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" The country about Tong- tal writers. A roller is likewise choo-foo, for several miles, is level moved over it by the Chinese. For and fertile. Some of the English gen. these operations a platform of hard tiemen were supplied with horses, earth and sand is prepared in the to ride about in the neighbour- open air. A machine has been al. hood. The horses were strong and ways used here for winpowing corn, bony: The breed does not seem to exactly fimilar to that which has have been improved by care. Mules been introduced, within this cetbear a greater price than common tury, it is said, in Europe. It is horfes, as sublisting on less food, probably a Chinele invention. and capable of more labour. Many “ Indian corn and small millet of the horses were spotted as re- formed, in this place, the principal gularly as a leopard, such were fo produce of the autumo crop. There common, as to remove the suspicion were few inclosures, and few cattle of any fraud by artificial colouring. to make them necessary. Scarcely The race of those spotted horses any fields to be seen in pasture. is supposed, among other means, to The animals neceffary för tillage, be obtained by crossing those of or for carriage, and thofe destined opposite hues. The saddle furni- to serve for food, were mostly fed ture differed as much from the in stalls, and fodder collected for neatness of what is made in Eng. them. Beans and the finer kind land, as the cattle themselves from of straw cut small, composed a Arabian coursers. The riders met greater proportion of the food for feveral Chinese on horseback, who, horfes. The roots of corn, and on approaching, alighted in civility coarser stems, are frequently left to to the strangers. This is a mark of rot upon the ground for the purrefpe&t shewn here always to su. pose of manure. periors, and the custom has been · The houses of the peasants exte:ded to other parts of the Eait. were scattered about, instead of be. · The Dutch governor and countele ing united into villages. The cot. lors of the Indies exact, in imita- tages seemed to be clean and comtion, that kind of homage from all fortable : they were without fences, perlons resident in Batavia. It ap- gates, or other apparent precaution peared indeed, from leveral inftan- against wild beasts or thieves. Robbeces, in Java, Sumatra, and Cochin. ry is said to happen seldom, though china, that China gives the ton to not punished by dea:h, unless ago the countries bordering on the gravated by the commission of some Chinese seas. The distinction of violent assault. The wives of the yellow colour, for exartple, by the peasantry are of material aillance Emperor, is affected by every Tove to their families, in addition to the reign in the eastern part of Agia. rearing of their children, and the
* The mixture of eastern and care of their domestic concerns; for western cuftoms, is to be seen some- they carry on most of the trades times in China. Thus in the neigh- which can be exercised within bourhood of Tong.choo-fuo, the doors. Not only they rear silk season of the harveit gave occafion worms, and spin the cotton, which to observe, that the corn is some- last is in general use for both sexes times threshed with the common of the people ; but the women are Aail of Europe, and fometimes almost the sole weavers throughout pressed out by cattle treading on the empire. Yet few of them fail the fheaf, as is described by Orien- to injure their healths, or at leaf
their active powers, by facrificing their actions. Their exansple, as in imitation of females of fiiperior far as it was good, serves a an rank, to the prejudice in favour of incitement to travel in the line liule teet; and though the operation path. The descendants from a for this purpole is not attempted at common lock, visit the tombs of so early a period of their infancy, or their forefathers together, at stated followed up afterwards with such times. This joint care, and indeed persevering care, as in the cale of other occasions, collect and unite ladies with whom beauty can be the molt reinote relations. They come an object of more attention, cannot lofe light of each other; enough is practised to cripple and and seldom become indifferent to disfigure them.
their respective concerus. The “Nutwithlanding all the merit child is bound to labour and to of these helpniates to their huso provide for his parents' mainte. bands, the laiter arrogate an extra- nance and comfort, and the brother ordinary dominion over them, and for the brother and filter that are in hold them at such a distance, as not extreme want; the failure of which always to allow theni to fit at table, duiy would be followed by such behind which, in fuch case, they at- detétiati. ., that it is not necessary tend as handmaids. This dominion to enforce it by pogtive law. Even is tempered, indeed, by the maxims the mott diftant kiofman reduced of mild conduct in the different to milery by accident or ill health, relations of life, inculcated from has a claim on his kindred for relief. carly childhood amongst the lowest Manners, stronger far than laws, as well as highest claffes of society. and indeed inclination, produced The old perions of a family live and nurtured by intercourse and generally with the young. The intimacy, secure affittance for him. former serve to moderate any occa- These habits and manners fully exfonal impetuofity, violence, or plain the fact already mentioned, passion of the latter. The influence which unbappily appears extraor. of age over youth is supported by dinary to Europeans, that no spec. the sentiments of nature, by the ha- tacles of distress are seen, to excite bit of obedience, by the precepts of the compassion, and implore the morality ingrafted in the law of casual charity of individuals. It is the land, and by the unremitted po. to be added, that this circumstance licy and honeft hearts of parents to is not owing to the number of inthat effect. They who are past titutions of public benevolence. labour, deal out the rules which they The with, indeed, of the Pergian had learned, and the wisdom which monarch is not realized in China, experience taught them, to those that none should be in want of the who are rising to maohood, or to succour administered in hospitals; those lately arrived at it. Flain but those establishments are rensertences of morals are written up dered little necessary, where the in :he common hall, where the link which unites all the branches male branches of the family assem- of a family, brings aid to the sufferble. Some one, at least, is capable ing part of it without delay, and of reading them to the rest. In al- without humiliation. most every bouse is hung up a ta- “ It seldom, indeed, happens blet of the ancestors of the persons that the infirmities of men, or che then residing in it. References are weakness of children, render them often made , in conversation, to utterly incapable of making some
return of industry for the fubGstence their private virtues, or public serthey receive. In the manufactures vices, and by the honours conferred carried on within doors, very mate- upon them in consequence, by the rial assistance may often be afforded, governinent, is much more reipect. with little exertion of strength; and. ed than new men. The supposed abroad, the foil is light, and tillage descendants of Confucius are aleasy: Oxen are used for plough ways treated with particular reing in this part of China, being too gard, and immunities have been cold for buffaloes, which are pre- granted to them by the emperors. ferred where they can be reared. The ambition of an illustrious de- , Cattle are yoked by the neck, in- scent is so general, that the empe. stead of being so by the horns, as rors have often granted titles to the upon the continent of Europe." decealed ancestors of a living man
“The reader will observe, that of merit. Indeed, every means are the names of the Chinese mention- tried to stimulate to good, and to ed in this work, are, independently deter from evil, actions, by the reof the additions of their qualities, ward of praise, as well as by the all of one fyllable; as is every word dread of thame. A public register, in the Chinese language. T'he ad- called the Book of Merit, is kept ditions are the more necessary, as a for the purpose of recording every name implies no distinction in fa- striking instance of meritorious vour of the family which bears it. conduět ; and, in the enumeration There are but one hundred 'family of a man's titles, the number of names known throughout the em times that his name has been fo pire; and the expresfion of the inserted, is particularly mentioned. hundred names is often used as For faults, on the other hand, he is a collective term for the whole subject to be degraded; and it is Chinese nation. Individuals, how. not deemed sufficient that he ever, occafionally affume, at differe should affume only his reduced ent periods, or under different cir- title; but he must' likewise add cumitances of their lives, other to his name the fact of his degraappellations expressive of some qua- dation." lity or event. Each family name
“ In China there is less inequais borne by persons of all classes. lity in the fortunes, than in the Identity of fuch names implies, conditions of men. The ancient however, some connection. All annals of the empire testify that, who bear it may attend the hall of for a long period of time, the earth, their supposed common ancestors. like the other elements of nature, A Chinese seldom, if ever, marries was enjoyed by its inhabitants, ala woman of his family name; but most in common. Their country was the fons and daughters of lifters divided into 'Imall equal districts; married to husbands of two dif. every district was cultivated con. ferent names, marry frequently; jointly by eight fabouring families, those of two brothers bearing the which composed each hainlet, and fanie name, cannot. Though names they enjoyed all the profit of their always do not denote distinctions, Jabours, except a certain share of and though no liereditary nobility the produce reserved for public exexifts in China, pedigree is there an pences. It was true, indeed, that object of much attention. He who after a revolution, deplored in all can reckon his ancestors to a dif. the Chinese histories, which baptant period, as if diftinguithed by pened prior to the Christian era,
the ufurper granted all the lands The delegated authority of governaway to the partners of his victories, ment often leans more heavily on Jeaving to the cultivators of the the unprotected rich, than on the foil a Imail pittance only, out of poor, who are less objects of tempt. the revenue which it yielded. Pronation. And it is a common reperty in land also becaine hereditary; mark among the Chinese, that for. but in process of time the most con- times either by being parcelled
out fiderable domains were subdivided to many heirs, or by being loft in into very moderate parcels by the commercial speculations, gaming, fucceffive distribution of the poslef- or extravagance, or extorted by op fions of every father equally among preffive mandarines, feldom conall his fons: the daughters being tinue to be considerable in the inalways married without dower. It dividuals of the same family beyond very rarely happened that there was the third generation. To ascend but an only son to enjoy the whole again the ladder of ambition, it is property of his deceased parents ; neceffary, by long and laborious and it could scarcely be increased by study, to excel in the learning of the collateral fucceffion. For the ha- country, which alone qualifies for bits of the country, as well as the public
employments. dictates of nature, led most men “ There are properly but three there to marry early. It was classes of men in China. Men of reckoned a discredit to be without letters, from whom the mandarines offspring. They who had none, are taken ; cultivators of the adopted those of others, who be ground; and mechanics, includ. came theirs exclufively. In case ing merchants. In Pekin alone is of marriage, should a wife prove conferred the highest degree of libarren, a second night be espoused terature upon those who, in public in the life-time of the first. The examinations are found most able in opulent were allowed, as in most the science of morality and govern parts of the East, to keep concu. ment, as taught in the ancient Chibines without reproach. The chil- nese writers; with which studies, dren of such were considered as be the history of their country is intiing those of the legitimate wife, to-mately blended. Among such grawards whom they were bred in fen- duates all the civil offices in the timents of duty and affection; and 'ftate are distributed by the emperor; they partook in all the rights of le- and they compose all the great trigitimacy.
bunals of the empire. The candi"From the operations of all those dates for those degrees, are such as causes, there was a constant tendency have succeeded in limilar examinato level wealth: and few could suc- tions in the principal city of each ceed to sucti an accumulation of it province. Those who have been as to render them independent of chosen in the cities of the second 'any efforts of their own for its in- order, or chief town of every discreate. Besides, wealth alone con. triet in the province, are the candifers in China but little importance, dates in the provincial capital. and no power: nor is property, They wbo fail in the first and fewithout office, always perfe&ly fe. cond classes have still a claim on
There is no hereditary dig. subordinate offices, proportioned to nity, which might accompany, and the class in which they had fucgive it pre-eminence and weight. ceeded. Those examinations are
carried on with great folemnity, as those of mathematics, of mediand apparent fairness. Military cine, of public works, of literature rank is likewise given to those who and history. The whole is a regu are found, upon competition, to lar and confiftent system, establijaexcel in the military art, and in ed at a very early period, continewarlike exercises.
ed with litde alterations through “ The great tribunals are fituat. every dynasty, and revived, after ed, for the sake of convenience, any interruption from the caprice near the southern gate of the impe- or paffions of particular princes rial palace at Pekin. To them, ac- Whatever deviation had been made couats of all the transactions of the by the present family on the throne, empire are regularly transmitted. arifes from the admiffion of as They are councils of reference from many Tartars as Chinese into every the emperor, to whom they report tribunal. The opinions of the every buliness of moment, witk the former are supposed always to premotives for the advice which they ponderate. Many of them, indeed, offer on the occasion. There is a are men of considerable talents, and body of doctrine composed from the trength of mind, as well as powritings of the earliest ages of the lifhed manners. The old viceroy empire, confirmed by fubfequent of Pe-che-lee is of a Tartar race. daw givers and sovereigns, and tranf- “ The estimated population of mitted from age to age with in- Pekin was carried in the last cencreaking veneration, which serves as tury, by the jefuit Grimaldi, as rules to guide the judgment of those quoted by Gemelli Carreri, to fixtribunals. This doctrine seems in. ceen millions. Another miffionary deed founded on the broadeft bafis reduces at leaft that of the Tartar of universal justice, and on the city, to one million and a quarter. pureft principles of humanity. According to the best information
“ His imperial majesty generally given to the embaffy, the whole conforms to the suggestions of those was aboạt three millions. The low tribunals. One tribunal is direded houses of Pekin fcem scarcely fufo to confider the qualifications of the ficient for fo valt a population; bot different mandarines for different very little room is occupied by a offices, and to propose their re- Chinese family, at least in the mida moval when found incapable or un- dling and lower classes of life. In juft. One bas for object, the pre- their houses there are no superfluservation of the manners or morals ous apartments. A Chinese dwelof the empire, called by Euro- ling is generally surrounded by a peans the tribunal of ceremonies, wall, fix or feven feet high. Withwhich it regulates on the maxim, in this inclosure, a whole family, of that exterior forms contribute not a three generations, with all their relittle to prevent the breach of mo- spective wives and children, will ral rules. The most arduous and frequentiy be found. One small critical, is the tribunal of censors; room is made to serve for the indi. taking into its confideration the ef- viduals of each branch of the family, fect of subfifting laws, the conduct fleeping in different beds, divided of the other tribunals, of the princes only by mats hanging from the and great officers of state, and even ceiling. One common room is used of the emperor himself. There are for eating. several subordinate tribunals, such “ The prevalence of this custom