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ing the greater part of the winter. -187. Contemplator. Gr. 537. II. A. & S. 267 (3). Nux the walnut-tree. Some understand it of the almond-tree. Plurima : = abundantly. —188. Curvabit; said by anticipation; for if the poet uses fetus of the blossoms, or embryo fruit, he may likewise speak of these bending the branches. -189. Si-fetus; i. e. if a great number of the blossoms set, as the gardeners term it.-190. There will be a very hot summer and a great threshing; i. e. an abundant harvest. 191. Foliorum is emphatic, opposed to fetus; umbra, general. —192. Nequidquam. Connect with teret. Palea. Gr. 419. III. A. & S. 250. 2. Teret The tritura was performed sometimes by the trampling of oxen, sometimes by the tribulum or trahea (see on v. 164), sometimes by fustes, flails or sticks. - 193-203. Steeping seed-beans is a plan often pursued, to make the produce larger and easier to be cooked. But the best seeds will degenerate, unless you pick every year. It is the tendency of everything in nature, and only man's most strenuous efforts can counteract it. 194. Nitro; not our nitre, but a mineral alkali, carbonate of soda, and therefore used in washing. Amurca lees of olive oil.-195. Siliquis. Gr. 387. A. & S. 226. Fallacibus; referring to the general character of the pods of beans, which in this particular case are to be less deceptive than usual. 196. Quamvis - maderent quickly cooked by a fire however small. lit. being hastened. —198. Vis humana; Quaeque. Gr. 458. 1. A. & S. 207, R. 35 (b). 200. Ruere referri. Gr. 545. I. A. & S. 209, R. 5 and N. 7. Trans
late, "are accustomed," etc. Retro
that they might be Properata =propere; i. e. homines.—199.
slipping away to be borne backward. Retro is often used pleonastically with verbs beginning with re. Cf. A. II. 169. — 201. Flumine. Gr. 431. A. & S. 257. - 202. Subigit. Cf. A. VI. 302. — 203. Atque, according to Gellius and Servius, is statim, but it is better to connect it with remisit, and give it its usual signification. Virgil does not expressly introduce an apodosis in such comparisons, but makes his whole sentence depend on the quam or si which follows the non aliter or haud secus following the simile. Cf. A. IV. 669. Illum is doubtless the lembus, which is distinguished from the rower. Wr. accounts for atque by supplying retro sublapsus refertur before it, and making the whole into an apodosis, but he quotes no similar instance. Alveus: = the current. Amni. Gr. 87. III. 3. A. & S. 82. Ex. 5 (a). — 204 – 207. The husbandman must observe the rising and setting of the constellations as attentively as the sailor. — 204. Arcturi. See on Ov. M. II. 176, and cf. v. 68. Nobis. Gr. 388. I. A. & S. 225. III. — 205. Haedorum the Kids, or Goat. See on Ov. M. III. 594 An
guis. See on Ov. M. II. 138. — 206. Quam quibus =as (by those) by whom. Vectis euntibus. The Latin having no present pass. part., the perf. part. is sometimes used in a present sense. 207. Pontus; sc. Euxinus. Fauces... Abydi; i. e. Hellespontus. Abydos was a town on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont, opposite the European Sestos. Oysters are still found there. -208. Libra; i. e. the Balance, between Scorpio and Virgo. See on v. 33. Die. Gr. 119. 4 A. & S. 90. 2. Pares. The sun was in Libra at the time of the autumnal equinox, when the days and nights were of equal duration, and when the Roman hours were, of course, equal too. Feoërit. Gr. 473. A. & S. 145. VI.-209. Etorbem = and already divides the globe equally for light and darkness; i. e. gives both the northern and southern hemispheres an equal amount of day and night.—210. Tauros = boves. - 211. Usque - imbrem even to the first rain of the impracticable (ie. when no work can be done) winter solstice. Extremum may be used of either end; here the beginning. - 212. Segetem; used proleptically for the seed. Cereale; because sacred to Ceres, who was represented with poppies in her hands. She was said to have calmed her grief for the loss of her daughter Proserpina by eating its seeds. 213. Humo.
Gr. 47. 2. 2); 414. A. & S. 49. I; 247. Tegere. Gr. 563. 6. A. & S. 275. III. N. 1. Jamdudum = at once, without delay. Cf. A. II. 103. Incumbere; like curvus arator, E. III. 42. · 214. Tellure. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). Pendent; i. e. they do not yet come down in rain. - 215. Medica (sc. herba) = lucerne ; introduced into Greece from Media at the time of the invasion of Darius. Putres; because they have lain fallow through the winter. - 216. Annua cura; to distinguish it from lucerne, which required to be sown only once in ten years. — 217, 218. A periphrasis for vere. - 217. Candidus. The allusion, according to Keightley, is to the milk-white bulls with gilded horns which appeared in the triumphal processions at Rome. Aperit is illustrated by the etymology of Aprilis. Cornibus. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. Whether auratis cornibus is meant to be taken descriptively with taurus, or instrumentally with aperit, is not clear. The former seems more reasonable, as there would be no natural propriety in the image of a bull using his horns to open a gate. The horns are called auratis, because there are bright stars at their tips. -218. Canis; i. e. Sirius, a star of the first magnitude in Canis Major. This star sets heliacally, i. e. is lost in the effulgence of the sun, a few days after he has entered Taurus. It is therefore said to give way (cedens) to this sign. Adverso astro; sc. Tauro. Gr. 384. A. & S. 223. The bull is represented as driving the dog before him ; the dog, however, keeping his face to the bull. — 219.
220. Solis; as opposed to the produce just mentioned, vv. 215, 216. Aristis = bearded grain. Gr. 386. A. & S 224-221. Ante... quam. Gr. 523. 2). Eoae
in the morning. Atlantides the daughters of Atlas; i. e. the Pleiades. See on v. 138. Gr. 316. A. & S. 100. I and (b). These set in the morning, according to different authorities, from Oct. 20 to Nov. II. 222. Gnosia Cretan; from Gnosus, a city of Crete, of which island Minos, father of Ariadne, was king. Stella Coronae; i. e. the constellation Corona Borealis, said to have been Ariadne's crown, placed among the stars by Bacchus, after he mar ried her. Stella sidus, as in Hor. C. III. 29. 1. — 223. Com mittas... properes. Gr. 523. II. A. & S. 263. 3. -224. Invitae; because conscious that she is not yet ready to receive the seed.225. Maiae; one of the Pleiades, here standing for the group, as Taygete in Ov. M. III. 595. - 227. Vilem; on account - Egyptian; from Pelusium,
of its abundance. — 228. Pelusiacae
a town at the mouth of the eastern branch of the Nile. Egypt was famed for lentils. - 229. Mittet dabit. Bootes. See on Ov. M. II. 176. - 231. Idcirco; i. e. that the seasons should be clearly marked for the husbandman. Certis... partibus; referring to the twelve divisions of the zodiac. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Orbem (sc. annuum) = (his yearly) circle. Cf. Annuus orbis, A. V. 46.232. Duodena duodecim. The poets often use distributive for cardinal numerals. Cf. A. I. 393. Regit. Cf. cursus regebam, A. VI. 350, and Nulla viam fortuna regit, XII. 405. Mundi astra ****** = the constellations of the celestial sphere.-233. Coelum; because the zones of heaven answer to the zones of earth, and determine their character. - 234. Ab igni; instead of the ordinary abl. of cause.-235. Extremae; i. e. the frigid zones. Dextra. Gr. 441. 3. A. & S. 205, R. 7 (1). — 236. Glacie. The mention of ice seems more appropriate to the earthly than the heavenly zones; but Virgil was doubtless thinking of the sky as the parent of ice. -237. Duae; i. e. the temperate zones, which alone the ancients supposed to be habitable.—238. Via; i. e. the ecliptic. Per inter; as the sun never enters the temperate zones. So v. 245, per duas Arctos. 239. Obliquus; with se verteret. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Obliquus ordo is the zodiac, the constellations of which it consists be ing arranged along the ecliptic which cuts the equator obliquely at an angle of about twenty-three and a half degrees. Cf. Ov. M. II. 130 foll. Se... verteret might revolve. Gr. 500. A. & S. 264 5. - 240 Mundus. See on v. 232.
Scythiam; used for the
Rhipaeas. The Rhipean
North generally, as often in the poets. mountains were supposed to separate the land of the Hyperboreans from the rest of the world. Here these countries are made to stand
for the northernmost point, not only of earth, but of the mundane system, as Libya for the southernmost. Arduus; referring to the elevation of the north pole, as premitur, etc., does to the depression of the south pole. Cf. Ov. Trist. IV. 10. 108. — 242. Hic vertex; i. e. the north pole. Illum; i. e. the south pole. -243. The infernal regions were supposed to be in the centre of the earth; so here they are said to be over the south pole. Sub pedibus is to be connected with videt, the feet being those of Styx and the Manes; but videt of course does not mean that the south pole is actually visible from the shades. -244. Hic; i. e. at the north pole. Flexu. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. Anguis. See on v. 205. Habitur shoots out: not the same as labitur. — 246. Metuentestingui; i. e. they never set. See on Ov. M. II. 172. — 247. Illic; i. c. at the south pole. Ut perhibent; for the southern hemisphere was wholly unknown to the ancients. Aut... aut; i.e. either the southern regions are in total darkness, or they have day when we have night.—248. Obtenta . . . nocte by the overspreading pall of night.—249. Redire, reducere, recurrere, referre, and other words of the sort, are constantly used of the recurring order of nature. — 250. Primus. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). Oriens, sc. Sol. Cf. A. V. 739. The horses of the sun come panting up the hill, casting their breath, which represents the morning air, on the objects before them.-251. Rubens may merely mean bright, or the color of sunset may be naturally transferred to the star. Lumina; Vesper's own rays, not the light of sunset, as Voss thinks, taking Vesper generally of evening, nor the other stars, as others interpret it.—252. Hinc seems to refer to the whole of the preceding passage from v. 231, which has been devoted to an exposition of certain parts of the mundane system. Virgil now enforces the conclusion: "It is on the strength of this that we know beforehand," etc. Tempestates the changes of the weather. Dubio... coelo = though the (appearance of the) sky may be doubtful. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a).—254. Infidum is significant, as showing the importance of knowing when to venture on the sea. 255. Conveniat. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Armatas rigged. Deducere to launch. Cf. A. III. 71; IV. 398. The ancients drew their vessels up on the shore during the winter. See on Hor. C. I. 4. 2. - 256. Tempestivam; with evertere. Gr. 443. A. & S. 205, R. 15 (a). — 257. Vv. 257, 258 belong to what precedes, coming in fact under hinc, which is the introduction to the whole paragraph.-258. Temporibus. Gr. 429. A. & S. 250. 1. Parem is intended to contrast with diversis. The seasons are diverse, yet they make the year uniform.
259. Weather which is bad for ordinary out-door purposes is good
for other things.
260 Forent... properanda = would have to be done in a hurry; contrasted with maturare, to get done in good time. Coelo. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257, R. 7 (a). — 261. Maturare. Gr. 549. A. & S. 269. Procudit = sharpens by hammering. — 262. Arbore; i. e. ex arbore. Gr. 425 and 1 and 3. 4). Lintres; troughs into which grapes were put after the vintage. - 263. Pecori signum. Branding cattle was done with boiling pitch, generally towards the end of January and April. Numeros-acervis puts numbers on the heaps (of corn); i. e. to indicate the quantity
contained in them. Impressit. Gr. 704. I. 2. A. & S. 323. 1 (é)
(2) (a). On the tense see on v. 49.-264. Vallos furcasque; probably intended to support the vines. See II. 359. — 265. Amerina...retinacula= Amerian bands ; i. e. willow bands, for tying up the vine. Amerina, from Ameria, a town of Umbria, famous for its willows, which have a slender red twig. -266. Facilis = pliant. Texatur Gr. 487; 488. I. A. & S. 260, R. 6. —267. Torrete; i. e. to make the corn easier to grind. See A. I. 179. Igni. Gr. 87. III. 3. A. & S. 82, Ex. 5 (a). -268. Quippe for. The connection seems to be thus: You should not be idle on wet days, for even on holidays some kinds of work are permitted. — 269. Fas et jura =divine and human laws. Rivos deducere; either to let on the water from the reservoirs for the purpose of irrigation, or to draw off the superabundant water from the fields. The former is probably meant, since it would be a work of daily necessity in hot weather. — 270. Religio = religious scruple. Vetuit; aoristic perfect. See on v. 49. Segeti - saepem. Columella says that the pontiffs forbid the making of hedges for corn on holidays. Forb. and Keightley suppose that old hedges might be repaired, though not new ones made; but that does not appear to be Virgil's meaning. -271 Insidias — moliri seems to refer to snaring mischievous birds, as ordinary bird-catching would not be a work of necessity. 272. Balantum; i. e. when they are washed. Salubri is emphatic, as the washing is to cure disease, not for cleansing the wool, which was not allowed on holidays. — 273. Markets were also held on holidays (as they are still on Sundays in the south of Europe), at which the country-people could sell their farm produce. Agitator aselli; not the asinarius or ass-driver, but the peasant who happens to drive the ass to market. -274. Vilibus. See on v. 227.-275. Incusum=indented; i. e. that it may crush the corn better. Massam picis; i.e for marking cattle, securing casks, repairing vessels, etc. — 276. Of lucky and unlucky days. Ipsa — operum the moon herself has made different days favorable in respect of (agricultural) labors in different degrees; i. e. all days are not equally lucky. Ordine. Gr. 414 and 3. A. & S. 247 and 2. -277. Operum. Gr. 399. 3. 4).