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fied with advantage by suppressing the growth Starch is often combined with poisonous sub- of one part, which causes increased development stances; and many anxious mothers will be sur- of other parts. prised to hear that the mild, bland, demulcent tapioca, is obtained from the root of the jatropha manihot, a plant indigenous to the Brazils, MOFFAT'S MSSIONARY LABORS AND Guiana, and the West India Islands, which is SCENES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. one of the most active poisons known, causing
From Tail's Magazine. death in a few minutes after it has been swal. This, in its leading feature, the personal lowed. The roots of this plant, which contain a record of its author, is a very remarkable great quantity of sap, are peeled and subjected
a book, and one which is better calculated to to pressure in bags made of rushes. The juice thus forced out is so deadly a poison, that it is
that it is show the utility of missions to Africa than employed by the Indians as a poison for their ar- any work that has appeared for many years rows. On being allowed to stand, however, it back. It is ibe narrative of a man who has soon deposits a white starch, which, when pro- been for twenty-three years a faithful and perly washed, is quite innocent. This starch is diligent laborer among the heathen. as the then dried in smoke, and afterwards passed
agent, in South Africa, of the London Misthrough a sieve; and is the substance from which tapioca and the cassava bread of the Indians issionary Society, -of a man of quick intelli. prepared. The discovery of the process for gence, and remarkable sagacity, and one separating this powder from the jatropha mani-/ who appears to have been in every way sinhot has been of the greatest importance to the gularly well adapted to the difficult situation human race, since it enables us to obtain a niost into which Providence has thrown him valuable article of food from a plant that is of a From youth to middle age he has spent his highly poisonous nature, but which contains anii
life in privations, vicissitudes, and dangers, enormous quantity of nutritious inatter; for it is asserted that one acre of manihot will afford of which stay-at-home people can hardly nourishment for more persons than six acres of forın an idea; and which few men possess wheat.
che courage, foriitude, and physical hardi. MODERN EPICUREAN EXPLOITS.
hood to encounter, and much less to perseEuropeans may justly lay claim to the merit
vere under. of having been most instrumental in conveying,
onveving! The missionary to barbarous or half-civithe different animals and vegetables most useful lized countries is the truc hero of modern as articles of diet from one country to another. times. He is the successor of the hardy From Europe and Asia they have carried our and enterprising navigator and discoverer common ruminants, and fowls, corn, sugar, rice, of the middle ages; though he follows in tamarinds, tea, coffee, some spices, oranges, and their track for much nobler purposes, and many other vegetables, to America and Australasia. They have brought back from Amer
in the strength of a purer spirit. But, inica in return, the turkey, maize, potatoes, mani-| dependently altogether of his sacred vocahot, the pine-apple, &c., and transported them to tion, we have seldom read any narrative different regions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and wbich more powerfully stirs the sympathies Australasia, where the climate and soil are fitted than this of Moffat; or which interests the for their existence and growth. They have thus reader more deeply, in the perils, conflicts. conferred a great benefit on the human race in
and personal adventures of the actor, and general; for the more completely this interchange is carried out, the more will the means
in the display of those varied intellectual for nourishing the body be multiplied, which is and physical qualities and resources which, the best way to improve its condition.
in the face of what seemed insurmountable EFFECTS OF CULTURE.
obstacles, has enabled him to work what The almond, with its tough coriaceous husk, I looks like miracles, among the barbarous has been changed by long culture into the peach, tribes for whose improvement he has laborwith its beautiful, soft, and delicious pulp; the ed with untiring courage; often cast down, acrid sloe, into the luscious plum; and the harsh, but never despairing. He and his coadjubitter crab, into the golden pippin. Attention to tors may now be hailed as the civilizers of nutrition has produced quite as marked changes like
ked changes the barbarons tribes of South Africa, whom in the pear, cherry, and other fruit-trees; many of which have not only been altered in their hey.
is they have conquered and civilized by Chrisqualities and appearance, but even in their habits. Itianizing. But these--civilization and ChrisCelery, so agreeable to most palates, is a modi- tianity-are phrases which ought to be fication of the apium graveolens, the taste of synonymous. which is so acrid and bitter that it cannot be From the published Reports of the Miseaten. Our cauliflowers and cabbages, which sionary Society, and the African Narratives weigh many pounds, are largely-developed cole
ole of the Rev. John Campbell, late of Kingsworts, that grow wild on the sea-shore, and do not weigh more than half an ounce each. The land, some of our readers must probably rose has been produced by cultivation from the have some previous knowledge of the common wild-brier. Many plants may be modi- I thor of this work. At a very early
was sent out to Africa by the London So- has become that of his affections; the wil. ciety. The principal scene of his mission- derness, now no longer a wilderness, his beary labors has been among the Bechuanas ; loved home. We presume that Mr. Moffat and his head-quarters is now the flourishing is now far on his way to the shores of ArKuruman Station, which he was mainly in- rica. strumental in planting. But his has been a In an old note-book of John Campbell's, wandering life, and one wholly spent among there appears this notice of Mr. Moffat, “ savage tribes and roving barbarians;" which we cite in the first place :" His edunor does John Campbell, over-rate Mof-cation does not qualify him to preach at Cape fat's extraordinary powers and achieve- Town ; but I believe him to be a first-rate ments when he says, —" To master the lan missionary to the heathen. He is also acguage he wandered the deserts with the sav. quainted with agriculture, carpentery work, age tribes, sharing their perils and priva- the sextant, map-making,” &c. &c. A know. tions. He outdid Paul in accommodating ledge of medicine and surgery appear to himself to all men, in order to save some. have been among Mr. Moffat's useful ac. Paul never became a savage in lot, to save quirements; and with his own hands he savages. Many might indeed thus stoop to printed the Gospels, which he had translatconquer, but few could retain both their ed into the language of the country, as well piety and philosophy in such society !" as school-books, hymn-books, and other On Campbell's second journey to Africa, useful tracts. To own the truth, we are Mr. Moffat was his companion from Cape not certain that Campbell was able to appreTown into the interior. Though much ciate the full merits of this breaker-up of younger in years, and perhaps inferior to the fallow-ground, in a field to which he Campbell in some secondary attainments, was himself but a transient though a most we should infer that Moffat is a man of lof-useful visitor. As to Moffat not being quatier intellect, and one who possesses, in a lified to preach at Cape Town, if such be the far higher degree, those qualities which en. fact, the fault must rest with the audience, able the missionary to acquire and retain in- and not with the Preacher ;-the actor fluence over a barbarous people. His per- in, and the author of, the remarkable narsonal courage alone, and skill in the chaserative before us. Preaching—and we and in many useful arts, must have given wish this was as generally understood him an immense advantage with the Afri- among the clergy as it is among the cans.
laity-admits of much greater variety than In the course of his long sojourn among is usually imagined, and of a far wider the Bechuanas and Namaquas, and the range of topics. If a man who has spent an neighboring tribes, Mr. Moffat has made se active life, replete with wild adventure and veral journeys to Cape Town on private bus daring enterprise, among the barbarous siness, or for objects connected with his hordes of Africa, propagating the Gospel by missionary labors. On one of these jour- exhibiting its fruits in his lessons and in neys he was married to a young lady to his life, be not an adept in the conventionwhom he appears to have been engaged be- alities and usages of monotonous sermonizfore he left England, and who has been his ing, as they are practised among us and faithful companion in the desert. In the transmitted from generation to generation wilds of Africa he has had a large family, and almost unchanged if he may not be what experienced a full share of domestic afflic. is called a “good preacher," he is sometion and calamity, though his wife must thing of a far higher character, which pot have been not only a very great addition to one "good preacher” in a thousand is fitted his happiness, but to his usefulness as a la- to become. A feeling of undue humility borer among the heathen. The year be- has led Mr. Moffat to make superfluous fore last, Mr. Moffat, for the first time since apologies for the imperfections of his style, his departure, visited England, to give an ac- and for his inability to enter upon philosocount of his extraordinary labors, and more phical disquisition and analysis. He has extraordinary ultimate success. This, we undone much better; he has supplied philosoderstand, he has frequently done orally, but phers, and all orders of men, with copious better by the publication of the interesting materials, and much novel matter for reflecwork before us, which he has bequeathed tion; and the actor in the wild scenes he as a legacy to the multitudes of friends of describes, the witness of the strange facts all classes who have shown him kindness, he relates, could not fail of apt expressions before he shall finally return to the far-dis- to convey his own vivid feelings and recol. tant scene of his labors, his conflicts, and lections of the events he had witnessed; his triumphs. The country of his adoption could not, in short, fail to be imaginative and eloquent in the best sense. Moffat is so in an actor in the scenes he describes, and the eminent degree. He is a native of Scotland, principal hero of his own tale, is interestwhich says something for the early nurture ing, though it falls below the personal narof the higher faculties of his mind; and his rative, both from the tamer nature of the residence in the wilderness has wonderfully events, and the greater animation of the aupreserved the originality and raciness of thor, when he comes to be the actor, instead his mental constitution. An able man he of the chronicler, of those daring and perimust have been onder all circumstances; lous adventures. From the Hottentots the but had he lived at home, aiming to become missions were gradually extended to the such a preacher as, for a season, is pretty | Bushmen, the Namaquas, Corannas, Grisure to captivate a town or civilized audio quas, and Bechuanas; the native converts ence, he would probably have been tamed becoming efficient instruments in spreading down into respectable mediocrity.
religious knowledge among their savage He was accepted by the Directors of the and nomade neighbors. In 1806, the Or. Society, and set apart for his work at the ange River was first crossed by the missame time with the lamented Williams, the sionaries, and the mission of Namaqua-land “Martyr of Erromanga." His career has established, under very disastrous circumbeen more arduous, his conflict more pro- stances, by the brothers Albrechts. A tracted ; and when the nature of his posi- fierce, predatory chief, named Africaner, a tion is closely examined, his final success name which afterwards became familiar and appears to us more remarkable. He has dear to the friends of African Missions, was eminently been a breaker-up of the fallow at that time the scourge and terror of the ground; one who bears the burden in the country, but particularly of the Dutch setheat of the day. His volume must, we ima- tlers on the frontier of the colony. The gine, engage the attention of many who are history of this noble African is not a little not particularly interested in missionary romantic. The first missionaries were enterprise, from the curious and novel as ready to despond, and to abandon the enterpects in which it presents a portion of the prise under the many and grievous discour. great human family, and from its copious agements; and, among other reasons, from additions to natural history. Intelligent their proximity to this noted freebooter travellers, passing through these tribes, de and cattle-stealer. One day this dreaded scribe superficially their condition and man- personage appeared at the station, and thus Ders; but men like Moffat, who have spent a addressed them: lifetime among them, studied and used their “As you are sent by the English, I welcome language, and adopted their usages so far you to the country; for though I hate the Dutch, as this was advisable, becoming, as it were, my former oppressors, I love the English; for I children of their family, are able to do much have always heard that they are the friends of more. The missionaries, if tolerably en
the poor black man." . : Jager, the eldest
son of the old man, from his shrewdness and lightened men, are certainly much better
prowess, obtained the reins of the government qualified to tell us of the people among
us of the people among of his tribe at an early age. He and his father whom they labor, than any other descrip-once roamed on their native hills and dales, tion of travellers.
within 100 miles of Cape Town ; pastured Mr. Moffat's volume opens with a gener-their own flocks, killed their own game, drank of al view of the condition of the tribes of their own streams, and mingled the music of Southern Africa ; and a retrospective his.
their heathen songs with the winds which burst
over the Witsemberg and Winterhoek mountory of missions to that division of the
tains, once the strongholds of his clan. As the continent. He begins with Schmidt, Dutch settlers increased, and found it necessary who was sent forth by the Moravians to the to make room for themselves, by adopting as Hottentots upwards of a century since their own the lands which lay beyong them, the The fascinating history of Schmidt's suc. Hottentots, the aborigines, perfectly incapable cessful labors has long been familiar to the of maintaining their ground against these forworld. They were suspended by the jeal
icol. eign intruders, were compelled to give place by
removing to a distance, or yielding themselves ousy of the Dutch East India Company ; but in passive obedience to the farmers. From time fifty years afterwards, when Missionaries to time he found himself and his people becomwere sgain sent out, the good fruits ofling more remote from the land of their fore. Scbmidt's labors were still visible, and his fathers, till he became united and subject to a memory paved the way for the favorable re- farmer named P- Here he and his dimin
ished clan lived for a number of years. In Afriception of Vanderkemp and others. The re
caner, P- found a faithful, and an intrepid trospect of the various South-African Mis- |
shepherd; while his valor in defending and insions, from their commencement until the creasing the herds and flocks of his master, enDeriod when Mr. Moffat became himself an hanced his value, at the same time it rapidly ma. tured the latent principle which afterwards re- until Berend also was subdued by the power coiled on that devoted family, and carried devas- lof the Gospel of Peace. Probably both the tation to whatever quarter he directed his steps. Ichiefs about the same time began to per. Had P- treated his subjects with cominon
ilceive the unprofitable nature of their san. humanity, not to say with gratitude, he might have died honorably, and prevented the catas. guinary quarrels. Of Nicholas Berend, a trophe which befell the family, and the train of brother of the chief, and one of his best cap. robbery, crime, and bloodshed, which quickly stains, it is told that he was afterward at. followed that melancholy event.
tached to different missions as a native We omit the tragedy, in which the far
teacher. He was, says Moffat, mer, by treachery, provoked his fate. When A very superior man both in appearance and the horrible outrage was completed,
intellect. I have frequently travelled with bim,
and many a dreary mile have we walked over Africaner, with as little loss of time as possi. the wilderness together. Having an excellent ble, rallied the remnant of his tribe, and, with memory, and good deseriptive powers, he has what they could take with them, directed their often beguiled the dreariness of the road, by recourse to the Orange River, and were soon be- hearsing deeds of valor in days of heathenism, yond the reach of pursuers, who, in a thinly-l in which this struggle with Africaner bore a proscattered population, required time to collect. minent part, and on which he could not reflect He fixed his abode on the banks of the Orange without a sigh of sorrow. . . . . . . . . River; and afterwards, a chief ceding to him Nicholas finished his Christian course under the his dominion in Great Namaqua-land, it hence | pastoral care of the Rev. T. L. Hodgson, Wesforth became his by right, as well as by con leyan missionary at Boochuap. His end was quest.
peace. The subsequent wild adventures of this Among the earlier exploits of Africaner bold and generous outlaw, carry the imagiwas sacking the Namaqua mission-station, nation back to the days of Johnny Arm- probably for the sake of plunder, but avowstrong and Robin Hood, or of the “Jandless” edly because some of his property had been Macgregor; but his end was of a very dif- unjustly seized by a settler. Aconciliatory ferent character. The man who lived in letter, which John Campbell, when travelling continual strife with all around him, whose through Namaqua-land, in deadly terror of hand was against every man; whose busi- Africaner, addressed to the formidable freeness was rapine, and whose passion re-booter, is said to have produced a powerful venge; whose name was a terror not only effect upon his naturally intelligent and eleto the colonists on the north, but to the na- vated mind. Two of his brothers were contive tribes of the south ; " whose name car. verted by the preaching of the missionary ried dismay into the solitary places,” be- Ebner, and were baptized shortly before Mr. came an eminent instance of the power of Moffat, in 1817, lest Cape Town for Africa. the principles of the Gospel over a mind ner's village in the wilderness. He sayswhich, however fierce and untaught, had! It was evident to me, as I approached the bounnever been treacherous nor ungenerous. daries of the colony, that the farmers, who, of Mr. Moffat relates, that after this great course, had not one good word to say of Africaner, change had taken place
were skeptical to the last degree about his reported
conversion, and most unceremoniously predicted As I was standing with a Namaqua chief, my destruction. One said he would set me up looking at Africaner, in a supplicating attitude, for a mark for his boys to shoot at; and anentreating parties ripe for a battle, to live at other, that he would strip off my skin, and make a peace with each other: “Look,” said the wondrum of it to dance to ; another most consoling dering chief, pointing to Africaner, "there is the prediction was, that he would make a drinking cup man, once the lion, at whose roar even the inha- of my skull. I believe they were serious, and es. bitants of distant hamlets fled from their homes!pecially a kind motherly lady, who, wiping the tear Yes, and I” (patting his chest with his hand) from her eye, bade me farewell, saying, “ Had you "have, for fear of his approach, fled with my been an old man, it would have been nothing, for people, our wives and our babes, to the mountain you would soon have died, whether or no; but you glen, or to the wilderness, and spent nights are young, and going to become a prey to that among beasts of prey, rather than gaze on the monster." eyes of this lion, or hear his roar.”
But we shall see more of this remarkable Another native chief, with whom Africa. person. The privations and dangers of the ner was at deadly feud, was named Berend. journey to Africaner's village might have Several of their bloody conflicts and cattle interest in the narrative of an ordinary traforays are described, in which great skillas veller ; but Moffat's subsequent adventures well as prowess were displayed upon both far eclipse these early trials of his faith and sides. Theirs were generally drawn bat-patience, his manliness and hardihood. His tles, and they continued to harass and to reception by the tamed Wolf, and scourge breathe hatred and defiance to each other, of the desert, is interesting. Africaner had applied for a missionary ; but as Moffat ad-, future looked dark and portentous in reference to vanced, the inhabitants of another kraal in the mission. tercepted and wished to detain him among This was a cheerless beginning, and worse them, and almost forced him to remain, untillevils were at hand. Mr. Ebner, the mis. the appearance of a party of the chiel'ssionary at this station, was, from some unpeople and three of his brothers ended the lexplained cause. on very ill terms with contest. Moffat's reception seemed cold ; Titus Africaner, and he shortly after this and his brother missionary Ebner, who had abandoned the station, and returned to Gerbaptized the Africaners, described the whole many, his native land. It is not unfair to inhabitants as a “wicked, suspicious, and conclude that he was not well adapted to a
gerous people, baptized and unbaptized." situation so difficult, and requiring so much The chief was so long of making his ap- ' sagacity: and it appears to have been ow. pearance that young Moffat's heart began ling to the presence and influence of Moffat to fail, but at length Africaner welcomed that he at last got away unbarmed. The him with frank kindness; hoped that as he condition of the solitary young man he left was so young he would live long among I was painful in the extreme: and he had not them; and he immediately set the laborers, I vet made trial of himself. He tellsthe usual drudges, the beasts of burden, the poor women, to build a hut for the mis- I was left alone with a people suspicious in the sionary :
extreme; jealous of their rights, which they had
obtained at the point of the sword ; and the best of A circle was instantly formed, and the women, I whom Mr. E. described as a sharp thoro. I had evidently delighted with the job, fixed the poles, no friend and brother with whom I could particitied them down in the hemispheric form, and cov- pate in the cominunion of saints, none to whom I ered then with the mats, all ready for habitation, could look for counsel or advice. A barren and in the course of little more than half an hour.- miserable country ; a small salary, about £25 per Since that time, I have seen houses built of all de- annum. No grain, and consequently no bread, scriptions, and assisted in the construction of a and no prospect of getting any, from the want of good many myself; but I confess I never witnessed water to cultivate the ground ; and destitute of the such expedition. Hottentot houses, (for such they means of sending to the colony. . . . . . . may be called, being confined to the different Soon after my stated services commenced-which tribes of that nation,) are at best not very com- were, according to the custom of our missionaries fortable. I lived nearly six inonths in this native at that period, every inorning and evening, and hut, which very frequently required lightening and school for three or four hours during the day-I fastening after a storm. When the sun shone, it was cheered with tokens of the Divine presence. was unbearably hot ; when the rain fell, I came in the chief, who had for some time past been in a for a share of it; when the wiad blew, I had fre-doubtful state, attended with such regularity, that quently to decamp to escape the dust; and in ad-|I might as well doubt of morning's dawn, is of his dition to these little inconveniences, any hungry attendance on the appointed means of grace. To cur of a dog that wished a night's lodging, would reading, in which he was not very fluent, he at. force itself through the frail wall, and not unfre-tended with all the assiduity and energy of a youthquently deprive me of my anticipated meal for the ful believer; the Testament became his constant coming day; and I have more than once found a companion, and his profiling appeared unto all. serpent coiled up in a corner. . . . . . . . Often have I seen him under the shadow of a great But to return to my new habitation, in which, after rock, nearly the lıvelong day, eagerly perusing the my household matters were arranged, I began to pages of Divine inspiration; or in his hut he ruminate on the past,--the home and friends I had would sit, unconscious of the affairs of a family left, perhaps, for ever; the mighty ocean which around, or the entrance of a stranger, with his eye rolled between, the desert country through which gazing on the blessed book, and his mind wrapt I had passed, to reach one still more dreary. In up in things divine. Many were the nights he taking a review of the past, which seemed to in. sat with me, on a great stone, at the door of my crease in brightness, as I traced all the way in habitation, conversing with me till the dawn of anwhich I had been brought, during the stillness of other day, on creation, providence, redemption, and my first night's repose, I often involuntarily said the glories of the heavenly world. He was like and sung,
the bee, gathering honey from every flower, and “ Here I raise my Ebenezer,
at such seasons he would, from what he had stored
up in the course of the day's reading, repeat geneHither by thy help I'm come."
rally in the very language of Scripture, those pasThe inimitable hymn from which these lines are sages which he could not fully comprehend. He taken, was often sung by Mr. and Mrs. Kitching. I had no commentary, except the living voice of his man and myself, while passing through the lonely teacher, nor marginal references; but he soon disdesert. But my mind was frequently occupied covered the importance of consulting parallel paswith other themes. I was young, had entered into sages, which an excellent memory enabled him a new and responsible situation, and one surrounded readily to find. He did not confine his expanding with difficulties of no ordinary character. Already mind to the volume of revelation, though he had I began to discover some indications of an ap- been taught by experience that that contained proaching storm, which might try my faith. The heights and depths, and anoths and breadths,