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Like forest leaves in the autumn of thine ire: ance? This argument to be confuted, that Faithful and True! thou still wilt save thine own!

n! to be urged, this long.cherished theory to The saints shall dwell within the unharning fire, Each white robe spotless, blooming every palm.

" be advanced, that well-remembered illustraEven safe as we, loy this still fountain's side, tion to be furbished up for use-and all to So shall the Church, thy bright and mystic Bride, be compressed within the narrow compass Sit on the stormy gulf a halcyon bird of calm,

prescribed by overruling circumstances ! Yes, 'mid yon angry and destroying signs, O'er us the rainbow of thy mercy shines,

Just so we can conceive of Dr. ArnoldWe hail, we bless the covenant of its beam, from his youth an insatiable reader of histoAlmighty to avenge, Almightiest to redeem! ry, and at the same time an active contro

versialist, in whose head every series of phenomena naturally crystallized into a theory-when he suddenly found himself invested with the office of an historical teach

er. We perceive at once, in the odd mixTHE LATE DR. ARNOLD.

ture of matters huddled together in these

few pages, the variety of subjects which From the Edinburgh Review.

filled his mind, and the necessity under

which he lay of disburdeping himself of his Introductory Lectures on Modern History. I feelings on each, as if the retention of any

By THOMAS ARNOLD, D.D., Regius Profes- part of his stores oppressed him. The prosor of Modern History in the University vince of history-ihe provinces of church of Oxford, and Head Master of Rugby and state the characteristics of historical School. 8vo. Oxford : 1842.

style-military ethics—military geography

-national prejudices—religious and politiIMPERFECTLY as this volume of Lectures, cal parties in England-these are only some interrupted by the death of its lamented au of the prominent topics rather glanced at thor, answers the promise, to the fulfilment than discussed in the pages before us; and of which we looked so eagerly, little more put forward apparently as if for more exthan a year ago, when he was appointed to tended consideration at some future time the Chair of Modern History at Oxford, we topics on which he longed to speak his mind should feel ourselves guilty of no common to the world, and could not abstain from a degree of neglect if we omitted to notice it ; partial disclosure of it—topics, many of for we may perhaps find no other occasion them, on which we shall have long to wait for paying our tribute of respect to one of for an instructor as rich at once in zeal and the noblest miuds and highest characters of knowledge. these days, prematurely taken from us in But if this volume is to a certain extent the middle of a career of usefulness, which disappointing, rather from the over-richness we believe we are guilty of no exaggeration than meagerness of its contents, it will, if in terming unparalleled in that line of life possible, add to the veneration with which which Dr. Arnold had adopted.

its author's character is already regarded as As far as they throw light on the literary a moral philosopher, and an instructor of and intellectual attainments of their author, the youth of England. It adds one more these lectures are undoubtedly incomplete claim to those which the late head master enough; and, regarded in that point of view, of Rugby already possessed on public grati. they possess the positive fault of attempting tude and veneration. too many things at once. They are impress- Every one accustomed to English society ed with the peculiarly eager temperament, has observed the strength of that generous the perfervidum ingenium, the active, but tie which, in after life, connects the pupil, somewhat desultory range of thought which especially when bred in our great public display themselves, more or less, in every schools, with his former master. Even in production of the writer. Who that has ordinary cases, we by no means admit the read much, and felt strongly, on any sub- truth of the ill-natured saying, that there is ject, and who has not yet acquired that last little of this affectionate remembrance, ex. and somewhat melancholy gift of experi- cept where the scholar feels himself supeence, the art of arranging and chastening rior to his teacher. We believe it, on the the thoughts as they arise, when favored contrary, to be the general rule, and that the with some opportunity of giving vent to his exceptions arise only from causes discredit. accumulated ideas, has not experienced the able either to the one party or the other. mixture of pleasurable excitement and em. But, common as this feeling is, and derived barrassment produced by the throng of mul- as it is from many sources-from the intitudinous topics pressing forward for utter-I stinctive attachment to old places and times - from sensibility to kindness shown and nected with the subject of these lectures, to interest manifested-from real gratitude for trace the steps by which he was wont to substantial services—we are bound to add lead the mind from feeling to thinking ; that, as far as our own observation has gone, from the formation of a religious character, it rarely, very rarely, has the higher tinc- his first and main object, to the formation of ture of reverence. The quondam school. opinion on religious as well as other subboy may have a host of pleasant recollec-jects. The first rule with him was, to fol. tions associated with the memory of his old low the truth at all hazards-regardless in tutor: he may regard him as the friend who what apparent difficulties it may involve us directed his unformed taste- who intro. -regardless into what bad company it may duced his youthful spirit into the magnifi. lead is. The absolute right and duty of the cent domain of earthly knowledge-to mind to judge for itself, the total negation of whose counsels he 'may possibly be indebt. any human authority binding in matters of ed for a few valuable hints in the conduct faith-these are points on which he insisted, of life-more than this, who has imbued in season and out of season, if we may so him with much of the spirit of a gentleman, express ourselves, with an ardor which not and a love of fairness and honorable deal. only rendered him very unpopular, as well ing ; but in very few instances, indeed, does it might, with persons of different opinions, he remember him as his guide towards the but frequently exposed him to charges of accomplishment of the real ends of his being. imprudence and rashness from those who in We do not pause to examine into the cause the main agreed with him. This ardor proof this deficiency : much may be owing to ceeded, no doubt, in part from natural imold peculiarities in the management of great petuosity of disposition ; but it also arose schools, something to the character of from a deep conviction, that the one great many of our most successful men in this thing wanted, and in these times especially, line of life ; but we think the fact will hard. is, to infuse into the mind the power and ly be disputed. By far the most distinguish the will to rest self-balanced ;-io incite it ed exception to the rule, with whom we are to implant in itself the seeds of principles, acquainted, was Dr. Arnold. He possessed which neither the recklessness of business the art, which is perhaps not very uncom. nor pleasure, nor the thousand influences mon, of winning in a peculiar manner the of party, might afterwards eradicate. The affections of boys, and directing their ener. lines of Goethegies to whatever object he might himself. Denn der Mensch, der zu schwankenden Zeiten hold out; but, what is much more rare, he auch Schwankend gesinnt ist, made it the one great business of his life to Der vermehret das Uebel, und breitet es weiter und give those affections and energies a reli- weiter; gious direction. Distinguished as a school. Aber wer fest auf dem Sinne beharri, der bildet die master in many respects, it was in this one

Welt sich," — that he was unrivalled. The mainspring of might almost be inscribed as the motto to his success was his own deep affection for the whole collection of his ethical and bisthose placed under his care, which makes torical works. And his great endeavoritself evident in every page of his sermons, no one could set the example better than chiefly addressed to the young. His was no himself—was so to discipline the mind, as entraining or engrossing religious elo- to reconcile freedom of belief with real hu. quence, addressed as it were to minds in mility of spirit; to reconcile the unqualified the mass, and carrying them away by move- rejection of authority, when imposed as ments of enthusiasm ; but a gentle, watch-binding, with docility and submissiveness ful influence, directed steadily to individual towards it when propounded as an object of temperaments; and above all, (which was respect;—a reconcilement by no means partly the consequence of the thorough re- difficult in itself, and possibly more comality of his own religious impressions) not mon in practice than is generally imagined. leaving religion to stand alone, as some- Clear of his own way between the conflictthing to be learnt and studied apart from all ing claims of authority and individual re. things else, but connecting it with all that sponsibility, he regarded with utter conis most naturally attractive to the honest tempt the charges of presumption, so indisheart of youth ;-with uncompromising criminately brought against all those who love of truth, with manliness and indepen- venture to differ from received opinions. dence, with love and with gratitude. Will-worship, as he well knew, is quite as

We dare not venture further on consider. fatally manifested in wilful and passionate ations of such deep and sacred importance. adherence to such opinions, as in wilful and It is more to our purpose, and more con passionate rejection of them. The rule of

humility does not mark out the line to be Those who have thus learnt the real chartaken by the man of conscience, when au- acteristics of veneration and humility, will thority and argument are in opposition; but understand the lesson which the history of the manner and spirit in which his choice the world so abundantly teaches—that selfmust be made. Nor is it difficult to apply, will and pride play their vagaries quite as as he would have bidden us, to the contro-wantonly under the banner of authority as versies of the present day, the lesson intend- under that of private judgment;a lesson ed to be conveyed in the following noble renewed to us by the experience of every vindication of the Puritan character: day, to the great astonishment of that part

« To say that the Puritans were wanting in hul of the world which is taken in by fine promility, because they did not acquiesce in the state lessions: , of things which they found around them, is a mere. It will be readily perceived, from this as extravagance, arising out of a total misapprehen- well as a hundred other passages in his sion of the nature of humility, and of the merits of works, that Dr. Arnold made it a great part the feeling of veneration. All earnestness and of his business to carry on war against predepth of character is incompatible with such a no

judices; and certainly a more determined, tion of humility. A man deeply penetrated with some great truth, and compelled, as it were, to obey we might almost say a more indiscrimina

Those it cannot listen to every one who may be indiffer- ting warfare, was never waged. ent to it, or opposed to it. There is a voice to which among our prejudices to which we are apt he already owes obedience-which he serves with to give the tenderest names, and treat as the humblest devotion, which he worships with the peculiarly creditable to ourselves, met from most intense veneration. It is not that such feel-him with no more quarter than the rest. ings are dead in him, but that he has bestowed Panhane in

Perhaps it may be thought, even by those them on one object and they are claimed for another. To which they are most due is a question of jus

ion of ius-/ who most admire the singleness of his de. tice: he may be wrong in his decision, and his votion to truth, that in some instances his worship may be idolatrous; but so also may be the zeal was so unscrupulous that he ran the worship which his opponents call upon him to ren- risk of rooting out good feelings along with der. If, indeed, it can be shown, that a man ad-I mere weaknesses ; but such was the characmires and reverences nothing, he may justly be ter of the man. Take for instance, the fol. taxed with want of humility ; but this is at variancelowing attack on the virtue of patriotism, with the very notion of an earnest character, for its earnestness consists in its devotion to some one | as vulgarly understood :object, as opposed to a proud or contemptuous in. “But here that feeling of pride and selfishness difference. But tf it be meant that reverence in interposee, which, under the name of patriotism, itself is good, so that the more objects of vencration

has so long tried to pass itself off for a virtue. As we have the better is our character, this is to con

character, this is to con-men, in proportion to their moral advancement, found the essential difference between veneration learn to enlarge the circle of their regards; as an and love. The excellence of love is its universali- exclusive affection for our relations, our clan, or ty; we are told that even the Highest Object of all our country, is a sure mark of an unimproved mind; cannot be loved if inferior objects are hated. And

so is that narrow and unchristian feeling to be with some exaggeration in the expression, we may condemned, which regards with jealousy the proadmit the truth of Coleridge's lines

gress of foreign nations, and cares for no portion "He prayelh well who loveth well

of the human race but that to which itself belongs. Both man, and bird, and beast;"

The detestable encouragement so long given to Insomuch that, if we were to hear of a man sac-national enmities—the low gratification felt by rificing even his life to save that of an animal, every people in extolling themselves above their we could not help admiring him. But the excel neighbors should not be forgotten amongst the lence of veneration consists purely in its being causes which have mainly obstructed the improvefixed upon a worthy object; when felt indiscrimi- inent of mankind. nately, it is idolatry or insanity. To tax any one, “Exclusive patriotisın should be cast off, totherefore, with want of reverence, because he pays gether with the exclusive ascendency of birth, as no respect to what we venerate, is either irrelevant belonging to the follies and selfishness of our unor is a mere confusion. The fact, so far as it is cultivated nature. Yet, strange to say, the fortrue, is no reproach, but an honor; because to re- mer at least is upheld by men who not only call verence all persons and all things is absolutely themselves Christians, but are apt to use the charge wrong: reverence shown to that which does not of irreligion as the readiest weapon against those deserve it, is no virtue-no, nor even an amiable who differ from them, So little have they learned weakness, but a plain folly and sin. But if it be of the spirit of that revelation, which taught emmeant that he is wanting in proper reverence, not phatically the abolition of an exclusively national respecting what is to be really respected, that is religion and a local worship, that so men, being all assuming the whole question at issue, because born of the same blood, might make their symwhat we call divine he calls an idol; and as, sup-pathies coextensive with their bond of universal posing that we are in the right, we are bound to brotherhood."— Appendix to Thucydides, Vol. I. fall down and worship; so supposing him to be in the right, he is no less bound to pull it to the This scrupulousness of conscience is ground and destroy it.—P. 268.

carried by him into the minutest details:

and we have been rather amused to ob- couragement of trime, and encouraging that worse serve how he labors to disabuse his class, evil, a sympathy with wickedness justly punished, in these lectures, of the delusive notion that rather than with the law, whether of God or man,

unjustly violated. So men have continued to cry out

"il against the power of the Crown after the Crown assuring us that we were quite as satisfac- l had been shackled band and foot; and to express torily beaten by them, under William the the greatest dread of popular violence, long after Third and the Duke of Cumberland, as they (that violence was exhausted, and the anti-popular by us under Marlborough and Wellington. party was not only rallied, but had turned the tide

It is in a similar spirit that he warns of batile, and was victoriously pressing upon its readers of history against the ordinary enemy." —P. 252. seduction of favorite party names and watchwords, outliving the immediate oc

It is very unnecessary to add, after such casion which gave birth to them.

comments as these, that Dr. Arnold belong. “This inattention to altered

ed to no party in Church or State. Under

circumstances, which would make us be Guelfs in the sixteenth

no circumstances could he have belonged and seventeenth centuries, because the Guelf cause

to any ; his independence of spirit, his

any; had been right in the eleventh or twelfth, is a fault almost over-refined delicacy of conscience, of most universal application in all political ques- perhaps a certain restiveness of disposition tions, and is often most seriously mischievous. It when forced to travel in company, would is deeply seated in human nature, being in fact no alike have forbidden it. But as it was, he other than an exemplification of the force of habit. I detested the spirit of party with a perfect It is like the case of a settler landing in a country labhorrence: he detested it as the great overrun with wood and undrained, and visited, therefore, by excessive falls of rain. The evil of

rival in the minds of men with the love of wet, and dainp, and closeness, is besetting him on his idol, Truth. He never fails, on any oc. every side ; he clears away the woods and drains casion, to impress this aversion, in the his land, and by doing so mends both his climate strongest language, on all whom he ad. and his own condition. Encouraged by his suc- dresses. It is a matter on which he admits cess, he perseveres in his system ;-clearing a lof no compromise whatever ; none of that country is with him synonymous with making it fertile and habitable; and he levels, or rather sets fire

specious rhetoric by which we persuade to, his forests without mercy. Meanwhile the ride

ourselves that party is an indifferent means has lurned without his observing it; he has already of arriving at a good end—that only cleared enongh, and every additional clearance is through becoming party men can we hope a mischief; damp and wet are no longer the evils to be useful, and so forth. His plain lanmost to be dreaded, but excessive drought. The guage is, that all such pleas, and all such rains do not fall in sufficient quantity, the springs

hopes, must be abandoned by the honest become low, the rivers become less and less fitted for navigation.* Yet habit blinds him for a long

man-much more by the Christian. He while to the real state of the case, and he con.

had himself counted the cost, and made the tinues to encourage a coming mischief in his sacrifice. He had fully reconciled himself dread of one that has become obsolete. We have to the apparent uselessness of a life un. long been making progress on our present tack; connected with party in a country like this. yet if we do not go about now, we shall run ashore. At one period of his career, he was the subConsider the popular feeling at this moment lion of

nject of great unpopularity : his views were against capital punishments; what is it but con. tinuing to burn the woods when the country ac

misrepresented, his character maligned, his tually wants shade and moisture ? Year after professional success menaced; he only reyear men talked of the severity of the penal code, covered himself, after a long probation, by and struggled against it in vain. The feeling be- the great amiableness of his character, and came stronger and stronger, and at last effected through the fame acquired by his peculiar all, and more than all, while it had at first vainly

talent for instruction ; for he was of no demanded; yet still from mere habit it pursues its

I party, and consequently had no band of course, no longer to the restraining of legal cruelty, but to the injury of innocence and the en

brothers to back him. Eminent in piety as

in learning, he never attained a step in the • Perhaps we may remark on this geographical Church ; for he was of no party, and had, illustration as suggesting some other of its autbor's liha peculiarities ;-his remarkable power of turning

na | therefore, no claim on any patron. Yet such illustrations to his purpose;' and the readiness there is nothing in his writings of the sto. of his imagination to welcome the curious and icism expressed in the stern marvellous in matters of fact. Many naturalists have thought this theory of the effect of the removal

“Taci, e lascia dir le genti,” of forests on the amount of rain, carried much too far; and it would be difficult to point out an instance of Dante; nothing of that querulousness wé of a river which has become unnavigable in conse- I have often remarked in excellent men who quence of it. We might also refer to his strange

have had the honesty to renounce party and views respecting animal magnetism and cognate

its advantages for themselves, but are unreasonable enough to be disappointed that with one party, and in some with another ; parties do not seek after and follow them. and equally certain to be called crotchety Vehement in self-defence-ardent in attack by both. But we must say in justice, that -fond by nature of controversial skirmish. the epithet does to a certain extent describe ing he is always in the field against some his character, in some of its minute pecuclass of thinkers or other; and always liarities. There was a rapidity of judg. seems very unaffectedly surprised that the ment about him-a haste in arriving at con. opposite ranks which he alternately attacks clusions, which is apt to lead to the sudden remain alike unbroken by his artillery ; and formation of opinions—possibly to a little therefore it is no wonder, that while some fickleness, on minor points, in adherence to were abusing him as a latitudinarian, others them. , His judgment seems to have been maintained that he was halfway on the road influenced at once by an abhorrence of dogto modern“ Catholicism." But the prin- matism, commonly so called, and an impaciples of his practial philosophy lay deep, tience of skepticism. We do not mean in and his equanimity was, therefore, not to a religious sense only, but in historical and be moved by the inevitable results of his every other research. He could not, like own choice ;-a choice to which he else. Montaigne, se reposer tranquillement sur where solemnly exhorts his young audience, l'oreiller du doute. He had a mind averse in a passage which seems to breathe the from suspense, dissatisfied and uneasy un. very essence at once of his religious sin- der the pressure of doubt; and, therefore, cerity, and his manly integrity of soul. disposed to generalize at once, where slow

matters.

er and more cold-blooded men would con“Be of one party to the death, and that is sider the process of induction hardly begun. Christ's; but abhor every other; abhor it, that is, To this was joined a strong moral percepas a thing to which to join yourselves ;-for every party is mixed up of good and evil, of truth and

tion, and a disposition particularly inclined falsehood; and in joining it, therefore, you join towards ethical speculation-towards prewith the one as well as the other. If circum- dicating moral right and wrong of every stances should occur which oblige you practically phenomenon which human history and hu. to act with any one party, as the least of two evils, man nature exhibit: a peculiarity which he then watch yourselves the more, lest the least of seems to us to have caught in great mea two cvils should, by any means, commend itself at

sure from association with his early friend last to your mind as a positive good. Join it with a sad and reluctant heart, protesting against its

Archbishop Whately, just as he caught his evil, dreading its victory, far more pleased to serve style of historical research from Niebuhr: it by suffering than by acting ; for it is in Christ's / -and a deep interest in the controversies cause only that we can act with heart and soul, as of the day, with an eagerness to liberate his well as patiently and triumphantly suffer. Do own mind by expressing his sentiments this amidst reproach, and suspicion, and cold upon each of them. It is no disparagement of friendship, and zealous enmity; for this is the por

D e pori Dr. Arnold to say, that this very eagerness

o tion of those who seek to follow their Master, and him only. Do it, although your foes be they of so

be theva of sometimes appears to us to betray a secret your own household : those whom nature, or habit, uneasiness-a misgiving as to the results or choice, had once bound to you most closely of his own conscientious inquiries. There And then you will understand how, even now, there are few, indeed, who, having deliberately is a daily cross tu be taken up by those who seek rejected the idolatries of parties and sysnot to please men, but God; yet you will learn no Items, can rest undisturbedly on the ground less, how that cross, meckly and firmly burne,

le, they have chosen for themselves; for such whether it be the cross of men's ill opinion from without, or of our own evil nature struggled

thinkers have nothing of the ready support against within, is now, as ever, peace, and wisdom, on which others so confidently lean. They and sanctification, and redemption, through Him would be more than men, if there were not who first bore it."-Sermons, Vol. III. 263. moments when the very foundations seem

to give way under them, and their own But Dr. Arnold was a “crotchety” man :hearts to sink also-moments when they are such appears to have been the general esti- tempted even to look with envy on those mate of his character. It is an epithet of who march forward sternly or cheerfully, many meanings; but it seems to us to be looking neither to the right nor the left, commonly and significantly applied to those through regions in which they stumble and who endeavor to ascertain the truth on every grope for light; yet their victory is not the separate subject of inquiry, instead of follow. less complete, although the enjoyment of ing the ordinary process of taking up whole its fruits, like all human enjoyment, is in. bundles of opinions as they are commonly terrupted by obstinate questionings of its found connected together. Whoever does own reality. this, is very certain to agree in some points. It is a curious result of these tendencies,

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