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tions, and to guard against the de- citizens to defend themselves a.. gradation and servility which they gainst violations of the law of na. must finally stamp on the American tions, and at the same time restrain character, is an important duty of them from committing acts of government.
hostility against the powers at war. A naval power, next to the mili. In addition to this voluntary pro. tia, is the natural defence of the vision for defence by individual United States. The experience of citizens, it appears to be necessary the latt war would be fufficient to to equip the frigates, and provide show that a moderate naval force, other vessels of inferior force to such as would be easily within the take under convoy such merchant present abilities of the union, vesel as (hall remain unarmed. would have been sufficient to have
The greater part of the cruisers baffled many formidable transport- whose depredations have been most ations of troops, from one state to injurious have been built, and some another, which were then practis- of them partially equipped, in the ed ;, our sea-coasts, from their great United States. Although an efextent, are more easily annoyed, fectual remedy may be attended and more easily defended by a na. with difficulty, yet I have thought val force than any other; with all it my duty to present the subject the materials onr country abounds; generally to your consideration. If in skill, our naval architects and a mode can be devised by the wil. navigators are equal to any; and dom of congress to prevent the recommanders and seamen will not sources of the United States from be wanting.
being converted into the means of But although the establishment of annoying our trade, a great evil will a permanent system of naval de- be prevented. With the same fence appears to be requisite, I am view I think it proper to inention, senlible it cannot be forined so that some of our citizens resident speedily and extensively as the pre- abroad have fitted out privateers, fent crisis demands. Hitherto and others have voluntarily taken I have thought proper to prevent the command or entered on board the sailing of armed vessels, except of them, and committed spoliatious on voyages to the East-Indies, on the commerce of the United where general usage, and the dan. States. 'Such unnatural and ini. ger from pirates, appeared to ren. quitous practices can be restrained der the permission proper ; yet the only by fevere punishments. restriction has originated solely But, besides protection of our from a wish to prevent collusions commerce on the seas, I think it with the powers at war, contra. highly necessary to protect it at vening the act of congress of June, home, where it is collected in our one thousand seven hundred and most important ports. The di ninety-four, and not from any stance of the United States from doubt entertained by me of the po- Europe, and the well-kuown promplicy and propriety of permitting titude, ardour, and courage of the our vessels to employ means of de- people, in defence of their country, fence, while engaged in a lawful happily diminish the probability of foreign commerce. It remains for invasión: nevertheless, to guard acongress to prescribe such regula- gainst sudden and predatory incurtions as will enable our seafaring lions, the situation of some of our 1797
(X) principal principal sea-ports demands your might be pursued with this view, confideration : and, as our country our treaties with Prusha and Swe. is vulnerable in other intereits be den, one of which is expired, night fides those of its commerce, you be renewerl. will seriously deliberate whether Gentlemen of the house of rethe means of general defence ought presentatives, not to be increased by an addition It is particularly your province to the regular artillery and cavalry, to consider the state of our public and by arrangements for forming a finances, and to adopt such meaprovisional army.
sures respecting them as exigencies With the same view, and as a shall be found to require. The premeasure which even in time of fervation of public credit, the regular universal peace ought not to be extinguishment of the public debt, neglected, 'I recommend to your and a provision of funds to defray consideration a revision of the laws any extraordinary expences, will, for organizing, arming, and dif- of course, call for your serious at: ciplining the militia, to render that tention : although the imposition of natural and safe defence of the new burdens cannot be in itself country efficacious. Although it is agreeable, yet there is not ground very true, that are ought not to in. to doubt that the American people volve ourselves in the political will expect from you fuch mea. system of Europe, but to keep our fures as their actual engagements, felves always diftinct and separate their present security, and future from it if we can; yer to effect intereit demand. this separation, early, punctual, Gentlemen of the senate, and and continual inforniation of the
gentlemen of the house of current chaiu of events, and of the representatives, political projects in contemplation), The present situation of our is no less necessary, than if we were country imposes an obligation on directly concerned in them. It is all the departments of government necessary, in order to the discovery to adopt an explicit and decided of the efforts made to draw us into conduct. In my situation an exthe vortex, in season to make pre. position of the principles by which paration against them: however we iny administration will be governmay consider ourfelves, the mari- ed, ought not to be omitted. time and commercial power of the It is impossible to conceal from world will consider the United ourselves or the world what has States of America as forming a been before observed, that endeaweight in that balance of power in vours have been employed to foster Europe which never can be for- and establish a division between the gotten or neglected. It would not government and people of the Unitonly be against our interest, but ited States. To investigate the would be doing wrong to one half causes which have encouraged this of Europe at least if we should vo. attempt is not necessary; but to reJuntarily throw ourselves into either pel by decided and united coiin. scale; it is a natural policy for a na- cils infinuations so derogatory to tion that studies 10 be neutral, to the honour, and aggressions fo dan. consult with other nations engaged gerous to the constitution, union, in the fame studies and pursuits; and even independence of the naat the same time that measures tion, is an indispensable duty.
It must not be permitted to be as did also the members of the fra doubted whether the people of the, nate: and the speaker having ri• United States will support the go- fumed his chair, he read the speech: vernment established by their vo- after which, o!1 mo.ion it was orluntary consent, and appointed by dered to be committed to a comtheir free choice; or whether, by mittee of the whole to-morrow.surrendering themselves to the di. Adjourned. rection of foreign and domeftic fa&tions, in opposition to their own government, they will forfeit the Treaty of Definitive Peace carcluded hunourable Gation they have hi. between the French Republic anil therto maintained.
the Emperor, King of Hungary and For myself, having never been in- Bohemia. different to what concerned the inte. rests of my country; having devot. His majesty, the emperor of the Roed the best part of my life to obtain
mans, king of Hungary and Boand support its independence, and hemia, and the French republic, constantly witnefled the patriotism, 'Wilking to consolidate the peace, fidelity, and perseverance of my fel. the bases of which were laid down low-citizens on the most trying oc. by the preliminaries figned at the cafions, it is not for me to helitate, castle of Eckenwald, near Leoben, or abandon a cause in which my in Styria, on 16th of April, 1797, heart has been so long engaged. have named for their plenipoten
Convinced that the conduct of tiaries, to wit:-his majesty (the the government has been just and emperor and king), the marquis impartial to foreign nations; that di Gallo, count de Cobenzel, those internal regulations which count de Meerfeldt, and baron have been established by law, for de Degelmann; and the French the preservation of peace, are in republic, Buonaparte, commandtheir nature proper, and that they er in chief of the French army have been fairly executed; nothing in Italy; who, after exchanging will ever be done by me to impair their full and respective powers, the national engagements, to innoe have agreed to the following arvate upon principles which have
ticles:been so deliberately and uprightly establihed; or to surrender in any I. There shall be for the future manner the rights of the govern, and for ever a solid and inviolable ment: to enable me to maintain peace between his majesty the emthis declaration I rely, under God, peror of the Romans, and king of with entire confidence on the firm Hungary and Bohemia, his heirs and and enlightened support of the na. fucceffors, and the French republic. tional legillature, and upon the vir. The contracting parties shall en. tue and patriotism of my fellowe “gage their utmost attention to maincitizens.
tain between them and their pofler. JOAN ADAMS. lions a perfect good understanding, Having coucluded his speech, af- without permitting henceforth on ter presenting a copy of it to the eitiier fide, that any act of hostility president of the fenate, and another be committed by land. or sea, to the speaker of the house of re- through any cause, or unde: any presentatives, the president retired, pretext whatever ; and every thing
R S. shall be carefully avoided, that them in as speedy a manner as poffimight impair for the future, the ble to the plenipotentiaries of the union happily established between French republic, and that hefore the them. No aslistance or protection exchange of the ratifications that Mall be given, dire&tly or indire&tly, when the exchange takes place, the to those who might desire to do any plenipotentiaries of both powers prejudice to either of the contract. may be enabled to agree with re. ing parties.
fpe&t to all the articles explanatory II. Immediately after the ex. of, and additional to, the present archange of the ratifications of the ticle, and sign them. present treaty, the contracting par. V. His majesty the emperor, ties Niall cause all the sequestrations king of Hungary and Bohemia, con which have been placed on the pro- sents that the French republic polperry, rights, and revenues of the sess in full sovereignty, the former individuals residing in the respective Venetian islands of the Levan', to territories which are united to them, wit,-Corfii, Zante, Cephalonia, as well as of the public establish- Santa Maura, Cerigo, and other ments which are situated in those islands depending on them, as well territories, to be taken off They as Butrinto, Larta, Vonissa, and in bind themselves to discharge all general all the former Venetian they may owe which has been lent establishments in Albania, which to them, as funds, by the said indi. are situate lower than the gulf of viduals or public establishments, Londrino. and to pay or reimburse all engage. VI. The French republic coniments entered into for their advän. sents that his majesty the emperor, tage by each of them.
king of Hungary and Bohenia, (The present article is declared shall possess in full sovereigniy and common to the Cisalpine republic. I propriety the country hereafter ex
III. His majesty the emperor, pressed, to wit, Iftria, Dalmatia, king of Hungary and Bohemia, re- the former Venetian itlands of the linquishes, on liis own part, and on Adriatic, the mouths of the Cattaro, that of his successors, in favour of the city of Venice, the canals, and the French republic, all his rights the countries comprehended beand titles on the ci-devant Belgic tween the hereditary fates of his provinces, known by the name of majesty the emperor and king, the the Austrian Low Countries. The Adriatic sea, and a line which thall French republic shall possess these be drawn from the county of Ty; countries for ever, in full sovereign- rol Mall follow the corrent forward ty and propriety, and with all the to Gardola, and cross the lake of territorial poffeffions which depend Garda as far as Laciffa ; from thence on them.
a military line as far as San Giacomo, IV. All the mortgages entered holding out an equal advantage to into before the war on the land of both parties, which shall be traced by the countries expressed in the pre- engineers named on each fide previ. ceding articles, and the contracts of ous to the exchange of the ratificati. which shall be drawn up with the ons of the present treaty. The line usual formalities, shall become the to ascertain the livnits fliall cross the charge of the French republic. The Adige al San Giacomo, foilow the plenipotentiaries of his majesty the left bank of that river as far as the emperor ihall furnish an account of mouth of the White Canal, compre
hending that part of Porto Legnago and the French republic, shall be which is on the right bank of the taken off, without their being exAdige, with a circle drawn of 3000 posed in that respect to be molested fathoms. The line shall be carried in their property or persons. Those on by the left bank of the White who for the future may not wish to Canal, the left bank of the Tartaro, continue their residence in these the left bank of the canal called the countries, fall be bound to make a Polisella, until it discharges itself declaration to that effect, three into the Po, and the left bank of months after the publication of the the Great Po as far as the fea. treaty of definitive peace. They
VII. His majesty the emperor, Mall be allowed the term of three king of Hungary and Bohemia, re- years to sell their moveable and imlinquishes for ever, for himself and moveable poffeffions, or to dispose bis successors, in favour of the Cife of them as they think proper. alpine republic, all the rights and X. The countries ceded, acquirtitles arising out of those rights ed, or exchanged by the present which bis said majesty might pre- treaty'shall encumber those in whose tend to have on the conntries which potrësion they thall remain with he possessed before the war, and the mortgages that have been incur. which now constitute a part of the red on the land. Cisalpine republic, which shall pos- XI. The navigation of the part sess them in full sovereignty and pro- of the rivers and canals, serving as priety, with all the territorial poffef- limits between the poffesfions of his Lions that depend on them. majesty the emperor, and those of
VIII. His majesty the emperor, the Cisalpine republic, Mail be tree, king of Hungary and Bohemia
, ac- without either being able to esta. knowledges the Cisalpine republic blith any toll, or to keep any vellels as an independent power. This re- armed for war; which however public comprehends the former Au. does not exclude the neceffary preItrian Lombardy, the countries of cautions for the fasery of the fortress Bergamo, of Brescia, and of Cremo. of Porto Legnago. na, the city and fortress of Mantua, XII. Alfales or alienations made, the Mantuan territory, Peschiera, all engagements contracted, whether that part of the former Venetian by the tow!s, or by the government, states to the west and south of tie or the civil and administrative au. line described in the 6th article as thorities of the countries formerly the frontier of the states of his ma. Venetian, for the maintenance of jesty the emperorin Italy, the coun- the German and French armies, untry of Modena, the principality of til the date of signing the present Massa and Carnira, and the three treaty, shall be confirmed and con. legations of Bologna, Ferrara and fidered as valid. Roinagna.
XIII. The titles of the domains, IX. In all the countries ceded, ac- and the archives of the different quired, or exchanged by the present countries ceded or exchanged by treaty, the requestration placed on the present treaty, shall be given up the property, effects
, and revenues in the space of three months, to date of all the inhabitants and proper- from the exchange of the ratifica-' ties of every description, on account tions, to the powers which shall have of the war which has been carried acquired the propriety of them. on between his imperial majesiy The plans and maps of the for