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the patient is a female, the objections to a jour- enable the natural powers of the system to ney apply with increased force.”
restore the disordered functions without
the aid of art, these powers will fail in a It is not, therefore, in the hope of his pa great majority of cases; and yet, not so tients finding something specific—some much, perhaps, from their deficiency, as bemysterious and occult virtue-in the air of cause they are impeded and thwarted by an a milder climate, capable of curing con. injurious system of regimen or medical sumption, that our author sends them to treatment. In the severer or more strongly Italy or Madeira; but it is because the cli- marked cases, (even before the developmate of these countries permits the appli- ment of tubercles,) it will be of little avail cation of the means best calculated for pre that the invalid changes our cold and gloomy venting or removing those morbid actions atmosphere for the soft breezes and brilliant which too often terminate in consumption. skies of the south, unless he changes, at The fatal error of this country is—to wait the same time, the habits which bave induuntil the lungs are obviously affected, and ced, or aggravated, or accelerated his prethen to hurry the unfortunate patient at once sent disorder; and unless he, moreover, to a mild climate ; without considering, in adopts measures calculated to aid the sanathe first place, whether the case is of such a tive powers of nature. Nay, we will assert, nature as really to afford any reasonable however great may be the advantages of a hope of benefit from any climate ; and, se mild climate in such cases, (and we consicondly, if a prospect of benefit really exists, der them as very great,) it will be much bet. which of the milder climates is best suited ter for an invalid to remain in England unto the particular case. The plan recom- der good management, than to go abroad to mended by the author is to watch the de-lhe best climate, under no management at velopment of that train of symptoms, which, all, or under bad management. Cæteris paif left unchecked, too generally terminates ribus, a mild climate is, in this case, greatin consumption ; to institute then a compre- ly preferable to a cold one; but a good syshensive and combined system of treatment tem of discipline is indispensable in both. calculated to restore the disordered func. And here, before we conclude, and lest tions; and, as enabling some parts of this we should be thought desirous of having it system to be carried much more effectually supposed that we ourselves, or the author into operation, then to remove the invalid of this work, possess some new and potent to the mild climate which is best suited to system of medication, calculated to avert the peculiarities of the case. Such a cli. the poisoned arrows of “the pest," or to mate, among other advantages, tends to pro- stay its giant strides-we deem it necessary duce a greater equality in the circulation, to state, in a very few words, the general by determining the fluids to the surface and complexion of the plan of treatment which extremities; removes considerably the risk he recommends, and in which alone we have of catarrhal affections, which, in predis any faith, in the case under consideration. posed subjects, often act as exciting causes in the first place, we utterly disclaim the of tubercles; and—the greatest advantage possession or prescription of any specific re. of all, enables the invalid to be much more medy in such cases; and, in the second in the open air, and, consequently, to take place, we profess to be most sparing in the much more exercise than he could possibly use of medicines of any kind. Indeed, we do in England during the winter. With such are of opinion that medical science has now advantages as these, the plan of treatment arrived at that stage when, in practice, it calculated to restore the general health, and may frequently content itself by looking, thereby to avert the threatened disease of rather to the pathological condition of the the lungs, has obviously a much fairer subject, than to the efficacy of any remedial chance of success in such a climate as Ma measures. At all events, we think it will deira, where there may be said to be a per-generally be found, that the most scientific petual summer, than in so cold, moist, and and skilful physicians are the most sparing variable a climate as that of England. We in the use of drugs. The plan we advocate say the plan of treatment has a fairer chance in the present case, consists essentially in of success in such a climate-not that the taking a close and comprehensive view of climate is to be considered as the sole or the whole disorder under which the system even principal agent in averting the impend-labors; and in adapting our remedies (often ing malady, much less in curing it when it extremely simple) to every part that is afhas already made good its footing. The fected. What we consider as most faulty fact is, that although a change to a mild in the prevailing system of medicine in this climate may be sufficient, in some cases, to country is, the too great simplicity of the
views of disease taken by practitioners, and hanging thermometers, barometers, and hydromethe consequent too partial and exclusive ters, and every other sort of omeler, numberless, system of therapeutics founded on them. dusty, and mysterious; loadstones with weights
attached to them; scales, pendulums, and an end. We wish practitioners, in their study of
less et cetera. Opposite to these was an old chronic diseases, to endeavor, like the au-l bureau full of mineralogical curiosities, among thor of the work before us, to combine the which he showed me an earth previously unknown, Hippocratic system of close and compre which he had lately discovered, and a crystal not hensive observation with the more rational yet observed by any other person, and such like views of disease brought to light by modern marvels. All these were lying in confusion conPathology ; and in their practice to endea
founded, amidst pots and pans, basins, crucibles,
receivers, retorts, bottles of every sort, shape, and vor to restore, at the same time, all the
size, and flanked with glasses of every kind and parts that are disordered; and to restore forin. His large table, covered with tablets, many. them by such mild and simple means as are scripts, and books, cups, funnels, and every denomcalculated rather to solicit than to force ination of vessels, baffled all description. When their natural actions. In the case now more I disturbed him, he was engaged in analyzing some immediately under consideration the morspecimena of minerals; but, to my taste, he was by bid state entitled by Sir James Clark Tuber
Soul Ther far the most extraordinary specimen of all. Fancy
I a little dirty old man, with blear eyes, wbose face cular Cachexy-we find almost every part of
looked as if it had not been washed any more than the system disordered, although some are his originally white, now dark brown, nightcap, much more so than others. There is an ir- since his spectacles were made; and the furrow regular distribution of the circulating fluids, they had worn upon his nose showed their use bad of the nervous power, and of the animal been of some years' standing : and to augment his temperature; the circulating fluids are them- beauty, a huge black plaster was stuck on selves in an unhealthy state, and most of the temple. He wore a dirty shirt crusted with snuff,
Ta gay colored waistcoat reaching over bis hips, s secretions are depraved; the organs of di
brown coat and trousers far too wide for his shrunkgestion are particularly disordered; the skinen shanks, while a pair of immense slippers com. and all the mucous surfaces are affected; pleted the costume of this subterranean octogenaand there exist local congestions, or irrita- rian, or, I may say, Mediterranean prodigy. Detions, or inflammations of the mucous sur-spite his rough and unpromising exterior, his manfaces, viscera, and internal blood-vessels. ners were not oniy agreeable, but polished ; and he Now, is it to be supposed for a moment, that very
hovery kindly showed me his collection of minerals,
which is valuable and well arranged. He was a medicines, or any system of treatment that pupil of Werner's and is a man of considerable regards only one or two links of the chain, I talent.--Milford's Norway, can stand any chance of removing a disorder at once so general and so deeply rooted. The experience of all the best physicians of the present day, and the results of our au-ON SEEING A CHILD FALL ASLEEP AMID thor's observations, recorded in the present
ITS SPORTS. work, and in his Treatise on Consumption,
BY MISS PARDOE. strengthen and confirm our own convictions,
From Chambers's Edinburgh Journal. founded on long attention to the subject, in
WEARIED with pleasure! Oh, how deep replying in the negative.
Such slumber seems to be-
As thus I gaze on thee:
Ay, weep and with most bitter tears, PROFESSOR OF MINERALOGY AT CHRIS.
"Wrung from the spirit's core, TIANIA.
To think that in a few short years I found the learned gentleman in a low room about Thou'lt sleep that sleep no more. ten feet square, at the end of a dark covered way, which was entered from the street, and across
Wearied with pleasure ! what a sound which was a gate with broken hinges; the window
To greet a world-worn ear!
Can we who tread life's giddy round, of this apartment looked on a dirty courtyard lum.
Sleep like the cherub here? bered up with tubs, an old cart, and a barrel or
Alas! for us joy's brightest hours two of earth containing ore to be analyzed. But All fever as they fly, the room itself was even worse than its situation, And leave a blight-as sun-struck flowers and its multifarious contents more difficult to Of too much glory die. analyze than the ore. It contained in one corner a small dirty bed ; and on one side was a book.
Wearied with pleasure ! Does the wing
Ofangels fan thy brow? case, from the dusty top shell of which, by mount
Sweet child, do birds about thee sing, ing upon one of the three old crazy chairs, he
And blossoms round thee blow? handed a book down to me. On another side Is thy calm sleep with gladness rife ? stood an antique clock, its face covered with figures Do stars above thee shine ? and divers circles, emblematic, no doubt, of the Oh, I would give whole years of life mystic religion of Norway. On the wall were To dream such dreams as thine!
MEANS OF SECRET COMMUNICATION IN similar, that, unless previously agreed on ANCIENT ARMIES.
and fully comprehended by the allies, it BY H. CURLING, I. P. 52ND.
was almost impossible to detect the involvProin United Service Journal.
ed meaning of the scrawl. The extraordinary means by which the
T&T AND 25D ALPHABETS. warriors of the olden time contrived to a b c d e f g h i k 1 m
a communicate with each other while cooped
b c d e f g h i k l m up and surrounded by their adversaries in
no p q s t u uw y the beleaguered city, or the tented field,
n o p q r s t u v w x y z will be found, on perusal of those old worm. Now, if by these alphabets we write the eaten works wherein such contrivances are following letter, it will be found to answer dilated on, well worthy of the contempla. the purposes described above. tion of the curious in military matters.
FROM THE BESIEGED. It is my purpose in this paper to set forth Wee progrer still in our affaires and shall without some of the practices the "old soldier" re- hauing any further helpe endure the seige. sorted to wben war (less civilized than in Giving (as inentioned), in case of being inlater days) was a war of extermination. tercepted, a false account of prosperous At the same time, it was the business of life, I times and full graparies, where, in truth. and barness of proof “your only wear.” In there was nothing but "a bare-ribb'd death" those days of iron men, then, it would apol in prospect ; lor if the letters of the second pear that a considerable deal more inge. I alphabet be picked out of this smiliog and nuity was wont to be displayed thail is confident epistle, the situation of the garri. either customary, or at all necessary in our son will be fully described, with military own times; and the means used by the an- brevily sufficieni to satisfy the great captain cients to communicate their intentions, nel of our own timescessities, and perils to their advancing or distant allies, so contrived in many instan
Wee perish with hunger helpe us. ces, that if, by adverse circumstances, the Another way of secret writing, was to messenger and his letter happened to be in express all the letters by any five of them tercepted, the communication being artfully doubled ; for instance, A B C D E doubled inworded, although it sailed in the immediate to the following alphabetpurpose in hand, it yet might serve the turn A B C D E F G H I K L M of misleading the foe; by which means, I aa ab ac ad ae ba bb bc bd be ca cb when so completely blocked up and sur: N O P Q R S T V W X Y Z rounded by fierce and savage foes, that cc cd ce da dbdcdd de ea ebeced (unless the bird of the air could take their &c. By which contrivance, that which apmessage in his flight, or the blind mole peared an incomprehensible jumble of let. burrow with it through the firm-set earth), iers, “ signifying nothing," if intercepted, their case seemed altogether hopeless, they might convey a certain and true account of have yet managed, by some swist and se. the situation or wants of the besieged; for cret intelligence, either to obtain a diver. instance, “I am betrayed,” may be thus sion in their favor, or gain assistance from writtentheir friends.
. Bd aa cbab ae dd db aa ec ae ad For example, an alphabet having been la mo e ir a yed agreed upon among the host, ere separated On reference to the alphabet above, this and detached in a hostile country, with the will be easily and plainly made out. Certes, letters so marked, or varied, as to be under- it is an epistle to which the caution of Hamstood by themselves alone, it was frequently liener
alone, it was trequently let need not be given-namely, “Give it an the custom of the ancients, in their extrem
understanding, and no tongue;" since I defy ity, to write that which, on being unluckily
the inventors of the unknown tongues of intercepted, would, as I have before said,
more modern times to syllable it forth, howalthough it failed in obtaining them the suc.
Clever easily they might comprehend it. cors or assistance they required, at least,
ast, Again, three letters being transposed mislead their enemies as to their real situa.
a through three places were also used thus: tion.
A B C D E F G H I K L M No.-Involved Epistles of the Ancients. | aaa aab aac baa bba bbb bbc caa cca ccb ccc aba
In the first place, then, we will exemplify N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z the means resorted to in very early times! abb abc aca acb acc bca bcb bec bce bab cba cbb cbc of writing a letter, with the help of two al. By which means, supposing the besieged to phabets-the letters of which were so nearly I wish for the rapid advance of their friends,
VOL. I. No. III. 41
upon any sudden emergency, they might ways of conveyance, were fain to send to write it tbus :
Constantinople by one disguised as a beg. caa aaa bca tcb bha abb bec abb bcb abc aba bba
gar, “ragged as Lazarus in the painted Hasten unto me.
Letters have also been conveyed by men Two letters being transposed through five
to their imprisoned friends in the food they places may be also supplied
were to receive ; and among other stories A B C D E F G H
related, there is one of a person rolling up aaaaa aaaah aaaba anabb aabaa aabab aabba aabbb
his letter in a wax candle, and desiring the 1 K L M N O P Q
messenger to tell the party who received it abaaa abuab abuba ababb abbaa abbab abbba abbbb
that the candle would give him light for bis R S T V W X Y Z baaaa baaab banba baabb babaa bababb babba ba bbb
business. Harpagus, the Mede, when he
wished to exhort Cyrus to conspire against From which, for instance, write to your
the king, bis uncle, and being suspected so friends, and tell them 10 cut their sticks
much that his every motion was jealously after this fashion—" with wbat flourish your watch
urish your watched by “servant's feed," managed yet nature will," as the immortal has it
to evade these dogged spies, and one day, aabab a baba babba aaaaa ba baa aaraa babba while hunting, contrived to stow away bis Ε Υ Α w Α Υ
letters in the belly of a hare, and delivering Suetonius mentions that Julius Cesar, them, together with his nets and other imwhen he wished to convey a private meso plements of the chase, to a trusty messensage, was sometimes wont to write it by ger, they were thus safely conveyed to Cy. making one letter stand for another: D for rus; by which adventure, Astyages was beA, E for B, and so following, according to reaved of his kingdom. this alphabet :
Demæratus, king of Sparta, also, while defghi klmnopqrstu w x y z abc “eating the bitter bread of banishment,"
a b c d e f g h i k l m n opprst u v w x y z being received at the Persian court, became By which invention, if he wished to say, aware there of the designs of Xerxes against “Hasten unto me," he wrote it thus :
Greece ; upon which he immediately set Ld w x hq yg x r ph.
his wits to work in order to advertise bis
countrymen of the mighty preparation. The same author says that Octavius Au. For this purpose, writing his epistle upon a gustus pursued a similar plan, setting down tablet of wood and covering the letters with the second letter for the first, as B for a, c wax, it was in that form conveyed safely for B, and for a, xx. This again they rung to the magistrates of Lacedæmon, who, on the changes upon, and still further ob- its receipt, although they had a shrewd susscured.
picion that it “meant mischief,” were for a Notes of secresy and abbreviation in wri. long time unable to pluck out the heart of ting, as used by the Romans, are treated on its mystery, till at length the king's sister, by Valerius Probus. Cicero and Seneca on its being shown her, picked off the wax are also said to have been among the first and discovered the writing. who invented some of these means of com! The leaves of plants and trees were also munication.
made use of for ihe purpose of writing on, No. 2.—The Artifices used for Delivery
and being covered over some sore or ulcer, of Letters.
were thus carried and secretly delivered.
Among, however, the most extraordinary The artifices, also, that the warriors of lof these kinds of inventions, is one told of the olden time resorted to for the convey. Hystiæus, who, while with Darius in Persia ance of these mysterious epistles will be being in communication with Aristagoras found as well worthy of notice as the letters in Greece), desired to send him a secret themselves. Some, for instance, have been message upon the subject of revolting from put into the hands of men, who, being box- the Persian government. For this purpose, ed up in coffins, have been sent away as he undertook the cure of one of his house. dead; others, again, have been fain to take hold servants troubled with sore eyes; and on them the disguise and semblance of ani. I persuading him of the necessity of having mals, as mentioned by Josephus, when, du- his head shaved and scarified (no bad reni. ring the seige of Jotapata, soldiers were or- edy, by the way) during the operation, he dered to creep out of the city by night in took an opportunity of writing his intenthe likeness of dogs. The Council of Ephe- tions on the man's bead. After which, sus, again, when Nestorius was condemned, keeping him confined for some days till his being strictly debarred from all ordinary hair was somewhat grown, he desired bim
then (in order that he might be perfectly fires if in the night-time, and by a red flag cured), to travel into Greece, and present of cloth by day. “Si in peterentur ab hoste, himself before Aristagoras, who, by shaving de die, papno rubro in hastu sublato signifihis head a second time, would certainly re-carent, de nocte, igne." store his vision.
Vegetius also affirms that it was customWhen, again, it has been found impossi. ary when the host was divided to communible to communicate by land during a seige, cate in the day by smoke, in the night by the ancients have made the effort by water, fires. by means of thin plates of lead fastened to Torches shaken betokened the approach the arms and thighs of expert swimmers. of the enemy; held still they signified the Lucullus is said to have communicated his advance of friends. approach to a beleaguered town, by sending Polybius dilates upon a plan of this sort. a common soldier, disguised like some “Let there be (he says) five columns, or tabstrange fish, and who, having his letters lets, drawn thus, with letters thus divided : concealed in two bladders, by their help
1 2 3 4 5 (being an expert swimmer), he managed to reach his destination.
Pigeons, and swallows even, were used in early times to carry a letter. “The bird of the air will carry the clatter, and pint stonps hae lang lugs,' quotes one of Sir Walter's characters. Arrows, also, have carried intelligence:
“Provide then ten torches, five being on indeed, we are told of one which, being la- the right and five on the left. Hold up so belled for Philip's right eye, hit the mark; many torches on the right hand as show the by which we might, if we liked, go so far number of the tablet, and so many on the as avouch the oldness of the saying, “There left as will display the number of the letter you go with your eye out,” but that we have therein. For instance, if you mean to say no voucher for the fact. The missiles, even Hasten, it may be thus signified : cast from slings, in very early times, had The right hand.
The left hand. billets attached to them. Cleomenes, king of Lacedæmon, during the siege of Trezerne, ordered his soldiers to shoot several arrows over the walls, with notes attached, containing the words_“I come that I may restore this place to liberty.” Upon which, the over-credulous inhabitants, discontented withal, opened their gates, and allowed his power to enter.
In short, the highest walls, the deepest “That is, two lights on the right hand moats, rivers, and trenches, guarded by the show the second column, and, at the same most watchful sentinels, have been insuffi. time, three at the left denote the third let, cient to baffle the wit of a determined foe. ter in that column, H. A single torch dis'Tis not the roundure of your old-fac'd walls covered on both sides signifies the first let. Can hide you from our messengers of war. ter of the first column,-and so on for the
remainder. There are various changes in No. 3.—Beacons, Signals by Smoke, by Fire, I this surt of torch-light communication; but and by Torches, &c.
the above is sufficient to show how the The practice of giving information by thing was managed." lighting fires in the night, and by sending up The signals by smoke, in the day-tiine, volumes of smoke by day, is of greater an- were not quite so distinctly made out, though tiquity than the other secret inventions I the contrivances were various and inge. have mentioned, since such practises are nious. Funnels, for instance, were used for said to have been in use in the Trojan wars. the purpose of dividing and conveying the Be that, however, as it may, they are fre. smoke in the order it was intended to mount quently mentioned by the ancient historians. into the air, so as to be seen at a great dis
Appian, speaking of Scipio at Numantia, tance; and doubtless many of the unregardmentions that he divided his camp into died beacons and nameless barrows which are pers companies, and gave orders to the Tri. to be seen upon the blasted heaths and wolds bunes who commanded each party to signal of our sceptred isle could tell an interesting ize any attack that was made upon them, by tale of fearful musters and prepared defence,