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not expressed; though we do stop, we shall, notwithstanding, reach the town betimes.-63. Colligat. Gr. 492. 4. 1). A. & S. 262, R. 7. The night is said to gather the rain, because as night comes on the clouds often gather, a prelude of rain. Ante before (we get there). 64. Licet usque... eamus we may go right on; i. e. without stopping. Gr. 493. 2. A. & S. 262, R. 4. Laedit tires, wearies. -65. Hoc... fasce of this burden; meaning the kids, which He intends that

may have been carried in some sort of bundle.
Moeris shall be the first to sing.
Plura. See on V. 19. Puer. Gr. 669. V.


Gr. 425. 2.

A. & S. 251. - 66.

A. & S. 309. 2 (1).

Instat is urgent; i. e. the carrying of the kids to his new master. -67. Ipse; Menalcas.


THE name Georgics (Georgica) is Greek, гewpуiká, and means "agricultural affairs." The title Georgicon is the Greek genitive plural of georgica. The poem is divided into four books, of which the first treats of agriculture, the second, of the cultivation of vines and trees, the third, of raising cattle, and the fourth, of the management of bees. For a history of the Georgics, see the Life of Virgil.

The subject of the First Book is the tillage of the ground with a view to crops, chiefly corn. The mention of the uncertainty of the weather at different times of the year leads the poet to give a list of the signs of a storm and of fair weather, which he abridges from the Diosemeia of Aratus. From this he passes to the signs of the polit. ical storm which had broken over Rome, and shows that external nature had been no less eloquent there, while he prays that Octavianus Caesar may yet be spared to save society.


L General subject of the whole poem; viz.: Agriculture, Book
I.; Vines and Trees, Book II.; Cattle, Book III.;
Bees, Book IV.; (lines 1-4)

II. Invocation of gods, and of Caesar (5-42).

III. Opening of subject proper. Preparations for sowing: 1. Period at which to commence ploughing (43 - 49). 2. Nature of climate, character of soil, and most suitable modes of cultivation, to be ascertained (50 – 62).

3. Minute directions as to the manner and time of ploughing particular kinds of soil (63-70).

4. Means of refreshing the soil (71-93).

5. Modes of pulverizing the soil (94-99).

IV. Operations succeeding sowing:

1. Rendering the soil fine (100-105).

2. Irrigation of crops (106-110).

3. Checking of luxuriant growth (111-113).

4. Drawing off excessive moisture (114-117).

5. Drawbacks and annoyances to which the husbandman


is subject the means of preventing or of remedy. ing them (118-159).

V. Agricultural implements and appliances (160-186).

VI. Indications of the yield of the ensuing harvest, and artificial means of increasing fruitfulness of seed (187-203). VII. Proper season for sowing different seeds to be decided by observation of the heavenly bodies; explanation of the seasons (204-256)..

VIII. How the husbandman is to employ his leisure time; what days are lucky or unlucky for certain transactions; and what operations should be done by night or by day in preference (157-310).

IX. The weather:

1. Storms of particular seasons (311-334).

2. Means of guarding against them (335-350).

3. Prognostics of change of weather (351-463).

X. Political changes even foretold by heavenly bodies; the death of Julius Caesar; its prognostics, its accompaniments, and its consequences (464-514).


1. Quid-segetes what may make corn-fields productive; lit. joyous. Compare Psalms, lxv. 13. The sense is substantially the same, if we render segetes "corn, crops," and lactas "abundant." Quo sidere under what constellation, at what season of the year. Gr. 426 and 1. A. & S. 253 and N. 1. 2. Vertere; i.e. to plough. Cf. v. 147. Maecenas (C. Cilnius), the great friend and close confidant of Augustus, the enlightened patron of literature and art, had first suggested this poem, and to him it is naturally inscribed. See Life of Virgil.—3. Qui — pecori = what sort of treatment (attention, care) may he requisite for preserving the flock; i. e. for keeping up the stock. Gr. 564. A. & S. 275. III. R. 2 and (1). Z. 664. Pecori means small cattle, as sheep and goats, and is opposed to boum. - 4. Apibus; sc. habendis from the preceding habendo. Experientia; of the bee-keeper, not of the bees.

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5. Hinc=from this point of time, now. Vos; subject of ferte in v. 11. — 6. Lumina; i. e. Sol et Luna. Labentem; denoting the noiseless pace of time. Coelo = along the sky. Gr. 422. I. A. & S. 254, R. 3.-7. Liber. See on E. VII. 58. Alma is derived from alo. Proprie sunt alma quae alunt, ut lac, nutrix, Ceres, et alia; inde quaecumque bona, benefica, utilia, jucunda et grata sunt. Hence this adj. is used of the cattle and the fields; of the sun and the light; of water; of nurses; and of the gods. Ceres. See on Ov. M. V. 341 and 343. Si=if, since, so surely as. So frequently in adjurations. It introduces the reason why the prayer should be granted. Chaoniam. See on IX. 13. Glandem = mast, acorns; the food of man till he was taught agriculture by Ceres. Arista. Gr. 416. 2. A. & S. 252, R. 5. 9. Pocula... Acheloia cups of water. Achelous, the river flowing between Aetolia and Acarnania, was said to be the oldest of all rivers, and consequently is often used by the poets for water in general. Uvis=vino. Gr. 705. II.; 385. 5. A. & S. 324. 2; 245, R. 1.-10. Praesentia.. See on Ov. M. III. 658. Cf. E. I. 42. Fauni; rural deities, represented as half men and half goats.-11. Ferte... pedem (sc. huc) = come hither, come to my aid. Fauni. The repetition of Fauni serves as a kind of correction of the previous verse, where they alone were mentioned. Dryades. See on E. V. 59.-12. Munera; i. e. corn, wine, herds, flocks, trees. The deities thus far mentioned preside over the subjects of the first two books; those next invoked, over the subjects of the last two books. cultor; sc. ferte pedem. Cui - at whose command. Prima = primum; i. e. it was the first horse created. Neptune produced the first horse by a stroke of his trident. See on v. 18.-14. Neptune; the son of Saturnus and Ops, and chief deity of the sea. He is represented as carrying the trident, or threepronged spear. Amphitrite was his queen. Cf. A. I. 124 foll. Cultor nemorum = guardian of woodland pastures. Cultor is by some taken here as = incola. The reference is to Aristaeus, the son of Apollo and Cyrene, and the guardian of flocks and pastures. Cui implies that the process goes on for him, because he is its patron and author, thus denoting causation indirectly. Pinguia= luxuriant. Ceae. After the death of his son Actaeon, Aristaeus retired to Ceos, or Cea (now Zea), one of the Cyclades, not far from Attica, where he delivered the inhabitants from a destructive drought by erecting an altar to Zeus.-15. Ter centum; a definite for an indefinite number. Tondent; the present suggesting that the god is still guardian of the island.-16. Ipse expresses marked emphasis; even thou too, who art usually so loath to leave thy own Arcadia. See on E. IV. 58. Saltus, same as nemorum in v. 14. Lycaei, Maenala; mountains in Arcadia, the former the birthplace of Pan,


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the latter his favorite haunt. Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. I. and I. Si; same as in v. 7. Tibi...curae. Gr. 390. A. & S. 227.-18. Adsis. Gr. 487; 488. I. and 2. A. & S. 260, R. 6. Tegeaee= Tegean, god of Tegea. Pan is so called, from Tegea, a city in Arcadia, where he was specially worshipped. Minerva; daughter of Jupiter, said to have sprung from his forehead completely armed. She was goddess of wisdom, war, and the liberal arts, the guardian and helper of heroes, and presiding goddess of Athens. When the dispute arose between Neptune and Minerva as to which of them should have the honor of naming Athens, the gods decided that it should receive its name from the one who should bestow upon man the most useful gift. Neptune then created the horse, and Minerva called forth the olive-tree, for which the honor was conferred upon her. Hence she is called oleae inventrix.—19. Puer; Triptolemus, of Eleusis, the son of Celeus. He was the favorite of Ceres, and the inventor of the plough.-20. Ab radice torn up by the root; i. e. root and all. Silvane; an old Roman god of agriculture, cattle, boundaries, and forests. He was usually represented as bearing a young cypress plant. 21. Studium; sc. est. Gr. 362. A. & S. 210. Quibus. Gr. 390 and 2. A. & S. 227 and R. 4. Tueri Gr. 549. A. & S. 209, R. 3 (5). - 22. Novas.. fruges young plants. Non ullo semine which grow without cultivation; lit. having no seed; opposed to satis in the next line. Cf. sine semine, Ov. M. I. 108. Gr. 428. A. & S. 211, R. 6. 24. Adeo= especially. Sint habitura. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. — 25. Concilia = the assembly, company. The plural is poetic. Cf. EL 6, 7. Invisere = to oversee, superintend. Invisere and curam both have the same grammatical relation to velis. A change in the construction from a verb to a noun, and from a noun to a verb, is not uncommon. Cf. E. V. 46, 47. — 26. Maximus orbis (sc. terrarum) the entire earth; i. e. the inhabitants. - 27. Auctorem potentem = as the giver of increase to its productions, and the lord of its changeful seasons.-28. Cingens; sc. orbis. A fine image, representing the whole human race as uniting to crown Caesar with a myrtle wreath. Materna... myrto. The myrtle was sacred to Venus. See on E. VII. 62 and IX. 47. — 29. An — maris = or whether thou art to come as (i. e. art to be futurus sis) the god of the unmeasured sea.-30. Numina. See on concilia, v. 25 Thule; the extreme northern point of legendary travel. Some regard it as one of the Shetland Islands, others as Iceland, others as Norway, others still as Jutland.-31. Generum. Gr. 373. A. & S. 230, R. 2. Tethys. See on Ov. M. II. 69. She was the mother of tne Oceanides. See on E. V. 75. Omnibus undis; i. e. the whole sovereignty of the sea. In heroic times, parents used to give large


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dowries with their daughters. — 32. Tardis.....mensibus; i. e. the summer months, when the days are longest, and therefore the course of the sun apparently slowest. This is clear from the position assigned him between Virgo and Scorpio. Sidus = constellation; i. e. one of the signs of the zodiac.—33. Erigonen. In Virgil's time the space between the sign of Virgo (Erigone, or Astraea; see on Ov. M. I. 150) and that of the Scorpion, now occupied by Libra, was vacant, or only occupied by the claws (chelas) of the Scorpion. Sequentes = following; i. e. in the zodiacal order. — 34. Ipse reliquit; parenthetical. The Scorpion is represented as readily (ipse of himself) contracting his claws (brachia) to make room for his new companion, and as showing his respect for him by yielding more than a fair share (justa parte) of space. Ardens=bright, blazing; an epithet of the constellation. -36. Sperant Tartara. Gr. 474A. & S. 259. The honor is really too great for Tartarus to hope for. Gr. 141. A. & S. 92. I. Tartarus; properly the nether abode of the wicked, here used of the lower world generally. — 37. Veniat. Gr. 485; 486. I. and 2. A. & S. 260. II. Dira = intense. Cf. A. VI. 373. ing colors. Gr. 514; 515 and I. A. & S. 263. 2 (1). Graecia. Gr. 705. II. A. & S. 324 2. — 39. Repetita=recalled. Curet =nolit. Matrem; i. e. Ceres.-40. Facilem cursum = an easy (i. e. prosperous) course; a metaphor taken from navigation. The sentence begun v. 24 is here completed. Audacibus — coeptis = be favorable to, smile on, my bold undertaking; i. e. that of being the first to write a Latin poem on agriculture.

38. Miretur

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celebrates, paints in glow

41. Mecum; with miseratus. 42. Ingredere; i. e. enter upon thy career as a god. Jam nunc=even now. — 43. Vere novo. The Roman spring began between the Nones and Ides of February, when the west wind (Favonius or Zephyrus; see Hor. C. I. 4. 1) began to blow, and ended about the middle of May; but ploughing commenced sometimes even by the middle of January. Gelidus; from the melting snow. Canis; because covered with snow. Montibus. Gr. 425. 3 (4). A. & S. 255, R. 3 (b). — 44. Zephyro= through the agency of, under the influence of, the west wind. Gr. 414 and 5. A. & S. 247. — 45. Depresso; i. e. to the soil. Gr. 430. A. & S. 257. Jam tum= emphatic. Mihi. Gr. 389. A. & S. 228, N. (a). cipiat. It may be interpreted as = if you have any regard for my advice. Taurus = bos, juvencus; so elsewhere. The ancients never ploughed with bulls.-46. Ingemere; a consequence of the depresso aratro. -47. Seges terra, ager. Avari = eager; not here in a bad sense. —48. Bis... bis. The common practice was to plough three times, in spring, summer, and autumn; but where the


pressed deeply inthen immediately; Connect with in

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