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some of whom have written long and dull notes to explain and justify it, while others have wasted their ingenuity on conjectural emendations, like arcanum, agricolis, auriculas, etc.

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ELEGY X. In this poem, written during his exile, the author gives us a sketch of his life and fortunes. 365-1

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[See Life of Ovid, p.

A. & S. 311.

Qui fuerim depends singer. Amorum;

For the measure of the poem, see Gr. 676. 1. Ille. Gr. 450. 5. A. & S. 207, R. 24. on noris. Gr. 525. A. & S. 265. Lusor referring to the Amores, etc. See Life. - 3. Sulmo; a town of the Peligni, in the country of the Sabines, about ninety miles northeast of Rome. It was situated on two small mountain streams, the water of which was very cold. Hence gelidis uberrimus undis. —4. The Roman mile was 4,854 English feet, or about nine tenths of the English mile.-6. In the year 43 B. C., the consuls Aulus Hirtius and C. Vibius Pansa were sent with Octavianus against Antony, who was besieging D. Brutus at Mutina. Pansa was defeated by Antony, and died of a wound received in the battle. Hirtius retrieved this disaster by defeating Antony, but he also fell while leading an assault on the besieger's camp. —7. Si quid id est if that is anything; meaning that it is something to boast of. Many passages in his poems show that Ovid was proud of his family. Cf. Amor. III. 15. 5; Ep. ex Pont. IV. 8. 17. Ordinis; sc. equestris, implied in the following eques. - 8. Fortuna munere; i. e. by the possession of a fortune of 400 sestertia, which under the law of L. Roscius Otho (passed A. U. C. 687), entitled a person to equestrian privileges. — 11. Lucifer- idem; i. e. we both had the same birthday. See on Met. XI. 98. — 12. The libum was a cake offered to the Genius (the attendant spirit, or " guardian angel," of the person), on birthdays.-13. Haec — solet this is the first of the five days sacred to the warlike Minerva, which is bloody with the fight of gladiators; i.e. the second day of the Quinquatria, a festival in honor of Minerva, held on the 19th of March and the four following days. Of the first day Ovid (Fasti, III. 811) says: Sanguine prima vacat, nec fas concurrere ferro; but on the others there were shows of gladiators. -16. Insignes ab arte distinguished for learning. - Eloquieloquentiam. Tendebat inclined to; had a bent for.

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19. Coelestia sacra; i. e. the worship of the Muses.-22. Maeonides = Homer; from Maeonia, where he was said to have been born. See on Met. VI. 149. - 23. Helicone. See on II. 219.24. Verba - modis = = words free from measure; i. e. prose.-28. Liberior toga; i. e. the toga virilis, for which the boy of noble birth, at about the age of fifteen, exchanged the toga praetexta. He then ceased to be an infans, and entered on the legal rights of manhood. Hence liberior. For the datives, see Gr. 388. 3. A. & S. 225. II.— 29. The latus clavus, or broad purple stripe down the front of the tunic, was the badge of senatorial rank. Augustus, however, allowed the sons of senators, and, in some cases, of equites whose fortunes equalled that of senators, to wear the latus clavus, when they assumed the toga virilis. — 32. Cf. Hor. C. II. 17. 5. — 34. Deque— fui and I became one of the Triumviri; i. e. the Triumviri Capitales, whose duty it was to inquire into all capital crimes, and who had the care of public prisons. — 35. Curia — est = the sen ate was now open to me, but (not desiring to enter it) I laid aside the latus clavus. When a young eques was allowed to wear the latus clavus (see on v. 29), he gave it up on reaching the age when he was admissible into the senate, if he did not desire to become a senator, and assumed the angustus clavus, the badge of the equestrian order. -36. Onus; i. e. the senatorship. 38. Fugax, in poetry, some. times takes a genitive of the thing which is shunned. — 39. Aoniae Sorores the Muses; since Helicon and Aganippe, their favorite haunts, were in Aonia, or Boeotia. See on I. 313.-40. Otium often denotes freedom from the cares of public life. -44. Macer; i. e. Aemilius Macer, who wrote a poem, or poems, now lost, upon birds, serpents, and medicinal plants. He was born at Verona, and was a friend of Virgil's. - On the subjunctives, see Gr. 525. A. & S. 265.45. S. Aurelius Propertius, the poet, was born about B. C. 51. Little is known of his life. As an elegiac poet, he ranks very high, and, among the ancients, it was a disputed point whether the preference should be given to him or to Tibullus. Ig nes; i. c. love-poems. -47. Ponticus; a poet, less noted, who wrote on the Theban War in hexameter (heroo) verse. Bassus; a poet mentioned also by Propertius. Iambo= iambic verse.— 48. Dulcia - mei; i. e. were favorites in my circle of friends. 49. Numerosus Horatius : the tuneful Horace. 50. Ausonia - Italian. See on Met. V. 350.51. Ovid was twenty-four years old when Virgil died, but the latter had resided for some years at Naples. Albius Tibullus, the elegiac poet, died in the same year with Virgil, or soon after. The poetry of his contemporaries shows him to have been a gentle and singularly amiable man. - 53. C. Cornelius Gallus, born about B. C, 66, was an intimate friend of Virgil, Varus,

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Ovid, and other eminent men of his time, and highly esteemed as a poet; but none of his works have come down to us. — - 54. The series of elegiac poets, according to Ovid, is, therefore: Tibullus, Gallus, Propertius, Ovidius. — 56. Thalia mea = my muse. Thalia, at least in later times, was "the Muse of comedy and of merry and idyllic poetry."-57. Populo legi; i. e. in public, either in the Forum or the baths. The practice had become a common one at the time here referred to. - 60. The real name of the Corinna, celebrated in the Amores of Ovid, is not known to us. Sidonius Apollinaris says that she was Julia, the daughter of Augustus, and some modern scholars think this not improbable. — 63. Quum fugerem: when I went into exile. Placitura which would perhaps have pleased. At this time he burned the Metamorphoses. See Life. — 64. Studio. Gr. 391. I. A. & S. 222, R. 1.

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65. Molle - telis susceptible and by no means proof against the arrows of Cupid. — 66. Moveret. See ref. on v. 44.-67. Essem is subjunctive after quum causal. Hic = such; i. e. thus susceptible. — 68. Fabula = scandal. — 69–72. See Life. —73. Ultima. She was connected with the noble house of the Fabii and also with the imperial family. -74. Conjux. Gr. 547. I. A. & S. 271, N. 2.—75, 76. Filia- avum; i. e. his daughter, Perilla, was twice married, and had a child by each husband. - 77, 78. Since a lustrum is a period of five years, Ovid's father had reached the age of ninety. 79. Me. Gr. 371. 3. 1). A. & S. 232 (2) and N. 1. Some editors read, me... adempto.—80. Proxima justa = the last honors. His mother died soon after her husband. — 83. Me.

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Gr. 381 and 1. A. & S. 238. 2. - 84. Nihil. Gr. 380. 2. A. & S. 232 (3). 85. Si-restat; i. e. if death is not annihilation; if the soul is immortal. — 86. Gracilis = thin, insubstantial. Cf. leves populos, Met. X. 14.—89, 90. Causam jussae fugae that the cause of my banishment. Errorem. Ovid says again and again that his offence was an error, not a crime. See Life.-91. Studiosa (sc. mei): devoted. — 92. Pectora. See on Met. X. 71. It would seem from this line that friends had requested him to write this sketch of his life. — 94. Antiquas ; i. e. gray. — 95, 96. Pisaea — equus; i. e. ten times had the horses won the prize in the Olympian

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The Olympian games were celebrated, once in four years, near Pisa, in Elis. Ovid here (as in Ep. ex Pont. IV. 6. 5, where he uses the expression, quinquennis Olympias) makes the Olympiad equal to the Roman lustrum (see on v. 78). He was fifty-one years old at the time of his banishment. 97. See Life. -101. Ovid repeatedly complains of the treachery of those about him. Cf. Ep. ex Pont. II. 7. 62: Ditata est spoliis perfida turba meis. — 106. Cepi — arma I took up the arms of my situation; i. e. I met the change

bravely. -108. The hidden pole is the Southern; the visible, the Northern. Cf. Virg. G. I. 242 foll.—110. Sarmatis ora=the Sarmatian shore. Sarmatia was the general name for the northeastern part of Europe and the northwestern part of Asia. The Danube separated it from Thrace, just within whose boundaries the Getae lived. 111. Circumsoner. Gr. 516. II. and 3. Some editors read circumsonor. Compare quamvis ... est, v. 113. 113. Refera tur. Gr. 501. I. A. & S. 264. 7. — 116. Lucis Gratia... tibi is thy favor; i. e. I owe to thee.

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vitae. — 117. The subject of

the sentence is the clause depending on quod.-119. Ab Istro= from the Danube; i. e. from this place of exile. For the change of number in nos... mihi, see Met. V. 517, 518; XI. 132, 133, etc.120. Helicone. See on v. 23. — 122. Ab exsequiis = post exse quias. 123. Detrectat praesentia; i. e. depreciates the works of living authors. -124. Nostris; sc. operibus. - 128. Plurimus. See on Met. XI. 140.-130. Protinus - tuus; i. e. though I die, I shall not be forgotten. Cf. Hor. C. II. 7. 21; III. 30. 6. Cf. also the closing verses of the Metamorphoses :

Famque opus peregi quod nec Jovis ira nec ignes
Nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas.
Quum volet illa dies quae nil nisi corporis hujus
Jus habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat acvi;
Parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis
Astra ferar nomenque erit indelebile nostrum,
Quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris
Ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama,
Si quid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam!

THE LIFE OF VIRGIL.

P. VIRGILIUS (or VERGILIUS) MARO, was born on the 15th of October, B. C. 70, in the first consulship of Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and M. Licinius Crassus, at Andes, a small village near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. The tradition, though an old one, which identifies Andes with the modern village of Pietola, may be accepted as a tradition, without being accepted as a truth. The poet Horace, afterwards one of his friends, was born B. C. 65; and Octavianus Caesar, afterwards the Emperor Augustus, and his patron, in B. C. 63, in the consulship of M. Tullius Cicero. Virgil's father probably had a small estate which he cultivated his mother's name was Maia. The son was educated at Cremona and Mediolanum (Milan), and he took the toga virilis at Cremona on the day on which he commenced his sixteenth year, in B. C. 55, which was the second consulship of Cn. Pompeius Magnus and M. Licinius Crassus. It is said that Virgil subsequently studied at Neapolis (Naples), under Parthenius, a native of Bithynia, from whom he learned Greek; and the minute industry of the grammarians has pointed out the following line (Georg. I. 437) as borrowed from his master:

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Glauco et Panopeae et Inoo Melicertae.

He was also instructed by Syron, an Epicurean, and probably at Rome. Virgil's writings prove that he received a learned education, and traces of Epicurean opinions are apparent in them. His health was always feeble, and there is no evidence of his attempting to rise by those means by which a Roman gained distinction, oratory and the practice of arms. Indeed, at the time when he was born, Cisalpine Gaul was not included within the term "Italy," and it was not till B. C. 89 that a Lex Pompeia gave even the Jus Latii to the inhabitants of Gallia Transpadana, and the privilege of obtaining the Roman civitas by filling a magistratus in their own cities. The Roman civitas was not given to the Transpadani till B. C. 49. Virgil, therefore, was not a Roman citizen by birth, and he was above twenty years of age before the civitas was extended to Gallia Transpadana.

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