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and to urge the heaviest complaisits “Every spring he leaves Constanagainst him for his injustice and ill- tinople with a few ships, to visit treatment. Meanwhile the pasha the Archipelago, to receive the cadied. The capidji bafhi was dir. pitation tax from the different patched by the sultan' to seize the islands, and to free the feas from treafure, but found nothing; and pirates, and the Maltese cruisers. Yusuf, from the predicainent in The time of his coming is generalwhich he stood, was the last person ly known, so that the service is lit. to be suspected. With this wealth tle more than a matter of form. he lived in spleudour at Conftanti. His reception by the sultan, both dople, and frequented the audiences at his departure and return, is a of the visier. He was soon appoint, brilliant spectacle. He is married ed taraphanà eminy, or matter of to the only daughter of Abdul-hathe mint, from which he was ad- mid, and is honoured with the privanced to his present post.
vate friend thip of his sovereign. “ 2. Ratib Effendi has twice “Every scheme for defending the held the important office of reis ef- coasts of the Black sea by forts and fendi, or secretary of state. He batteries, and for military regula. rose from a public elerk, passing tions, is submitted to Cheliby Ef. through all the preliminary grada- fendi, who surveys their execution, tions with distinguished ability. He if approved. He was master of is beyond comparilon the best in the mathematical school founded formed, and most capable minister in 1773 by Ghazi Hassan palha, a in the cabinet.
very celebrated character in the last “ Tchiusèh, kiayah, or deputy to reign. the visier, is at the head of the fi. * This extraordinary perfon was nance, and planned the new taxes. likewise a Georgian flave, and af
“ The present capudàn pafha, or terward a Barbary corsair. Having liigh admiral, called Kuchuk Hur. been taken prilouer by the Spasein, from his diminutive stature, viards, he pasied six years of Navewas a Georgian Nave, and the com- ry at Madrid, from whence he was panion of the sultan in his chili. sent to Naples, where he was exa hood. From the seraglio he e. changed, and returned to Conftanmerged to take the command of tinople. His reputation for persothe navy, it may be presumed with val courage procured him the com. out much previous acquaintance mand of a galley, and afterward o with inaritime affairs. But his ad. a frigate. Al the unfortunate batministr:tion has been very benefi- tle of Cheshme he had a fhip of cial; for he has raised the marine the line under Jaffer, capudàn from the miserable state it was left parha, who upon his disgrace died in at the conclusion of the Ruflian of chagrin, and was succeeded by war, to respectability. The new Halfan. thips are built under the inspection “ He was extremely whimsical, of European surveyors, and French and kept a lion's whelp always on nautical terms have been adopted. his sofa, which he had trained up At the beginning of the present to follow him, but which, having century, the Turkish fleet consisted killed one of the domeftics, was afof 32 illips of the line, 34 galleys, terwards.chained. He became viand some brigantines; they can fier, and died at the age of more than now send to sea 14 first rates, 6 fri• seventy, in the camp againft the gaies, and so loops of war. Ruffians, it without suspicion of
prison. So fingular was his bravery, Another Hafsån patha who hated Ind fo frequent his successes, that him, becoming visier, ordered him he assumed the name of Ghazi, the to be beheaded upon the charge victorious. Abdul-hamid was fear- of betraying Giurgevow, she first ful, and considered the fafety of the Turkish fortress upon the Danube, empire endangered by his absence to the Germans. He died a mu from Constantinople.
fulman. Abdul-hamid, when in. “Of his prevailing influence the formed of the last-mentioned cirfollowing relation is a proof, and cumftances, was so far convinced gives traits of secret machinations of his innocence, that in a few practifed in the seraglio.
months the vindi&tive visier shared “ One of his slaves, named Yo- the same fate. sùf, had fo recommended himself “ The officers of the feraglio are by superior talents, that he gave very numerous. The kiflar-agha, him liberty, and promotion to the or chief of the black eunuchs, have , most confiderable offices. At the ing the arrangement of the female time Yusòf returned from his ga departinent, is most familiar with vernment of Morea, to take upon the sultan, and is a powerful friend, him the office of vifier, Mayro. or enemy, to the ministers of state. yeni, a Greek of a noble family, « Berween the officers of the sc. was the dragoman, or interpreter, raglio and those who compose the to his patron Haffan. Petraki, an- divan, there fubfifts a perpetual riother Greek, was master of the valry; and if the emperor be either mint, and imperial banker, and very active or indoleat in public had amassed 'seven millions of business, there is ample cause for piastres.
their jealoufy. Those with whom “ This man being ambitious of he is constantly conversant, and bebecoming prince of Wallachia, he fore whom he relaxes into colloquial three times procured the appoint- freedom, muft necessarily obtain fe ment of Mavro-yeni to that high cret influence enough to bias him tation, who had the interest of in matters of importance, if he Hafsan, and the visier to be supere withes others than his oftenfible feded.' But they, impatient of the counsellors, or is determined by disappointment, represented to Abe first representations without further dul-hamid, that the people de- deliberation. manded the life of Petraki in 6. The ministers are admitted to atonement of his peculation, who an audience with the sultan with timidly consented to his execution, the profoundest ceremony. Even and he was instantly imprisoned in the presence of the mild Abdul. On the very day of the high cere. hamid the bold Hafan was over. mony of Mavro-yeni's investiture, powered with awe, and the lion he was led to the gate of the ferae feemed to be transformed into a glio to kiss his stirrup, and sue for lamb. One of the prefent ministry, pardon. At that instant the exe- a man of great vivacity, is faid to cutioner fruck off his head, and compose his spirits with a pill of Mavro-yeni had the satisfaction of opiuin before he approaches the seeing his rival dead at his feet. throne."
MANNERS OF NATIONS.
PARTICULARS relative to the RELIGION, ECONOMY, CLASSES, Ter
BUNALS, Customs, Arts, LITERATURE, and SCIENCE of the CHINESE
[Extracted from Sir George STAUNTON's authentic Account of an Ex
BASSY from the King of GREAT BRITAIN to the EMPEROR OF CHINA.)
edifices, by Europeans term- than by fuppofing it to have been a ed pagodas, there are several kinds, trick of the Devil to mortify the and dedicated to several uses in Chi Jesuits. One of them observes, na; but none to religious worship: that the likeness is so strong bea The temples which are consecrated tween the apparent worship or mato such a purpose differ little in ny of the priests of Fn, and that height from common dwelling hou- which is exhibited in churches of fes, as in the instance of the Em. the Roman faith, that a Chinese bailador's momentary residence near conveyed into one of the latter,
Tong.choo-foo.. The presence of might imagine the votaries he faw foreigners there did not prevent the were then adoring the deities of his usual atHuence of devotees. The own country. On the aicar of a Chinese interpreter of the Embaffy, Chinese temple, behind a screen, is who was a most zealous Chriftian frequently a reprefentation which of the Roman Catholic persuasion, night answer for that of the Virgin and himself a priest of that com- Mary, in the person of Sbin noc, munion, faw with regret, the Eng
the Eng. or the sacred mother, fitting in an linh curiously examining the images alcove with a child in her arms, or attending to the ceremonies of the and rays proceeding from a circle, religion of Fo, left they should per- which are called a glory, round her ceive the resemblance between its head, with tapers burning constantly exterior forms and those of his own before her. The long coarse gowns church. Suchresemblance had been, of the Ho-Maungs, or priests of indeed, already thought so striking, Fo, bound with cords round the that foine of the missionaries conjec waist, would almoft equally fuit the tured that the Chinese had formerly friars of the order of St. Francis. received a glimpse of Christianity. The former live, like the latter, in fiom the Nestorians, by the way of a state of celibacy, refide in mona. "I artary: 01hers, that Saint Thomas fteries together, and impose, occathe Apostle had been amongst fionally, upon themselves voluntary them; but the missionary Prémare penance, and rigorous abftinence.
“ The “The temples of Fo abound to marry, or go a journey, or conwith more images than are found clude a bargain, or change fituain most Christian churches, and tion, or for any other material event some that bear a greater analogy in life, it is necessary first to consult to the ancient than the present the superintendant deity. This is worship of the Romans. One fi- performed by various methods. gure representing a female, was Some place a parcel of confecrated thought to be something similar to sticks, differently marked and numLucina, and is particularly addreff- bered, which the consultant, kneel. ed by unmarried women wanting ing before the altar, shakes in a husbands, and married women hollow hamboo, until one of them wanting children. The doctrine of falls on the ground; its mark is exFo, admitting of a subordinate de:- amined, and referred to a correty particularly propitious to every fpondent mark in a book which the wish which can be formed in the priest holds open, and sometimes human mind, would scarcely fail to even it is written upon a Meet of spread among those classes of the paper pasted upon the inside of the people who are not satisfied with temple. Polygonal pieces of wood their profpects, as resulting from are by others thrown into the air. the natural causes of events. Its Each side has its particular mark; progress is not obstructed by any the lide that is uppermost when measures of the government of the fallen on the floor, is in like man. country, which does not interfere ner referred to its correspondent with mere opinions. li prohibits mark in the book or feet of fate. no belief which is not supposed to If the first throw be favourable, the affect the tranquillity of society. person who made it proftrates him
“ There is in China no state re. self in gratitude, and undertakes ligion. None is paid,.preferred, or afterwards, with confidence, the encouraged by it. The emperor is business in agitation. But if the of one faith ; many of the manda- throw Mould be adverse, he tries a rines of another ; and the majority second time, and the third throw of the common people of a third, determines, at any rate, the quefwhich is that of Fo. This last tion. In other respects the people class, the least capable, froin igno- of the present day seem to pay lit. rance, of explaining the phenome. tle attention to their priests. The na of nature, and the most exposed temples are, however, always open to wants which it cannot supply by for such as choose to consult the ordinary means, is willing to recur decrees of heaven. They return to the supposition of extraordinary thanks when the vracle proves propowers, which may operate the ef. pitious to their wishes. Yet they fects it cannot explain, and grant oftener cast lots, to know the issue the requests which it cannot other. of a projected enterprise, than supwise obtain.
plicate for its being favourable; “No people are, .in fact, more and their worship consists more in superstitious than the common Chi. thanksgiving than in prayer. nese. Beside the habitual offices Few Chinese are seldom said of devotion on the part of the to carry the objects, 'to be obtained priests and females, the temples are by their devotion, beyond the beneparticularly frequented by the dif- fits of this life. Yet the religion ciples of Fo, previoufly to any un- of Fo professes the doctrine of the dertaking of importance; whether transmigration of fouls, and pro
mises happiness to the people on in the beak of an eagle, to expreso conditions which were, no doubt, the devouring effects of thunder, originally intended to confit in the as his wings do his swiftness. With performance of moral duties; but one hand he grasps a thunderbolt, in lieu of which are too frequently and in the other is held a truncheon Substituted those of contributions for strikingseveral kettle-drums with towards the erection or repair of which he is he surrounded. The temples, the maintenance of pricfts, talons of an eagle are sometimes and a frict attention to particular represented as fixed upon the axis observances. The negle&t of these of a wheel, upon which, with added is announced as punițiable by the velocity, he rolk among the clouds. souls of the defaulters paffing into In the original from whence this the bodies of the meanest animals, description is taken, the dreadful in whom the sufferings are to be effects of this terrific spirit beneath proportioned to the tranfgreffions the clouds are pointed out by the committed in the human form."
appearance of animals ftruck dead, “ The temples of Pekin are not and lying proftrate on the ground, equal to its palaces. The religion buildings overturned, and trees of the Emperor is new in China, torn up by the roots." and its worship is performed with “ No legal tax is imposed in most magnificence in Tartary. The China on the score of religion. Ce. mandarines, the men of letters, rernonies are ordained by it, in the from whom are selected the magis. performance of which some time is traies who govern the empire, and necessarily consumed, and sacrifices possess the upper ranks of life, ve- are required, which occafion ex. nerate rather than they adore Con- pence, on the new and full mood; fucius; and meet to honour and and in spring and autumn; and celebrate his memory in halls of a likewise in the beginning of the fimple but neat construction. The year. On the latter occalion, par. numerous and lower classes of the ticularly, much diffipation takes people are less able than inclined place. Some good allo is effected. to contribute much towards the Acquaintances renew their suferection of large and costly edifices pended intercourse; friends offendfor public worthip. Their religious ed are reconciled; every thing dates attention is much engaged, belides, as from a new era. The pooreft with their household gods. Every cottager locks forward and prehouse has its altar and its deities, pares, during the preceding months, The books of their mythology con- for an interval, however brief, of lain representations of those who enjoying life, after having so lang preside over their persons and pro- dragged on laborioufly the burden perties, as well as over exterior ob- of it." jects likely to affect them. In the “ The Chinese have no Sunday, representation of Lui-shin, or spirit nor even such a divifion as a week. prefiding over thunder, the violence The temples are, however, open of that meteor, which nothing is every day for the vifits of devotees. supposed capable of withstanding, Persons of that description have, the velocity of the lightning, which from time to time, made grants, nothing can exceed, and their though to no great amount, for the united effects, are represented by a maintenance of their clergybut monftrous Agure, who is involved no lands are subject to ecclefiaftical io clouds. His chin is terminated tither." 5.