imita- dation of all wealth and greatness, tion of Europe, it has been intro- while literature was little more duced into the armies of the East, than an amusement; the study of other modes of warfare are some. the written morals, history and potimes still preferred to it.
licy of China, was the only road, “ In relation to the second me. not merely to power and honour, thod, or that of printing, import but to every individual employant as are its effects in Europe, it ment in the state. The necessity, is obvious, that as its object is only therefore, for such a multiplicity of to multiply copies of the fame copies for all persons in the midwriting, it could be fought for only dling as well as upper classes of life in that fociety which produces in the most populous of all empires, many readers.
The number of was the early and natural parent of such would no doubt be increased the printing art, as it is still prac. wherever it were introduced; but tised among thern. where that oumber is become very “ The paper used by the Chinese considerable, from other causes for their publications, is too thin tending to increase the civilized and weak' to receive distinct imand lettered classes of society, the pressions on both sides. The envarious attempts to supply their graved board on which the paper in tafte, would naturally lead to fo laid to take the impression on one fimple an invention as the Chinese lide, generally contains the characart of printing. It consists in ters for two pages. nothing more than in cutting, in when printed off, is doubled togerelief, the forms of the written ther, the blank fides touching each characters on some compact wood, other. The fold forms the outer daubing afterwards those characters edge, which thus is double, while with a black glutinous substance, all the fingle edges, contrary to the and presling upon them different mode of European bookbinders, sheets of paper (itself a previous are stitched together and bound into and ingenious invention), each a volume. After the edition is sheet taking thus an impression of worked off, the plates or boards the characters upon which it had are collected together, and it is been laid. The art of engraving, generally mentioned in the preface for the gratification of the rich and where they are deposited, in case powerful, had been carried to such a second edition Mould be called perfe&tion among many nations of for.
." It has sometimes been thought which does not exift in printed in Europe, that moveable types European languages, where the were a preferable invention to that letters of the fame word selcony of the Chinele; but they feldom touch each other. can be applicable to the imprel- 66 The Chinese are satisfied, fion of writings in a language con whenever the same characters very Sifting, like theirs, in a vak variety frequently occnr, as in the public of characters, if each character le kalendars and gazettes, to use types considered as a letter in an alpha. for fucli, cuit apart, and occafionbet. The compositor in a printing- ally infertes within the frames office eally diftributes the four where they are wanted. and twenty letters of an alphabetic “ Gazettes are frequently publanguage. He at once perceives lifhed in Pekiir, under the authowhere each is to be found. He rity of government. The various distinguishes them at a glance. His appointments throughout the emhands even acquire the habit of pire, the favours granted by the reaching rapidly, without looking, emperor, all his public acts, bis refor them, as the fingers learn to million of taxes to districts suffertouch the keys of a harpfichord with. ing by dearth or other general caout turrring the eyes towards them. lamity, his recompenfe of extraorWhere there are many thoufands of dinary services, the embaffres fent, fuch keys, ie 'is obvious that no and the tribute paid to him, forni fuch habit could be acquired, nor a considerable part of the public could the keys be within reach. news. The domestic details of his The practice were equally impof. household, or of his private life, sible, in printing with eighty thou. are feldom, if ever mentioned. fand moveable types, for that num. Singular events, inftances of lonber of different characters of which gevity, fometimes the punishments the Chinese congue conhits. It has of offences committed by mandanot, indeed, occurred to the ar- rines, are there recorded. Eren tists of China to form moveable fome instances of tire adultery of woand feparate types, for each of the men, which is a punishable, though minute strokes or elements, of not a capital offence, are occafionwhich such characters are com- ally publiiled, perhaps, by way posed, as has been attempted foine of deferring others from the comyears fince in Germany. It is por- million of the like enormities. fible that such a praciice might be While China was at war, its vi&o found to anfwer, notwithitanding ries, as well as the fuppreffion of the difficulty which must arise rebellions, trere announced. In all from the minutenets of the type other cases the world, in point of neceffary for each particular stroke; intelligence, is confined to China. a difficulty which when all the ** Befide the clanic works of the types are not necessarily of so small Chinese, of which the multiplicaa lize, has been overcome by a very tion by printing is prodigious, the ingenious and learned gentleman, lighter literature of the country in printing the Persian language gives no inconsiderable occupation in Bengal; and the further dith to the press. The Orphan of China, culty, of uniting, in the impreflion, however improved in an English the several strokes, marked by fe. dress, by a very respectable draparate types, of a Chinese character, matic poet, may be confidered as