Page images


King, with a certain Black called Cæsar as undertaking to leave the colony; but, as Gorernor; to which panic was added the they had come into it without any secular terror of a Spanish-Popish-plot. Of these vocation or rational purpose, and solely to cases, Anne Hutchinson's is curious, not brave their fate in obedience to the winner only in itself, as exhibiting the fanaticism light," they refused. It must also be re. of a female apostle, but for the indirect marked, that freedom of opinion for them. picture it furnishes of New England at the selves was not so much their aim as the iime, where every individual seems to have freedom of insulting the opinion of others. been a theological controvertist, and where "Many of the sect, which at this day is remarka private woman, by very nice and not al. able for a guarded composure of language, an elaways very intelligible points of doctrine, borate stillness, precision, and propriety of decould throw a whole community into con- meanor, were at the time referred to as guilty of fusion. The trial of the soldiers at Boston conduct · which the experience of a rational and has an interest as being the first blood shed | calculating age finds it difficult to conccive.' They in the dispute which eventually lost Eng.

land as treason. They reviled at all orders of ma. land her colonies, and for the picture it

gistrales, and every civil institution. They stig. furnishes of the excitable and excited statematized a regular pricsthood as a priesthood of of the American mind at the time. The Baal. Some of them, in the apprehension of the case of Zenger is chiefly remarkable for the colonists, were guilty of the most revolting blasboldness of the advocate's line of defence, I phemy against the Sacraments, which they termed in which he maintained that the jury in

carnal and idolatrous observances. They intercases of libel were judges of law as well as

rupted public worship in a manner as indecent as

it was illegal and unbecoining. The female fact, and for the jury's coincidence in that

preachers exceeded their male associates in these view; a point that was doubtful in England acts of frenzy and folly, and excited the utmost. for half a century afterwards.* The trials disgust among a people remarkable for their staid for Witchcraft and the Negro Plot are spe. and sober deportment. * cimens of that panic fear affecting a whole “In 1665, Lydia Wardell, a respectable mar. society, and satiating itself in blood, which I ried woman, entered stark naked into the church arises at certain periods without any ade.

in Newbury where she formerly worshipped ; and

e was highly extolled for her submission to the inward quate cause that is apparent to an inquirer; light, Thai had revealed to her the duty of illustraof which the Popish plot in England is ting the spiritual nakedness of her neglebors by another example, and, on a much larger this indecent exhibition of her own person. The scale, the Reign of Terror in France. The people,' says Besse the Quaker, who wrote long persecutions of the Quakers have often after the excitement attending these scenes had been adduced as an example of New Ene / subsided, and in another country, ' instead of reli. land fanaticism, and of the bloody spirit

d i giouely reflecting on their own condition, which that animated the Puritans. Of the fanatilir

she came in that manner to represent to them, fell

anan into a rage, and presently laid hands on her and cism there is no doubt ; but, looking at the hurried her away to the court at Ipswich;' where opinion of the age and the circumstances she was hastily sentenced to be severely whipped under which the colony was founded, the at the next tavern-post. She was accordingly charge of bloody-minded persecution must stripped, and tied with her naked breasis against be received with some limitations. The the splinters of the post, and lashed with more than Quakers were intruders into the colony,

a score of stripes; which, though they miserably

tore her bruised body, were yet in the great com. and, bating that they were English subjects, fort of ber husband and friends, who, having unity foreign intruders. A cruel and extremely with her in those sufferings and ju the cause of penal spirit, no doubt, characterizes the them, stood by to comfort her in so deep a trial.' laws against them, (it was also character. In the same year, Deborah Wilson, a young and istic of the age,) but the object was to deter

respectable married woman, made a similar display persons from bringing them into the juris.

in the streets of Salem; for which she was sendiction, and to confine them until they

tenced to be tied to the cart's tail and whipped,

| with her mother and sister, who, it was said bad could be expelled. When these measures

counselled her. Her young husband, who was not failed of effect, they were banished, under a Quaker, followed after, sometimes thrusting liis pain of death; and though several, on rehat between the whip and her back. turning, were executed, the execution rest " In July 1675, !our women and one man were ed with themselves: they had the option of arrested in Boston, for creating a liorrible Cis.

Turbance, and,' as the warrant set forth, affright. * In the case of Junius's “Letter to the King,"ling people in the South church at the time of the the jury, puzzled by Lord Mansfield's charge, brought in a special verdict " guilty of printing and

public dispensing of the word on the Lord's day, publishing only; which, after various delays, and

a whereby several women are in danger of miscarrya question as to how far judgment for liber coulding.' Margaret Brewster, the leader of the band, be pronounced upon such a verdict, ended in the appears to have arrived in the town from Bartriumph of the printer.

badus on the Lord's day, and leaving her riding

clothes and shoes at the door of the South Inance of the evidence touching acts of the church, she rushed into the house with her accused when they were “not present in female companions, creating an alarm in the lihehe astonished assembly tlat baffles description. She

the body”-a species of evidence so easy was clothed in sackcloth, with ashes upon her to invent, and of course impossible to dishead, and her hair streaming over her shoulders : prove. It is difficult to say whether the her feet were bare, and her face was begrimmed following statements are pure inventions of with coal-dust. She announced herself as an illus-folly or malice, or optical delusions, arising tration of the black-pox, which she predicted as an from deranged health and the melancholy

temperament so likely to be induced by the examination before the Magistrates, she said that God had three years since laid this service upon

fanaticism of New England, and taking the her in Barbados, and she had her husband's con. shape of the current

shape of the current superstition. The evisent to come and perform it. She and her female dence was given on the trial of Bridget companions were sentenced to be stripped from Bishop, an old woman who had been in the middle upwards, and tied to a cart's tail at the ill-repute as a witch for more than twenty South meeting-house, and drawn through the town,

years. receiviog twenty lashes on their naked backs." The true moral of the whole, however, is

PRANKS OF A WITCH NOT PRESENT IN THE BODY. the uselessness of persecution. As long as

Samuel Gray testified, that about fourteen years

ago (1678) he waked on a night and saw the the Quakers were made objects of attention and punished, so long they persisted in dis saw plainly a woman between the cradle and the

room where he lay full of light ; and that he then turbing the colony ; when neglected or bedside, which looked upon him. He rose and it treated with contempt, they came not to it, vanished, though he found the doors all fast: lookor sank down into quiet citizens. Rhode ing out at the entry-door, he saw the same woman Island, founded on a principle of perfect in the same garb again, and said, “ in God's name, freedom, saw this from the beginning: and what do you come for ?" He went to bed and had the letter in which the colony announced to

the same woman assaulting him. The child in the Government of Massachusetts their de. I dis

the cradle gave a great screech, and the woman

disappeared. It was long before the child could termination to pass no laws upon the sub- be quieted ; and though it was a very lively thrive ject, contains the rationale of civil intering child, yet from this time it pined away, and ference with religious freedom, which so after divers months died in a sad condition. He many have yet to learn.

knew not Bishop nor her name; but when he saw “* We find,' they said in a letter to the General

her after this, he knew by her countenance and Court, that in those places where these people

apparel, and all circumstances, that it was the apaforesaid, in this colony, are most of all suffered

I parition of this Bishop which had thus troubled him. *

* * * * to declare themselves freely, and are only opposed by arguments in discourse, there they least of all

Richard Cowan testified, that eight years ago, desire to come; and we are informed that they be.

as he lay awake in his bed, with a light burning gan to loathe this place, for that they are not op.

in the room, he was annoyed with the apparition posed by the civil authority, but with all patience

of the prisoner and of two more that were strangers and meekness are suffered to say awer their pre

to him, who came and oppressed him so that he tended revelations and admonitions: nor are they

could neither stir himself nor wake any one else ; like or able to gain many here to their way: and

and that he was the night after molested again in

the like inanner; the said Bishop taking him by surely we find that they delight to be persecuted by civil powers; and when they are so, they are

the throat and pulling him almost out of the bed. like to gain more adherents by the conseyte of

His kineman offered for this cause to lodge with their pacient sufferings than by consent to their

him; and that night, as they were awake dispernicious sayings.?”

coursing together, the witness was once more vis

ited by the guests which had formerly been so As matter of attraction respecting what troublesorne, his kinsman being at the same time Cotion Mather's title calls “ The Wonders struck speechless and unable to move band or foot. of the Invisible World." the trials for witch-/ He had laid his sword by him ; which those uncraft are the most amusing. They are al.

happy spectres did strive much to wrest from him,

but he held it too fast for them. He then grew so the best treated (perhaps they admitted able

"Jable to call the people of his house ; but although of the best treatment) by Mr. Chandler; as they heard him, yet they had not power to speak brief narrative telling the history of the r stir, until at last, one of the people crying out public delusion, and the general mode of what is the matter ?" the spectres all vanished. carrying on the trials, whilst'any particular * case is exhibited at length. Except in the

xhibited at length. Excent in the John Louder testified, that upon some little conillegality of the proceedings, the Governor

troversy with Bishop about her fowls, going well

to bed, he awoke in the uight by moonlight and having no power to appoint the court he

saw clearly the likeness of this woman grievously nominated to try the witches, the proceed. oppressing him ; in which miserable condition she ings do not essentially differ from similar held him unable to help himself till near day. He cases in this country, unless in the predomi- told Bishop of this ; but she utterly denied it, and

[ocr errors]


threatened him very much. Quickly after this be- Ito lift a bag of corn of about two bushels, could not ing at home on a Lord's day with the doors shut budge it with all his might. Many other pranks about hiin, he saw a black pig approach him; of this Bishop the witness was ready to relate. which endeavoring to kick, it vanished away. He also testified, that he verily believed the Immediately after, sitting down, he saw a black said Bishop was the instrument of his daughter thing jump in at the window and come and stand Priscilla's death: “ of which suspicion, pregnant before him. The body was like that of a monkey, reasons were assigned.” the feet like a cock's, but the face much like a John Bly and William Bly testified, that being man's. He being so extremely affrighted that he employed by Bridget Bishop to help take down the could not speak, this monster spoke to him and cellar wall of the old house wherein she formerly said, "I am a messenger sent unto you, for I un- lived, they did in holes of the said old wall find derstand that you are in soine trouble of mind ; several poppets, made up of rags and hog's brisand if you will be ruled by me you shall want for tles, with headless pins in them, the points being nothing in this world." Whereupon he endea- outward ; " whereof the prisoner could now give vored to clap his hands upon it; but he could feel no account unto the Court that was reasonable or no substance, and it jumped out of the window tolerable," again ; but immediately came in by the porch though the doors were shut, and said, "you had

| Before we quit this able and interesting better take my counsel.” He then struck at it volume, let us note two points: either Cowith a stick ; but struck only the groundsel, and lonial America produced no case of private broke the stick. The arm with which he struck crime so atrocious as to be remarkable for was presently disabled ; and it vanished away. its atrocity, or Mr. Chandler has not reHe presently went out at the back door, and spied corded it: how rapidly opinion changes if house ; but he had not power to set one foot for.||

"the change be marked at some elapsed time, ward unto her. Whereupon, returning into the land i

nto the and not in its gradual progress. It is cushouse, he was immediately accosted by the mon- tomary to talk of the wonderful fluctuations ster he had seen before, which goblin was going in public opinion during the present cento fly at him; whereat he cried out, “ the whole tury, and no doubt they have been very armorof God be between me and you!” So it sprung great ; but they are nothing so great as back and flew over the apple-tree, shaking many took place during a similar space of time it flung dirt with its feet against the stomach of

Pil in the Plantations respecting Quakers and the man; whereon he was then struck dumb, and

nd / Witchcraft-although some suppose the 60 continued for three days together.

age of the Stuarts was an age of stagnation. “Upon the producing of this testimony," says | The fact is, history is progress; and it Colton Mather, “ Bishop denied that she knew would form a curious chapter of it to note this deponent. Yet their two orchards joined, and the changes that have taken place in the they had often had their little quarrels for some world's mind at comparatively short periods. years together."

William Stacy testified, that receiving money of this Bishop for work done by him, he was gone but a matter of three roods from her, and looking for

DIETETICS. his money found it unaccountably gone from him.

From the Spectator. Some time after, Bishop asked him whether his

Food and its Influence on Health and Disease ; father would grind her grist for her ? He de. manded why? She replied because folks count

or an Account of the Effects of different me a witch. He answered, “no question but he

kinds of Aliment on the Human Body. will grind it for you." Being then gone about six

With Dietetic Rules for the Preservation of roods from her with a load in his cart, suddenly Health. By MATTHEW TRUMAN, M. D. the off-wheel slumpt and sunk down into a hole, upon plain ground; so that the witness was forced

This is a very pleasant volume on a very to get help for the recovering of the wheel. But, I vital subject, and in which the most philostepping back to look for the hole which might sophical engage some twice or thrice a day, give him this disaster, there was none at all to be unless they belong to that unfortunately found. Some time after, he was waked in the large class (which Dr. Truman expressly night; but it seemed as light as day, and he per-lercludes from consideration, whose ill confecily saw the shape of this Bishop in the room

dition arises from a "paucity rather than a troubling of him ; but upon her going out all was dark again. He charged Bishop afterwards with superabundance of food.” In this essay on it; and she denied it not, but was very angry. aliment, an immense number of facts are Quickly after, this witness having been threatened brought together, relating to some of the by Bishop, as he was in a dark night going to the four thousand articles with which man at barn, he was very suddenly taken or lifted from the various times and under various circumstanground and thrown against a stone wall; after res has oraribed his no

wall; after ces has gratified his palate or satisfied his that, he was again hoisted up and thrown down a bank at the end of his house. After this, again.

ain (hunger. The curious epicure may obtain passing by this Bishop, his horse, with a small load. / from Dr. Truman's essay on Food, a precis striving to draw, all his gears flew to pieces and of the history, not of eating, but of things the cart fell down; and this deponent going then leaten; and learn the reason why certain

national dainties, to him nauseousmas more and trouble it less." Dr. Truman, whale-blubber—are desired by the peoples however, gives the modus operandi of diet which indulge in them. Here too he will-which, no doubt, imparts more impress find a judicious and discriminating advo- and conviction to the rule. The principal cacy of cookery as a chemical art, whose axiom we have deduced from Food and its object, like that of all arts, is to develope Influence on Health and Disease, is the pofor the gratification of man the qualities pular and genial one-Live variously and found in nature; a medical inquiry into the well; eat mixed food; Nature intended nutritive properties of the different classes man to live on variety; and do not be deof food-animals, vegetables, fish, and so luded into Cornaro systems of diet, for the forth; together with some hints touching old Venetian had a peculiar idiosyncracy, the management of his own diet, and an in- and was an invalid to boot. teresting exhibition of some physiological wonders in our microcosm or little world.

“The instance of Cornaro, who improved his The execution of the whole, moreover, is as fore frequently inost improperly quoted; for,

:health so much by great frugality of diei, is thereagreeable as the matter is attractive; the though the plan of living he followed might suit style, with a gossipy character, possessing some persons, it would infallibly cause disease, a closeness and neatness which rise to easy and ultimately death, if rigorously adopted by most clearness in the chemical or physiologicall people. The account he has left of the small expositions.

I quantities of food he was in the habit of subsisting

on, is alone sufficient to show how injurious the The reader must not extend this praise,

T:majority of individuals would find an attempt to or expect from the work, what it does not live in a similar manner. He tells us that he was possess, and probably never aimed at: es-extremely unhealthy and decrepid up to the age of sentially it has no principle of any novelty; forty, when he determined on allopting a most abthe account of the elements of animal and stemious plan of diei, and eating every thing by vegetable food—the fibrin, albumen, &c. of weight. The entire quantity of food he took daily animals—the gluten, mucilage, &c. in vel consisted of twelve ounces of brend, eggs, &C., getables-with the respective proportions

I and fourteen ounces of liquids, making altogether

only twenty-six ounces of food, solid and liquid. of nourishment they yield, and their re- | By following this course, he recovered his healtii, spective facilities of digestion-may be and lived to be one hundred and four years of age. found in many books on chemistry and Many may suppose that the long life he attained dietetics. Some of the physiological ex- proves the healthiness of his miode of livirg; it positions, though not new, are less popu- was certainly healthy for him, and might be so for larly known; and many of the facts are not any other person in a similar state of body to him.

self; but he must always be considered as a sort to be called new in strictness, for we all |

of invalid, in whom the powers of nutrition were knew that Frenchmen eat frogs, and can

very weak, and unable 10 assimilate a larger quannibals human flesh. The attraction lies in tity of nourishment: for it be had ever required the clear arrangement, the novel air im- more food, he could not have borne it--as was parted to the facts by bringing so many of proved by the addition of merely two ounces of them together, and the easy pleasantness of solid food to his usual allowance always causing style with which they are presented.

him fever; and yet a more generous diet would The defect of the book, to us, is its want

undoubtedly have been very beneficial to him, if he

could have supported it. It is by no means deof conclusion. When we have read it

sirable to try and subsist upon too little food; for through, we are much where we were as this practice occasionally induces a peculiar conregards specific rules of diet. Dr. Truman dition of the stomach, which renders it incapable says, indeed, that many constitutions have of bearing the stimulus of the quantity of nourishan idiosyncracy which enables them to take, I ment necessary for a vigorous state of body." and even with beneht, things that are inju. As we know not that our general account rious to others: but this we knew before..

khely before. of Dr. Truman's book has conveyed a sufHe cautions the reader against improperficiently distinct idea of its nature and exe. abstinence, as likely to be injurious: but Icution (which is indeed not very easily conCelsus, nearly two thousand years ago, anI veved by description), we will draw pretty nounced a somewhat similar opinion, when

freely upon its varied contents, that they be warned mankind, in varying their mode

may 'speak for themselves. of life (by sleep, watching, food, fasting, &c.) to tend towards the benign extreme.

REPTILE FOOD. Our author dwells upon the advantage of

| The animals belonging to the class Reptilia influencing the body by diet rather than I which afford food to man are pot numerous. The medicine: but Bacon, and probably others turtle supplies a very nutritious and wholesome arbefore him, propounded a similar rule, and ticle of diet; and, now that the voyage between for the reason that “diets alter the body this country and the West Indies is made in such


a short time by steamboats, it will no doubt be im- sphynx-moth, and a grub found at the root of ported in greater abundance, with much advantage the sugar-cane. Snails are taken as food in to our population at large. Turtle was first intro- many parts of Europe. The earth-worm is eaten duced into this country, as an article of food, in Van Diemen's Land. The Greenlanders, about the middle of the seventeenth century. Negroes, and Chinese eat the pediculus huThe following extract from the Gentleman's manus; the Javans have also been accused of Magazine for the year 1753 shows it was at that eating these insects, but this they deny, though time considered a great rarity :-“Friday,'Au- they confess to biting them. gust 31. A turtle weighing 350 pounds was ate at the King's Arms Tavern, Pall Mall: the

PRE-EMINENCE OF MILK. mouth of an oven was taken down to admit the This is one of the most important articles of part to be baked.” The greater number of tur-diet derived from the animal kingdom, and has ile consumed in London are brought from Ja- | many remarkable properties worthy of notice maica; where much care is bestowed on breed-belonging to it. In the course of this work it ing and preserving them : they are sold in the will be shown, that the higher orders of animals shops in that island at a less cost than beef or require a mixture of different alimentary submutton. Some of them are so large, that one stances for their nutrition ; for when they are would be a sufficient repast for a hundred per- limited to any one kind of food, their condition is eons, and admit of fourteen men standing with either deteriorated, or disorganization of strucease at the same time on its back.

ture ensues. Milk is the only aliment which Serpents are caten in many parts of the offers an exception to this rule—that is to say, world: the American Indians are very fond of which is capable of supporting life alone. Dr. rattlesnakes, cooked as we dress eels. The ana- Prout has well remarked, that all other alimenconda, and other boas, afford a wholesome diet tary matters exist for themselves, or for the use to the natives of the countries they inhabit. Ad-of ihe animal or vegetable of which they form a ders are stated to be used as food in many parts constituent part. Milk, however, is prepared by of France and Italy. Crocodiles, the guana, nature expressly as food, being of no other use and other lizards, are eaten in South America to animals whatever. It would naturally be exand the Bahama Islands. The bull-frog is con-pected, that since milk possesses the nu sidered in America as good as turtle.

property in so eminent a degree, its composition

must be peculiar, and contain a greater diversity THE DELUDED PARISIANS.

of the principles forming alimentary matter than The Rana esculanta, or edible frog, is a fa- other kinds of food. Such, indeed, is the fact; vorite article of diet in France, Germany, and for every sort of animal milk is composed of alItaly. Toads seem also to be eaten by the bumen, oil, and sugar, suspended in a large French, though unwittingly. Professor Dume- quantity of water. The proportions in which ril used to relate, in his lectures at the Jardin des these three substances are united in different Plantes, that the frogs brought to the markets kinds of milk vary exceedingly, but they have in Paris are caught in the stagnant waters round always been found to exist in the milk of all Montmorenci, in the Bois de Vincennes, Bois de animals. Boulogne, &c. The people employed in this

RATIONALE OF RAW OYSTERS. traffic separate the hind-quarters and legs of the frog from the body, denude them of their skin,

Albumen coagulates on being exposed for a arrange them on skewers as larks are done in few minutes to a temperature of 165 deg. Fahthis country, and then bring them in that state to

renheit; which causes different processes of market. In seeking for frogs, these dealers often cookery greatly to vary the digestible properties meet with toads; which they do not reject, but

of substances containing an abundance of it. prepare them in the same way as they would

Eggs exposed to a high temperature, merely frogs; and, as it is impossible to determine whe

| long enough to cause partial coagulation of the ther the hind-quarters of these creatures, after

albumen, are much lighter and more digestible the skin is stripped off, belong to frogs or toads,

than they are after the application of heat to it continually happens that great numbers of the

them has been continued to complete it, or as it supposed frogs sold in Paris for food are actually

is termed, till they are boiled hard. The digestoads.

tible qualities of oysters may be modified in a

similar manner. In a raw state, or when the alINSECT FOOD.

bumen they contain is uncoagulated, a great Humboldt says, the children in some parts of|number may be eaten without causing any bad South America may be seen dragging enor-effects. One of the most distinguished French mous centipedes from their holes and craunching physiologists of the present day used to declare, them between their teeth without compunction. he did not care about eating oysters unless he The white ant is eaten by the Indians in Brazil, could be supplied with at least twelve or fourteen Guana, on the banks of the Rio Negro, and Cas- dozen for his own share; a number he was con. siquiaire. The Negroes in the West Indies are tinually in the habit of taking at one meal, withvery partial to a caterpillar found on the palm-out experiencing any symptoms of indigestion. tree. "The Caffre hordes of South Africa feed Numerous other instances could be adduced of upon locusts, ants, and a variety of insects too persons eating similar quantities with impunity. numerous for detail. Locusts and grasshoppers Stewed oysters, however, in which the albumen are eaten in Syria, Arabia, Egypt, Abyssinia, is coagulated, could not, in all probability, be Madagascar, and China. The Chinese also eat partaken of with similar freedom, without causthe chrysalises of the silk-worm, the larva of the ling a great derangement of the stomach.

« PreviousContinue »