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I saw his head on the crest of a billow, and instant.tained for a stranger for the petty indignily recognised in the unfortunate inan the sailor who ties to which he is sometimes exposed on a few moments before had related his dream. I the road. The line of route to be recom. shall never forget the look of agony he cast whilst the steamer hurried past him. The alarm was given,
mended for Switzerland is by the Belgian and every thing was in confusion : it was two min. railways and by the Rhine steamers." utes, at least, before the vessel was stopped, by In general interest, and perhaps in literwhich time the man was a considerable way astern. ary merit, the Tour in Switzerland is someI still, however, kept my cye upon him, and could what inferior to its predecessor; and probsee that he was struggling gallantly with the waves. ably for the same reason which, in that preA boat was at length lowered, but the rudder was decessor, rendered the account of Belgium. unfortunately not at hand, and only two oars could be procured, with which the men could make but
&c., inferior to the description of Holland little progress in so rough a sea. They did their -- the character of the country is less best, however, and had arrived within ten yards of marked, or at least its character is less the man, who still struggled for bis life, when I lost adapted to Mr. Chambers's style of treatsight of him; and the men, on their return, said I ment, and a greater number of pens have that they saw him below the waler, al glimpses, sink. I been employed upon the subject. It must ing deeper and deeper, his arms strelched out and his body apparently stiff, but that they found it impossi.
ins not be supposed that the present book is deble to save him. Presently after, the sea, as if satis
eficient either in interest or merit: there is fied with the prey which it had acquired, became much of close observation, and shrewdly comparatively calm. The poor fellow who had sensible remark, especially upon economi. perished in this singular manner was a fine young cal matters, with a good deal of striking man of twenty-seven, the only son of a widowed description, not devoid of a dash of humor. mother; he was the best sailor on board, and was ous satire where the subject admits of it. beloved by all who were acquainted with himn."
As a whole, however, the book wants the striking and racy character which belonged to the sketches in Holland.
But the Tour in Switzerland contains
some points of another kind that may have CHAMBERS'S TOUR IN SWITZERLAND. a more solid, if a less attractive interest.
Scattered through its pages are many noA Tour in Switzerland, in 1841. By Wil-tices of Continental industry, so far as it
liam Chambers, one of the Editors of fell under our author's notice, with some “Chambers's Edinburgh Journal,” &c.
remarks on the character and progress of Froin the Spectator,
the great manufacturing establishments,
both in Belgium and Switzerland, as well Delighted with his tour in Holland and as a summary view of Swiss industry and the countries adjoining the Rhine, Mr. the comforts of her laboring population, Chambers, in 1841, extended his autumnal compared with a similar class in Great excursion to Switzerland; passing (for the Britain. From these it appears, that the most part by railways) through Belgium non-exportation of machinery, a monopoly and some of the near-lying watering-places which the manufacturers have strenuously to Basle. From this Swiss town he pro- endeavored to maintain-if, indeed, some ceeded, through Zurich, Lucerne, and Berne, members of the Anti-Corn-Law League are to Lausanne and Geneva, by the easiest not still in favor of maintaining it-has not mode, the voiture of a klohnutscher ; who produced the intended effect of preventing carries you whithersoever you please, in his the growth of manufactures on the Conticarriage and pair, at thirty francs per diem. nent, whilst it has lost England the trade After visiting the sights in the environs of of machine-making. The great iron-works the lake, Chillon, Ferney, &c., Mr. Cham. of Belgium, Mr. Chambers considers, have bers determined upon returning through chiefly been called into existence to supply France; but as he had omitted to have his the foreign demand for machinery. For. passport attended to, he was compelled to bidding the exportation of machines, we travel nearly one hundred miles to Berne to conld not prevent the exportation of Briget the signature of the French ambassa- tish operatives, British Superintendence, dor; after which, he proceeded to Paris via and probably British capital: the result of Neuchatel,—a course which he advises no which is, that not only in machinery but one else to follow : “ On no account,” he in many other manufactured goods, Bel. says, “attempt reaching or returning from gium produces as good an article as Great Switzerland through France. In that coun-Britain, in Mr. Chambers's judgment, (which try all the available means of locomotion is not perhaps, on such a subject, what may are execrable; and no redress can be ob- l be called a skilled judgment;) and in artilcles where labor predominates or taste is, would not have paid for the mere workmanship of essential, at a much cheaper rate. Here is the case in England, where a £32 piano is in apa passage from his visit to the exhibition/pearance little else than a plain veneered box." of manufactures at Brussels.
| We believe, however, that the instru. « Entering the vestibule, we follow a path through mental action of English painofortes is su. a series of saloons on the ground floor, all filledl perior to that of foreign makes. But in with objects of great interest and beauty of execu. some things, Mr. Chanibers says, we are lion. One saloon is filled with new-made steam losing trade from the trashiness of the artiengines and locomotives, engineering tools, spin- cles: the cheap cottons of Manchester are ning-machines, and printing-presses; the work-l in bad repute, from the character of their manship of which appeared to be cqual to any thing of the kind in England. Next we have a
any colors, which vanish in the washing. saloon occupied with pianofortes, cabinets, and
1 His own facts about Switzerland (for he other articles, formed of walnut or other fine quotes long passages from Bowring and woods, and inlaid with ivory or mother-of-pearl ; Symons to comment upon) are not very we observe here, also, some elegant gentlemen's numerous or conclusive. The apparent coaches and gigs, with harness to match. Another lanomaly of an inland and mon
anomaly of an inland and mountainous saloon contains a most extraordinary variety of countrú allowing a nerfect freedom
raordinary variety.01 country allowing a perfect freedom of trade, leather; (a manufacture in which we are greatly. excelled by the Belgians,) painted floor-cloths,
and yet excelling her neighbors who have hair-cloths, furs, perfumery, `aud periwigs. Jo access to the sea, navigable rivers, and ascending the grand staircase, we find the land good level roads for the conveyance of proing-places occupied with iron safes, stoves, fire-duce, he does not seem inclined to solve grates for drawing-rooms, all unexceptionable and solely by free trade, but by circumstances in of first-rate finish. Landing on the upper floor, the economical and political condition of we walk from room to room, lost in the contempla- Switzerland. The government is very tion of the numerous products of Belgian industry; lace, linen, woollen, cotton, and silk goods, threads,
taxes are very light; from various causes cutlery, crystal, paper, fire-arms, musical instru- the people are a sober, moral, and Malthu. ments, philosophical apparatus-in short, every sian race, not marrying till somewhat late in thing that a luxurious people can require. I spent life; the peculiar social circumstances of an hour in the closest examination of some of these the country are favorable to a combination articles ; for I felt assured that, as regards excel- of rural and manufacturing labor; and lastlence of quality, England had here certainly metlu.
inly metly, the whole of the people work, and work her inatch. The differ:nt parcels of cloth and flannels, the manufacture of Francois Biolley and sons
hard-perhaps the hardest in Europe. He ai Verviers, and of M. Snoeck at Herve, would not might have added, that though the Swiss have discredited the cloth-halls of Leeds; while impose no protective duties, their neighthe dainasks of Fretigny and Company at Gheni, bors do it for them. The Custom-houses and Dejardin at Courtrai, gave indication that in of France, Germany, (now the Prussian this species of fabric the Low Countrics maintained | League.) and Austria, nave virtually forbid. their ancient reputation. The threads and laces of Brussels were exhibited in extensive varicty.
den any free competition except with their Altogether, the Exposition afforded a decided proof own sickly productions. Yet, notwithstand. of the prodigious advance inade in the useful arts ing all that has been put forward respecting in Belgium of late years; and I believe nothing re- the comfort of the Swiss manufacturers, mains to be done but to find a market for her goods. Mr. Chambers rates the means of the British
That, it appears, is no easy matter; partly in con- artisan higher, if they were not wasted, or sequence of the little influence which the country I worse than wasted. has abroad, but chiefly from the preference given in most places to English goods. To put the ques. “To compare the condition of Switzerland with tion of price in some measure to the test, I bought that of England would be absurd. There is not a few articles of cutlery; and found that, though the slightest resemblance between them. The well executed, they cost rather more than they Swiss have pitched their standard of happiness at a were worth in England. From all I saw and heard, point which, as far as things, not feelings, are conmy impression is, that nearly all factory goods can cerned, could with great ease be reached by the still be produced cheaper, and on a greater scale, bulk of the British population. And here what in England than in Belgium ; but that Belgium may be called the unfavorable features of Swiss can now manufacture most articles of as good society become prominent. There is little comu. quality, and only stands in need of due encourage- lative capital in Switzerland. It is a country of ment to be in every respect a most formidable small farmers and tradesmen, in decent but not competitor. As regards articles prepared by the wealthy circumstances. An active man among exercise of individual taste and skill, we are al- them could not get much. If he and his family ready far behind Belgium. I have never, for in wrought hard they would not starve, and whatever stance, seen in England any work to compare in they got would be their own. On all occasions, in point of elegance of design and execution with speaking to respectable residents, the observation that displayed on the pianofortes and cabinets at on the people was— They labor hard, very hard ; this Exposition. I remarked one pianoforte in par. but, they have plenty of food, and they are happy. ticular, marked 800 francs (432); a sum which I Now it is my opinion, that if any man labor hard in either England or Scotland, exercise a reason- Castle to Holyrood House, the same in length as able degree of prudence, and be temperate and the main street in Berne, and not unlike it in ap. economical, he can scarcely fail in arriving at the pearance, there are 150 taverns, shops, or places of same practical results as the Swiss ; nay, I go far- one kind or another in which spirituous liquors are ther, and will aver, that he has an opportunity of sold; and in Ross Street, a much less populous reaching a far higher standard of rational comfort thoroughfare, the number is 41. I did not see a than was ever dreamt of by the happiest peasant in drunken person in Switzerland; Sheriff Alison Switzerland. The condition of the Swiss is bless. speaks of ten thousand persons being in a state of ed, remotely, no doubt from the sinple form of intoxication every Saturday night in Glasgow. * * government, but iminediately and chiefly from the “I take the libetry of alluding to these practices, industry, hunible desires, and economic habits of not for the purpose of depreciating the character the people.
of the operative orders, but to show at least one “ Switzerland is unquestionably the paradise of pretty conclusive piece of evidence why they do the working-man; but then, it cannot be called a not generally exhibit the same kind of happy homes paradise for any other; and I doubt if the perfec- as the Swiss. In a word, Bowring and Syınons, tion of the social system-if the ultimate end of and, I may add Laign, seem to lead to the infercreation is to fix down mankind at peasant and ence, that everything excellent in the Swiss working-man pitch. Both Bowring and Symons operative and peasant's condition is owing to inare in raptures with the cottage-system of the Swiss stitutional arrangements ; whereas, without under. artisans; I own it is most attractive, and, as I have valuing these, I ascribe fully more, as already said, is doubtless productive of much happiness. stated, to the temperance, humble desires, and exBut who prevents English artisans from having traordinary economic habits of the people. That equally good houses with the Swiss? With a the practical advantages enjoyed by Swiss artisans money wage of some seven or eight shillings a are also, somelow, inferior to those of similar week, it is said the Swiss operative realizes, by classes in Britain, is evident from the fact that means of his free cottage, bit of ground, and gar. Swiss watchmakers emigrate to England for the den, equal to thirty shillings in England. My own sake of better wages than they can realize at conviction is, that fourteen or fifteen shillings hoine; and that some thousands of unskilled la. would be much nearer the inark; but, taking it at borers leave Switzerland annually to better their a larger sum, let us inquire if English workmen condition in foreign lands, is, I believe, a fact may not attain similar advantages. All perhaps which admits of no kind of controversy. Let us, could not, but I feel assured that every skilled arti- then conclude with this impartial consideration, san could—that is, every man receiving from fif- that if our working population have grievances to teen to twenty shillings per week, of whom there complain of, (and I allow these gricvances are is no small number. British operatives are taxed neither few nor light,) they at the same time enjoy to a monstrous degree; almost every thing they a scope, an outlet for enterprise and skill, a means put in their mouths being factitiously raised in of enrichment and advancement, which no people price in a manner perfectly shameful. But they in Continental Europe can at all boast of. Swit. possess a freedom known nowhere on the Conti- zerland, as has been said, isthe paradise of the nent. They can travel from town to town at all working inan. It might with equal justice be addtimes without begging for passports; they are noted, that a siinilar paradise can be realized in the called upon for a single day's drill ; in short, their home of every man who is willing to forego per. time is their own, and they may do with it as they sonal indulgences, and make his domestic hearth please. Exercising the same scrupulous economy the principal scene of his pleasures, the sanctuary as the Swiss, and in the saine manner refraining in which his affections are cnshrined." from marriage till prudence sanctioned such a step, I do not see what is to prevent a skilled and regu
!! Attached to Mr. Chambers's account of larly-employed British operative from becoming the his own tour, is the narrative of a “Pedes. proprietor of a small house and garden, supposing trjan Excursion in Switzerland" by a friend, bis taste to lie that way. I know several who have who most undauntedly climbed mountains realized this kind of property ; indeed, a large pro-land scaled precipices without a guide, and portion of the humbler class of tradesmen in the Scottish country towns, villages, and hamlets, are
gives a plain and cheerful account of his ad. the proprietors of the dwellings in which they re-ventures,
ventures, though his mind is not so enlarged side. Now, if some so placed contrive to realize by intellectual exercise as that of William property, why may not others do so ? The answer Chambers. The entire work, it should be is, That a vast mass of our working population added, forms part of the “People's Edi. think of little beyond present enjoyment. Ginations, and contains the typographical malwhisky !-what misery is created by these de- ter of a large octavo for eighteenpence. mons, every city can bear sorrow ful witness. Cruelly taxed, in the first place, by the state, the lower classes tax themselves still more by their appetites. Scotland spends four millions of pounds annually on whisky, and what England disburses
PITCAIRN'S ISLAND. for gin and porter is on a scale equally magnifi. cent. Throughout the grand rue of Berne, a mile
From the United Service Magazine. in length, and densely populated, I did not see a single spirit-shop or tavern; I observed, certainly, THE accompanying extract of a letter that several of the cellars were used for the sale of from one of the officers of Her Majesty's wines. In the High Street of Edinburgh, from the I ship Curaçoa, furnishes an interest
recent account of Pitcairn's Island, when / balloon,-the surprising thing to us was that ship visited it.
that a man should have trusted himself in
such a cradle, five miles off the shore, with PITCAIRN'S ISLAND, Aug. 18, 1841. such a sea running,—but these people are This island has attracted a peculiar inter- almost amphibious, and as children spend est in consequence of events which made it balf their time in the water. the abode of a British population. The Adams is a fine-looking fellow, the stouthistory of the mutiny of the Bounty is well est man on the island, his features regular, known to you, and you are, no doubt, well prominent, European ; his skin of an olive acquainted with the particulars of the sub-hue, with a remarkably frank and open counsequent visits of Sir Thomas Staines and tenance. He is thirty-seven years of age. Capt. Beechey, so I shall confine myself to In the afternoon a large party of us left observations made during our visit in the the ship, and, steered by Adams, landed in Curaçoa.
“Water Valley," on the lee side of the island, The interest felt, and the anxiety evinced where a kind of natural breakwater is form. to visit this island became more intense as ed. Knowing the entrance, boats can land we approached it. The forenoon was cloudy, in safety, although the surf was breaking with occasional showers of rain, which pre-high on each side of it. . On landing we obvented us from seeing it till pretty close. served a very fine natural bath in the rock, It is of considerable height, upwards of 1200 which we were admiring, when Adams smil. feet above the level of the sea, and may be ed, and said, “ It was too smooth; that none seen on a clear day more than forty miles of the people would bathe ibere—they all off. We fired two guns as the cottages built loved the surf.” On asking Adams how the on the north side opened to our view, and road led from the valley to their village on then lay to, waiting until some of the island the other side of the hill, we were struck ers should communicate with us, which we with the nautical expression he made use of feared could scarcely take place, as it was on this, as well as on several other occa. then blowing rather fresh, and the surf was sions. “We must go right chock up over beating high along the shore. After waiting that hill, sir.” some time we observed a canoe approach. After landing some arms, ammunition, ing us—a mere skiff-a cockle-shell on the tools, and implements of husbandry, we comwater, which we did not perceive until quite menced the ascent, almost perpendicular at close to us, so much was she concealed by first, and continued so for nearly two miles. the curling waves; she was just large This was no easy matter; for the heavy enough to contain one person, who was rains, which had just fallen, bad so sostened steering with one hand, whilst the other was the rich soil, covered with decayed leaves, employed in bailing, having a sail set at the that there was hardly a possibility of maintime, no larger than a pocket-handerchief. Itaining a footing; no sooner did one make He shortened sail on coming close under a step forward than down he came on his our quarter, and hailed us in good, broad, race, or slid back from whence he started. honest English, (as we were all assembled By aid of sticks, bushes and branches, we at. on the poop, anxious to see this island child,) Itained the summit of the ridge, after much asking with a good-natured smile if he might scrambling. From this point we enjoyed a come on board. “Yes, certainly,was the most splendid view,—the scene tropical, instant reply. So up he came over the gang- and quite picturesque. The cocoa-nut, palm, way, dripping wet, having been twice cap-breadfruit, banyan, and a great variety of sized in the surf-and a fine athletic fellow other trees and shrubs, adorned the valleys he was; he shook hands with us all, was or clothed the mountain side. A few bold indeed glad to see us, having expected the peaks or bare lofty ridges formed a striking man-of-war for a long time. He told us he contrast with the universal scene of verdure was George Adams, the only son of John and'loveliness below. Our descent from this Adams, the last of the mutineers, who by a beautiful spot, though not so laborious, was life of piety and repentance had tried to quite as perilous, for the path being wet, atone for the crimes he had committed, and there was a risk every moment of falling on who had by precept, as well as by example, our backs. We found our shoes here most wrought such a wonderful change in the inconvenient; the natives, wearing none, habits and morals of the people, after the support themselves by sticking their toes death of his fellow-mutineers.
into the ground. Some of our Middies did Adams was scarcely on deck when his the same, and found the advantage of it. fragile bark followed him, the seamen hand. The whole distance was not great, but still ing the canoe in, as if she had been a small / we found it sufficiently fatiguing.
We were met by the greater part of the Their mode of living is very simple male inhabitants on the road (some of them their food being generally purely vegetable ; were ill in bed). The boys also came out to cocoa-nut milk or water their only drink. meet us,—they were generally good-look They entertained us with goat's flesh, pork, ing, intelligent, and active.
and fowls. It was then I observed a barbaOn arriving at the village, the women and rous custom still existing in these islands, female children welcomed us very cordially, which is, that the women never take their and their appearance was more taking than meals with the men: the males sit down that of the other sex. The young married first, and, after they have finished, the fewomen and girls were particularly interest. males take their places at the table. The ing. They become fairer each succeeding women alone performed the cooking busigeneration. The contrast between those of ness, which, though a simple, is a laborious, the first (not to mention two Otaheitan process: they also heed the firewood in the women still surviving) and the third gene- hills, carry it home on their backs, cut the ration now springing up, is very striking ; leaves of the tea-plant, gather the breadand as they become fairer they also appear fruit, yams, plantains, &c., kill the goats, to become less athletic and robust
and prepare the oven. This is done by plac• The Doctor was soon in requisition, being ing in a hole in the ground, dug for this taken from house to house to visit their sick; purpose, a number of stones, previously for we found one-fourth of the population heated, over which are laid the leaves of the suffering from influenza. They were much tea-plant, then the meat and vegetables, and alarmed at it, thinking the disease not only over these another layer of leaves, then the dangerous but contagious. Our visit was, remainder of the heated stones, over which therefore, the more opportune, as it tended more leaves are laid, and on the top of all a to allay these fears, and the medicine-chest quantity of earth and decayed vegetables, presented to them was an acceptable gift,– stamped and pressed down with the feet, so particularly at such a moment. We were as to allow no heat to escape : this process all billeted for the night, each family taking takes upwards of an hour, and the cooking some of us, and, though a large party, there produced is by no means to be despised: was plenty of room. They made no distinc- the kids dressed in this way were excellent, tion in their treatment of individuals; the and the yams the best I ever tasted. The Captain and one of the jolly-boat boys would natives go lightly clad : the women with a meet with the same kindness and attention. single garment of calico, made long and There are no gradations of rank in this little loose like a night-gown, but carefully butsociety. They told us that they had heard toned at the neck; all the children are deof Peter's death, meaning Capt. Peter cently covered. The men's clothes are Heywood.
| made from the American flimsy cottons, The visit of any ship, particularly of a which have nearly superseded the use of the man-of-war, is a remarkable and joyous native cloth called the “ tapa," made from event with them; and, if a sail is reported the bark of trees. The men alone use the off the island, every man, woman, and child needle; they even make the women's dressruns to the shore, leaving their work, for-es; this expertness in tailoring, I suppose, getting their meals, and deserting their they inherit as the decendants of sailors. houses. The attention with which they It is a melancholy reflection to think of watched our actions, (dozens of them fol. the fate of the mutineers, and instructive to lowing us about from house to house,) and know that crime is generally punished in marked our words, showed their curiosity this world: it is also interesting to watch and simplicity of character. The men are the growth and progress of their progeny. not very communicative, and with the woo of the nine mutineers who conducted the men, excepting some of the elder ones, the Bounty to this island, and by whom she was greatest difficulty was experienced to get destroyed, in the cove now bearing her them to reply to the most simple questions. name, to prevent discovery, only one besides This arose from a natural shyness and diffi. Adams died a natural death. Adams died dence felt before strangers; indeed, it in 1829, aged 65, and lies buried close to his would be difficult to touch upon any subject, Otaheitan wife, at the end of his son's house, not connected with themselves or the island, formerly his own. Their early dissensions which could be interesting to them. Some were caused by quarrels about the women, of the officers, to enliven the monotony of by drunkenness, (for they learned the art of the evening, played “ Blind-man's buff,” distilling spirit from a native plant,) and by and “Hunt the slipper," which amused them the tyranny practised over the Otaheitan exceedingly, as new and stirring games. Imen. Two of the Otaheitan women still