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-432. Liquentia; from liquor, not liqueo. 433. Nectare. Gr. 87. II, 1. A. & S. 82, Ex. 1 (4). —435. Pecus. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204. 436. Thymo. Gr. 414 and 2. A. & S. 247 and 1.- 437. The want of a city is the key-note of the whole Aeneid. Aeneas envies the Carthaginians as he envies Helenus and Andromache, III, 493 foll. — 438. Suspicit. He has now descended the hill. -439. Mirabile dictu. See on v. 111. — 440. Miscet probably borrows se from the previous line, as no other instance is quoted of its intransitive use. Viris. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245, II. R. 1. Ulli Gr. 388. 4 A. & S. 225. II.

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441-493. Aeneas enters a grove, where a temple is building to Juno. There he sees represented the various incidents of the Trojan war.-441, Lucus is a sacred grove, Laetissimus : = very abun dant; and therefore causing joy. Umbrae. Gr. 399 and 2. 2). A. & S. 213 and R. 1 (3). —442. Primum; with effodere. — 443. Signum; the, not a, sign; i. e. the sign which Juno had, in some way not here described, taught them to expect. - 444. Caput. A horse's head is common on Punic coins, Cf. III. 539 foll. Sic; i, e. by this sign. Fore; sc. monstrarat. Bello. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I.— 445. Facilem victu wealthy; lit, easy to live. Some take victu from vinco (in which case facilem victu victorious); but cf. G. II. 460, fundit humo facilem victum justissima tellus (of which expression this, as Heyne remarks, is only a variety), and VIII. 318, asper victu venatus. Bello egregiam et facilem victu thus answers to the two characteristics of Carthage, v. 14, dives opum studiisque asperrima belli-446. Sidonia. Dido is so called from Sidon, the most ancient city of Phoenicia, and the mother-city of Tyre. — 447. Donis ➡divae = enriched by offerings and by the especial presence of the goddess. It is a zeugma. See on coluisse, v. 16. There was doubtless a statue, though this is implied rather than expressed by numen both here and in IV. 204. -448. The threshold was of brass, with steps leading up to it. Cui gradibus = from the steps of which, Gr. 384; 422. 2. A. & S. 223; 255, R. 3 (6). Nexaeque aere trabes and doorposts bound (i, e. plated and fastened), with brass, Surgebant is to be supplied to trabes, but so that nexae aere shall be a predicate, See on v. 332. 449. Foribus-aënis. Gr. 704. L. 1; 384. A. & S. 323, 1 (6); 223. In translating supply while. 452. Rebus. Gr. 385. 1. A, & S. 223, R, 2. —453. These representa tions are probably on the doors or external walls of the temple. Saste then will express that Aeneas is looking up. Compare the sculptures mentioned at G. III, 26; A, VỊ. 20. Singula the objects one by one, 454. Quae — urbi... miratur; for miratur fortunam urbis marvels at the prosperity of the city; i. e. as shown in the splen dor of its temple. Gr. 445; 485, A, & S, 206 (6) (†); 266. 3. —

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455. Manus compared with one another. Operumque laborem, probably referring to the magnitude of the work rather than to the elaborate detail. -457. This line gives the reason why the battles have been painted, and prepares us for the thoughts that follow. -458. Atridas = the sons of Atreus; ie. Agamemnon and Menelaus. Priamum; the son of Laomedon, and the last king of Troy. Ambobus; i, e. to the sons of Atreus as one party, by his wrath on account of Briseïs and his consequent withdrawal from the contest; and to Priam as the other party, in the slaying of so many of his sons. -459. Jam by this time. -460. Laboris = misfortune, sorrow, disaster. -461. Priamus. Gr. 367. 3. A. & S. 209, R. 13. Sua. Gr. 449. II. 2. A. & S. 208 (7) (a). Laudi=worth, merit. Cf. V. 355. — 462. Rerum. See on v. 178. -463. Haec fama; i. e. this knowledge of our glory, — 465. Multa. Gr. 371. 1. 3) (2). A. & S. 205, R. 10. -466. Uti-how, Pergama, properly the citadel of Troy, is often used, as here, for Troy itself.467. Hac = here; i. e. in this part of the picture, or of the series of pictures. Fugerent. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. So premeret and instaret. —468. Phryges. See on v. 182. Curru, Gr. 414 and 4 A. & S. 247 and 3.-469. Rhesi; a Thracian prince, and an ally of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks, Niveis - velis. An anachronism similar to that noticed in v. 169. The Homeric diora were huts of planks thatched with grass. In the treatment of antiquities, Virgil generally inclines to Roman notions, and especially to the usages of his own age. Velis. Gr. 428, A. & S. 211, R. 6. 470. Primo — somno= which betrayed by the first sleep. Whether the first time they slept or the first part of their sleep, as being the deepest, is meant, the critics cannot decide. — 471, Tydides. See on v. 97. Caede, Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2-472, Avertit. Gr. 467. III. A. & S. 145. I. 3. Castra; i, e. the Grecian camp. — 473. Gustassent... bibissent. Gr. 523. II. and I. A. & S. 263. 3. The subj. denotes the intention of Dio medes. Eustathius and Serv. say that this intention was to prevent the accomplishment of an oracle, that if the horses of Rhesus tasted the grass or water of Troy the city should not be taken. Xanthum; a name of the Scamander. See on Simois, v. 100. 474. Parte alia; i. e. of the picture. Troilus; a son of Priam, slain by Achilles, Armis; i. e. all but the spear, which he still held (v. 478).· 475. Atque couples impar congressus with infelix., Impar=in unequal combat. Achilli. Gr. 386. A. & S. 224-476. Fextur equis; i. e, is run away with. Cf. G. I. 513. Curru — inani, He has fallen backwards from the car (war chariots were made low and open behind), but hangs by the reins, which were passed round the body, and which he still grasps with his hand, 477. Huic. Gr

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398. 5. A. & S. 211, R. 5 (1). — 478. Hasta; the spear of Troilus. 479. Interea introduces another scene in the series of paintings. Non aequae unpropitious. 480. Peplum; a large shawl, often very skilfully and richly wrought, an important part of female dress. It is here borne as a propitiatory offering. — 481. Pectora. Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. —482. Solo. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3. 484. Auro. Gr. 416. A. & S. 252. Cf. VI. 621. Vendebat; i. e. to Priam, who came to beg the body of his son, bringing as a ransom ten talents of gold. -486. Spolia; i. e. of Hector. Currus; probably of Achilles. -487. Inermes = armed; and so suppliant. —488. Principibus. Gr. 385. 5. A. & S. 245. II. R. 1. — 489. Memnonis. Memnon, an Ethiopian prince, son of Tithonus and Aurora, and nephew of Priam, came with a large body of Oriental and Ethiopian troops to assist his uncle in the Trojan war. He slew Antilochus, the son of Nestor, and was himself slain by Achilles in single combat. He is called niger as being an Ethiopian. He had arms made by Vulcan.-490. Amazonidum. The Amazons were a warlike race of women said to inhabit the coun try about Mt. Caucasus. Towards the end of the Trojan war, they came, under their queen Penthesilea, to the assistance of Priam; but the queen was killed by Achilles. Peltis. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. —491. Penthesilea. Gr. 612. III. 5. A. & S. 283. I. Ex 6. -492. Exsertae = bare, uncovered. 493. Bellatrix... virgo as a warrior- though a virgin. Gr. 363. A. & S. 204 Both words are made strongly emphatic by their position.

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494. Dardanio : II. 495. Obtutu = & S. 250. 1. Incessit conveys a notion of majesty, as incedo in v. 46. Juvenum. See on G. I. 500. 498. Qualis. The corre sponding talis is found in v. 503. Eurotae; the principal river of Laconia, on the banks of which Sparta stood, where Diana was wor shipped with peculiar honors. Cynthi; a mountain in the island of Delos, celebrated as the birthplace of Apollo and Diana.-499. Exercet... choros = leads the choral dances. — 500. Glomerantur are gathered together. Oreades. See on E. V. 75. Humero. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3.—501. Gradiens = as she walks. - 502. Latona; the mother of Apollo and Diana. 503. Se ferebat advanced. See on v. 189. Cf. V. 290. — 504. Instans-futuris; i. e. urging on the work which was to set up her kingdom. - 505. Foribus — templi at the gate of the goddess, in the centre (lit. of the vaulted roof) of the temple. Foribus divae is the gate of the cella, or chapel, in which was the statue of the goddess. 506. Armis; i. e. of her attendants, body-guards. Solio; by, not on, the throne. Subnixa means supported from be

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are principles of law, leges special enactments. — 508. Partibus. A. & S. 247 and 2. - Sorte. Gr. 414 and 4. A. & S. 247 and 3. The common phrase is sortem trahere. 509. Concursu. probably the throng of Carthaginians collecting around them. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. 510. Anthea. See on v. 181. Cloanthum Cf. v. 222. Sergestus is mentioned for the first time.. -512. Penitus = far away. Oras. Gr. 379. 4. A. & S. 237, R. 5 (c). 513. Obstupuit metuque both he himself and Achates were at the same instant struck dumb both with joy and fear. Perculsus (for which most editions have percussus) is a participle, used as a synonyme of obstupuit, the ablatives referring to both words. On simul ... simul comp. V. 675. Obstupuit and perculsus refer of course to both subjects. Gr. 463. I.; 439. A. & S. 209, R. 12, N. 9; 205, R. 2, Ex. - 514. Avidi should be taken closely with ardebant, as if it were avide. — 515. Res—incognita is explained by the questions in vv. 517 foll. — 516. Dissimulant = they repress their emotions. Cava enshrouding. Speculantur they watch (to discover); i. e. as from a secure place of observation. -517. Fortuna; sc. sit. A. & S. 232 518. Quid. Gr. 380. 2. (3). Cunctis ... navibus; join with lecti. - 519. Orantes veniam = to sue for favor; i. e. for the favors specified in v. 525. The use of the pres. part. to express purpose is unusual. Cf. scitantem, II. 114 Gr. 578. V. A. & S. 274, R. 2 (a). — 520. Introgressi; sc. sunt. 521. Maximus; sc. natu. 522. Condere. See on v. 66.523. Gentes... superbas; i. e. the neighboring barbarians of Africa, not the Carthaginians, to whom gentes would not be applicable. Maria - vecti = borne over all seas. Maria may be governed by per understood, or may be referred to Gr. 380. A. & S. 234. II. — 525. Infandos; i. e. so horrible as to be unutterable. The Carthaginians were treating the Trojans as pirates.—526. Pio. See on pietas, v. 10. Propius = more closely. — 527. Populare... vertere. Gr. 553. V. A. & S. 271, N. 3. Penates= homes. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324 2. 528. Raptas... vertere rapere et vertere. See on v. 69. Vertere =avertere. Cf. v. 472. 529. Non-animo= such violence belongs not to our nature (pio generi, v. 526). Superbia = audacity, daring. = 530. For the construction comp. v. 12 and note. Hesperiam. Gr. 373. A. & S.

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230. Cognomine. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. - 532. Oenotri; said to be so called from Oenotrus, a king of Arcadia, who planted a colony in the south of Italy. Fama. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. 533. Dixisse. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. Ducis; i. e. Italus, a fabulous king of Italy. Such names, derived from the country, but said to give name to it, are called eponymous. Gentem; the nation, for

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the land. 534. Hic cursus fuit this was our course. Some editions have huc, but it does not rest on so good authority as hic. Such unfinished lines are often met with in the Aeneid. See Life. -535. Subito - fluctu= rising with a sudden swell. Adsurgens is intended to combine the rising of the star and the rising of the wave. For adsurgens fluctu in the latter sense comp. G. I. 160 and note. Nimbosus; because the rising, and also the setting, of the constellation of Orion was believed to be accompanied with storms. The rising is about midsummer, which agrees with the time here, v. 756. — 536. Caeca=latentia. Penitus. See on v. 512. Procacibus boisterous. Austris; for ventis. See on v. 108. — 537. Superante salo the sea overpowering (us). Cf. vicit hiems, V. 122. -538. Pauci; i. e. a poor remnant compared with, the whole. Cf VI. 744. Adnavimus = drifted, floated. Cf. IV. 613; VI. 358 Vestris... oris is epexegetical of huc. See on E. I. 54-539. Quod genus : what sort of a race; quod inquiring after the char acter rather than the name. Quae... tam barbara... permittit. See on G. II. 315. Patria morem permittit is equivalent to terra morem sibi proprium permittit. See on G. I. 52.540. There is a pathetic force in hospitio: we are barred even from the welcome refuge which the shore gives the shipwrecked man. -541. Bella cient; referring to the guards which Dido stationed on the shore to prevent strangers from landing. See v. 564. Prima... terra=on the edge of the land; i. e. on the shore. Gr. 441. 6. A. & S. 205, R. 17.543. At nefandi = yet at least fear the gods, who res member the righteous and the unrighteous deed. Spero in the sense of look for, expect, apprehend, is chiefly confined to poetry. Cf. IV. 419. There is no occasion to understand fore after deos. Fandi atque nefandi = fas atque nefas.—544. Rex nobis = Aeneas was our king; not, we had a king called Aeneas; which would imply that Aeneas was unknown. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4 Quo alter; sc. neque. Gr. 417. A. & S. 256. 2. 545. Pietate... bello. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. I. So officio, v. 548. — 546. Vesci. tur enjoys, breathes. Aura aetheria is the upper air as contrasted with the lower world (crudelibus umbris). — 547. Umbris. Gr. 422 and 1. A. & S. 254, R. 3.548. Non metus; sc. est nobis ; i. e. if our king is safe, we have no cause of fear. This inter pretation is in harmony with v. 562. Officio - poeniteat may you not repent of having taken the lead in the rivalry of good deeds. Certasse, like poeniteat, assumes that Dido has already donë what Ilioneus asks her to do. - 549. Et moreover, besides. It is difficult to determine the exact point of this sentence, as et may mean, besides Aeneas, we have other protectors who may receive us and repay you, or, besides Carthage, we have other cities where we may

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