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was presented with a cardinal's chair about eight. His remains hat, and made chancellor of the were deposited in a brick grave in Roman church, the next dignitary St. Peter's church, but were afterIn the pope. The emperor Charles wards removed by Paul II 1. to the V. granted him great pensions, church of St. Maria-sopra-Miand when Leo broke with Cæsar, nerva. Francis I. to make a recompence "Revenge, more than policy, for the loss it would occafion to the made Leo the inveterate enemy of Cardinal, assigned him an annuity France; he remembered that the and preferments to the value of ten misfortunes of his house were in a thousand ducats yearly, as he had be- great measure owing to that na. fore done to Lorenzo. His promo- tion; but whenever his own or his tions in the church were beyond all family's interest demanded it, he decency, holding, bifhopricks in altered his conduct. He professed most of the kingdoms in Europe; the utmost affection for Francis I. and Leo, after Lorenzo's death, apo at Bologna, where they had an inpointed him governor of Florence. terview, yet he took the first op
“ In all these various situations, portunity to break his engagements Julio acted with consummate pru. with that monarch. dence, and by the confidence Leo “Leo's excess of magnificence placed in him, he plainly pointed charmed the Romans; a medal him out as heir to the Medicean' was itruck with Liberalitas Pongrandeur. There was none of the tificia upon the reverse, with a elder branch of the family to con- device suitable to the motto. He tett it with him, and if there had, was the first pontiff that had a mehis vast advantages would have fe- dal elegantly wrought; his predecured it to him against every oppo. ceffor began to strike them. Marnent.
tin I. is the earliest who had one " In this fituation was the house struck in honour of his memory. of Medici, when Leo, its head, 66 Leo's ambition and inclination was faddenly called away by excess to enlarge the patrimony of St. of joy; for whilft he fat at supper, Peter was equal to that of his prenews was brought him that the decessor; but Julius left a full, French were beaten out of Italy; Leo an empty treasury.
· Other he cried out, God has been so • pontificates,' it was said, "expire • merciful to me, as to let me see ed at the death of a pope, but his
three things, which I desired from continued long after.' His uno - the bottom of my heart: To bounded magnificence and libera. • return with honour into Florence, lity, which his revenue, immense
whence I was banished with as it was, could not support, by • shame; to have merit fufficient producing the sale of indulgences, • to advance me to the papacy; and began the Reformation. Some of " to see the French beaten out of them the pope liad given to be • Italy.' In pronouncing of which raised by fale, in particular prolast words, he fell dead with the vinces, to his relations and friends; glass he held in his hand.
Saxony was apportioned to his fifter “ This event took place Decem- Maddelene, the wife of Francisco ber 2, 1521, when he had within Cibo, son of Innocent VIII. not a few days completed his forty, more from affinity to her than in sighth year, and 'sat in the papal gratitude to him, whole family had
treated the Medici in the kindest that of a Bacchanalian. With manner after their expulsion from all these excessive detects, he will Florence. These were fold at so ever be remembered by the lovers preat and extravagant a price, that of learning and taste with venerait called forth Luther, and Luther, tion. His reigoi was the golden age freedom from papal tyranny.
of literature, and the arts were "" His atfection to his family, by not lets obliged to him, owing in its excess becaine highly criminal, a great measure to his father have because neither justice, honour, 'or ing fele&ted those of the highest gratitude, were any impediment to celebrity in every science for lis ihe pronioring their intereft, for- tutors and early companions. How getting for that purpose every thing much is it to be laniented, that he due to his facred character. It is was not equally virtuous as learned faid he did not even pretend to be- and elegant.” lieve in revelation. His mirth was
MEMOIRS of BARON BORN.
(From Travels in HUNGARY,&c. by Robert Townson, LL.D.&c.)
burg in Transylvania, of a in 1774 published his letters.-It noble family, and came early in life was in this tour that he so nearly to Vienna, and ttuced under the lost his life, and where he was Jesuits; who, no doubt, perceiv. struck with that disease which eming in him nore than common bittered the rest of his days, and abilities, and that he would one which was only rendered fupportday be an honour to their order, able by a strong philosophic mind prevailed on hiin to enter into it; and active disposition. but of this fociety he was a mem- " It was at Felfo-Banya where ber only for about a year and a
he met with this misfortune, as apo hulf. He then left Vienna and vent pears from his eightrenth letter to to Prague, where, as it is the custom Mr. Ferber. He descended bere in Germany, he studied the law. into a mine, where fire was used As soon as he bad conipleted his to detach the ore, to observe the ftudies, he made a tour through a efficacy of this means, too soon afpart of Germany, Holland, the ter the fire had been extinguished, Netizerlands, and France; and re- and whilst the mine was full of arturning to Pragiie, he engaged in sevical vapours raised by the heat. the studies of natural history, min. “My long silence,' says he to his ing, and their connected branches; friend Ferber, is the consequence and in 1770 he was received into of an unlucky accident, which the department of the mines and had almost coft me my life. I de. mint at Prague. As we learn from “scended the Great Mine to see the his letters, this year he made a tour, manner of applying the fire, and and visited the principal mines of its effects on the mine, when the Hungary and Transylvania, and · fire was hardly extinct, and the during it kept up a correspondence 'mine was ftill full of smoke.'
How greatly he suffered in his Memoirs of a private Society in health by this accident appears from Buhemia.' his letter which we mentioned when “ His fame reaching the empress we spoke of Tokay; where it will Mary Theresa, in 1776 the called be remeinbered he complained that birn to Vienna lo arrange and dehe could hardly bear the motion of scribe the imperial collection : and his carriage: upon this misfortune about two years after, he published he haftened to Vienna. After this the splendid work containing the he was appointed at Prague coun. Conchology:' in the execution sellor of the mines. In 1771 he of this, I believe, he had some ass publithed a small work of the Je- fistance. The empress defrayed the suit Poda, on the machinery viled expences for a certain number of about mines; and the next year copies. On the death of this pahis Lithophylacium Borneanum. tron the work was discontinued, This is the catalogue of his col. her successor, the emperor Joseph, lection of foffils, which he after. not favouring the undertaking. wards disposed of to the hon. Mr. He had likewile the honour of in. Greville. This work drew on him ftructing the arch-duchess Maria the attention of mineralogists, and Anna in natural history, who was brought him into correspondence partial to this entertaining study with the first men in this line. He and he formed and arranged for was now made a member of the her a neat museum. la 1779 he Royal Societies of Stockholm, Si- was raised to the office of actual enna, and Padua ; and in 1774, the counsellor of the court chamber fame honour was conferred on him (Hof Kammer) in the department by the Royal Society of London. of the mines cod mint. This of,
“ During his residence in Bohę. fice detained him constantly in Vi. mia, he did not apply himself to enna, and engaged the chief part the business of his charge alone; of his time, but his active disposition induced “ The consequences of his mis. him to seek for opportunities of fortune at Felfo-Banya began now extending knowledge, and of be. to be felt in the severest manner; ing useful to the world. He took he was attacked with the most ex. a part in the work entitled • Por- cruciating colics, which rose to
traits of the Learned Men and such a degree as to threaten a speedy • Artists of Bohemia and Moravia.! termination of his life and miseries. He was, likewise concerned in the In this depth of torment he had • Aëta Literaria Bohemiæ et Mora- recourse to the usual calmer of bo. • viæ;' and the editor of the latter dily pain, opiuin; and a large por. publicly acknowledges in the pre- tion of this being placed by the face to it, how much Bohemian li- side of him, which he was ordered terature is indebted to him. Prague only to take in small doses; once and Vienna were both without a brought to desperation through the public cabinet for the use of the intensity of his pain, he swallowed students : it was at his instigation it at one draught. This brought that government was induced to on a lethargy, which lasted fourform one, and he himselt afsifted and-twenty hours; but when he by his contributious and his labours. .awoke he was free of his pains. In 1775 he laid the foundation of The disorder now attacked his legs a literary society, which published and feet, particularly his right leg, several volumes under the title of and in this he was lame for the rest
of his life; sometimes the lame their meetings, dissertations on ness was accompanied by pain, fome subject of history, ethics, fometimes not. But his feet by or moral philosophy, were read by degrees withered, and he was ob- the members; and commonly fome. liged to fit, or lie, or lean upon a thing on the history of ancient and sopha; though sometimes he was modern niysteries, and secret fo. so well as to be able to sit upon a cieties. These were afterwards ftool, but not to move from one published in the Diary for Free room to the other without allitt- masons, for the use of the initiat. ånce.
ed, and not for public sale.--In “ His free and active genius led the winter they met occasionally, him to intereft himself in all the and held more public discourses, occurrences of the times, and to to which the members of the other take an active part in all the ir.sti- lodges were allowed access. As tutions and plans for enlightening most of the learned of Vienna be. and reforming mankind. With longed to this lodge, it was very thefe benevolent intentions he form- natural to suppose, that many of ed connections with the Free Ma- the differtations read here were fons, whose views in this part of not quite within the limits of the the world were something more original plan of the society. It than eating and drinking, as may was these differtations, I believe, be conjectured by the laws and re- which gave rise to another perigulations made against masonry by odical work entitled, “Phífica. the emperor Jofeph. Under the lische Arbeiten der einträchtigen resa, this order was obliged to keep • Freunde in Wien,' which was itself very secret in Austria; but continued for fonse time by the, baJoseph, on his coming to the ron and liis brother Masons. He throne, tolerated it, and the baron was likewise active in extirpating founded in the Austrian metropo- fuperftitions of various kinds which lis a dodge called the “True Con had crept into the other lodges, and
cord. This was no card club, or equally' zealous in giving to these association for eating and drinking, focieties such an organization as where the leading members were might render them useful to the chofen by their capacity for taking public. in solids and liquids, and where a “ The baron, and many others good song was considered as a first of his lodge, belonged to the sorate qualification; but a fociety of ciety of the Illuminated.' This learned men, whose lodge was a was no dishonour to him: the views place of rendezvous for the literati of this order, at least at first, seem of the capital.
to have been commendable; they “ No doubt the obstacles these were the improvement of mankind, gentlemen would find, to the pro- not the destruction of fociety. Such gress of science and useful know. institutions are only useful or dana ledge, in the church hierarchy, and gerous, and to be approved of or in the cabals of courtiers, would condemned, according to the state draw their attention to political of fociety; and this was before the fubjects; and subjects were really French revolution, and in a coun. difcuffed here which the church try less enlightened than almoft any had forbid to be spoken of, and other part of Germany. So zealwhich the government must bave ous a friend was he to them, that wished not to be thought of ut when the elector of Bavaria ori
dered all those in his service to quit engravings of the requisite inftruthis order, he was so displeased ments and machinery. To suppose that he returned the academy of that his success, whilst it brought Munich the diploma they had sent him fanie and emolument, did not him on their receiving him amongst draw upon him the envy and ill them, publicly avowed his attach- will of many of his brother me. ment to the order, and thought it tallurgifts and associates in office, proper to break off all further con- would show a great ignorance of nection with Bavaria as a member what is daily pafling in common of its literary society. The Free life. Envy has its Thare even in Masons did not long retain the pa- maintaining order in society : it is tronage of their lovereign; the this which tends to keep the great emperor Jofeph foon became jea- from rising higher, whilst a conlous of their influence, and put trary passion lifts up the little, or them under such restrictions, and prevents them from falling lower. clogged them with such incum- “ Though great cabals were brances, as to amount almost to a raised against him, and against the prohibition; and as such they act. introduction of his method, yet the ed, for the fociety found it necef- advantages of it in many cases sary to diffolve.
were so evident, that the emperor “ What raised the baron so high ordered it to be used in his Hunin the public opinion, was his garian mines; and as a recoinpense knowledge of inineralogy, and his for his discovery, gave him for ten successful experiments in metallur- years the third part of the savings gy, and principally in the process arising from its application, and of amalgamation. The use of four per cent of this third part quicksilver in extracting the noble for the next twenty years. Even metals from their ores, was not a this did not defend him from being discovery of the baron's, nor of ftill harassed by his enemies; obthe century in which he lived; yet stacles were still thrown in the way be extended so far its application in to prevent the introduction and metallurgy as to form a brilliant success of his discovery, and to epoch in this most important art. defraud him of his well-earned reAfter he had at great expence made compense. many private experiments, and was . “Though he suffered very much convinced of the utility of his mee in the latter part of his life, yet thod, he laid before the emperor this did not prevent him from conan account of his discovery, who tinuing his literary pursuits. lo gave orders that a decisive experi- 1790 the published his Catalogue ment on a large quantity of ore methodique raisonné' of the cola should be made ai Schemnitz in lection of fossils of Miss Raab, Hungary. To see this he invited which had been chiefly formed by many of the moft celebrated chy. bis donations. This work, ele mifts and metallurgifts of Europe ; gantly printed in two volumes, was and Ferber, Elhujer, Charpentier, well received by the public, and Trebra, Poda, and inapy more were he was writing the 'Fasti Leopolpresent, and approved of his inven- dini,' and a mineralogical work, tion. On this general approbation when death put an end to his use: be published, by order of the em ful life and to his sufferings. peror, his l'reatise on the Process of “ Notwithstanding the varied ad Amalgamation, with a great many vice of his physicians, his disease