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erties with the author with impunity; that he may for it is pronounced "inevitable," is not just, be witly or severe, without the penalty of being by that august formula, “public morality.” shot. Now, of what nature is that criticism which Run
| But who, then, are critics, that they should would draw down the author's cartel-of-war upon the critic? It is not an age for duels on light of.
torture and defame with impunity? What fences and vague grounds. An author would be moral inquisition is this, before whose secret laughed at, from one end of the kingdom to the tribunal all are liable to be arraigned, con. other, for calling out a man for abusing his book; demned, and tortured, no one knowing his for saying that he wrote bad grammar, and was a accuser? Why is duty sacred to all men wretched poet. If the author were such a fool as, but critics? Why is cowardice disgraceful on mere literary ground, to challenge a critic, the
to all men but to critics? These questions critic would scarcely be such a fool as to go out with him. “Ay,' says the critic, if I only abuse
one finds it difficult to get answered. The his book; but what if I abuse his person?" I may only defences are those which more deci. censure his work safely; but supposing I want io sively fix the iniquity of the practice. insinuate something against his character?' True, We have now to appeal to the press itself now we understand each other; that is indeed the for a refutation or reform. If it accept our question. I turn round at once from yon, sir, the challenge, it must either prove its present critic-I appeal to the public. I ask them where is the benefit, what the advantage of attacking all
practice not iniquitous, or else inevitable. man's person, not his book : his character, not bis If it can do neither of these, it must show composition? Is criticism to be the act of personal why the brandmark of contempt should not vituperation ? then let us send to Billingsgate for be stamped upon it. We have endeavored our reviewers, and have something racy and idiom to lay bare the sophisms with which men atic, at least, in the way of slang. What purpose cheat themselves, and we “pause for a re. salutary to literature is served by hearing that Haz. Iply.” Silent contempt is a cheap refutation, litt had pimples on his face? How are poor Byron's errors amended, by filthily groping among the de
but an unsatisfactory one; and if the press tails of his private life; by The muttered slanders ;
have none other, it is in a bal state. We by the broad Palsehoods, which filled the anonymous accuse no one-but attack the system. We channels of the press? Was it not this syslem of have throughout abstained from all personespionage, more than any other cause, which dark ality, and consequently deprived ourselves ened with gloomy suspicion that mind, originally of many a striking illustration, both of ignoso noble? Was not the stinging of the lip the re
rance and malevolence; but by this means sult of the stung heart? Slandered by others, his irritable mind retaliated by slander in return; the
we have kept the question on abstract openness visible in his early character, hardened
ground, where all men may meet and argue. into insincerity, the coastant product of suspicion, We must again repeat, that the honorable and instead of correcting the author, this species exceptions to our sweeping assertions, it of criticism contributed to deprave the man.” would have been tedious and invidious, if
It is, in truth, very curious to consider not impossible, to specify: every man who the arguments by which the anonymous is knows himself honest, will be calm-every defended, and to see how uniformly they one who smarts under the accusation, deresolve themselves into personal conveni.
G. H. L. ences instead of duties-into radical iniquities instead of honest obstacles. There is something remarkable in the way in which the moralities of the question are coolly set BORROW'S BIBLE IN SPAIN. aside for the conveniences; how duty be. comes merged in the greater feeling of ex.
INTRODUCTORY NOTE. tra trouble or more restricted speech! The 1 Although our readers had somewhat of Mr. Bor. honest laborer, observing the glass at ninety
row in the February number, we feel satisfied they degrees, declares gaining his bread by the
will be ready to hear more of him. The subsequent
article is from a different source, in another style, sweat of his brow at such a temperature to
and presents extracts from the book altogether be " full of practical inconvenience,” and diverse from those quoted in the article from the prefers, therefore, disregarding the baker's London Quarterly.-Ed. is theory of prices," and steals a loaf. Tried
From the Examiner. for the offence, it is pronounced iniquitous
The Bible in Spain ; or the Journeys, Adven. in the name of the law. On the other hand,
tures, and Imprisonments of an Englishthe luxurious critic, averse to trouble, condemns a work it would be fatiguing to read
man, in an Attempt to circulate the Scrip
tures in the Peninsula. By George Borthrough, and with this condemnation robs the poor author of many loaves and of many
row, Author of the “Gypsies of Spain." joys—chills public enthusiasm and publish.
3 vols. Murray. er's confidence, and tortures the author's! This is a most remarkable book. Highly self-love. No trial is possible in this case, as we praised the Gypsies of Spain, much as
we had reason to expect from any subse. Sage's hero, in the thieves' cavern, the archquent effort of the writer, we were certainly bishop's palace, or the minister's bureau. not prepared for any thing so striking as The Bible occupies a less important part of this. Apart from its adventurous interest, the narrative: but that is not the fault of its literary merit is extraordinary. Never Mr. Borrow. was book more legibly impressed with the In speaking of the Gypsies of Spain we unmistakable mark of genius.
described the writer's missior to that counAs the living Alguazil of Madrid, notwith-try as the accredited agent of the British standing the modern reality of round hat, and Foreign Bible Society. The sudden coat, and pantaloons, at once recalled to break up of the priestly power seemed to Mr. Borrow the immortal truth of the Span- hold forth reasonable hope of success for ish spy and informer of Le Sage—we say such a mission, and Mr. Borrow not only of the Bible in Spain, that notwithstanding took large quantities of a Portuguese verits sober, grave, and truthful pretensions, it sion of the Scriptures with him, but authorihas of nothing reminded us so much as of ty, if he could get the needful sanction from dear delightful Gil Blas. It has surprising the Spanish Government, to superintend the vigor, raciness, and originality of style ; printing of a Spanish Bible at Madrid, and the combination, in its narrative of extra- to undertake its distribution in the provinordinary minuteness, vivacity, and local ces. He found himself beset by all kinds truth; it has wonderful variety of grades of of difficulties, but though the zealous kind. character, and an unceasingly animated ness and support of Lord Clarendon failed interest of adventure; notwithstanding some to procure him the formal license he sought, peculiar and strongly-marked opinions of it enabled him to do many things which the the writer, it has a wide tolerance and an authorities were content to wink at. He untiring sympathy ; notwithstanding the printed his Bible, and even wrote and printgravity of its purpose, its tone is gay, good- ed a translation-the first ever made of humored, witty and light-hearted: in a any book whatever- of one of the gospels word, it is a captivating book. Perhaps no into the gypsy dialect of Spain. But he man ever made so good a hero to himself seems to have made litile actual way in as Mr. Borrow. He is of heroic stuff. their distribution. A great number appear Without a pretence or an affectation, he is to have taken them without any clear pur. constantly before us: never compromising pose of making good use of them, and a a single opinion, he never forfeits a single greater number to have rejected them very sympathy. He is so evidently a pure-mind- nearly in the spirit of Mendizabal. My good ed, sincere, and honest man. He believes, sir-said that minister to Mr. Borrow " it loves, endures—or he disbelieves, hates, is not Bibles we want, but rather guns and contests—with almost childish singleness gunpowder, to put down the rebels 'with, and truth of heart. It is as impossible to and above all, money, that we may pay the doubt his creed in religion as to question troops; whenever you come with these his charity in social practice. You may three things you shall have a hearty wel. think the one as narrow and sectarian as come, if not, we really can dispense with you please, but you cannot deny the univer. your visits, however great the honor." Still sality and gentleness of the other. He he succeeded in not a few instances; and to shakes hands with the thief and translates note his pious and devout rapture when he the New Testament for him. He lays aside does succeed, is not less pleasing to the even religious pretensions, when respect earnest reader, than to mark his cheerful and the means of influence are to be other- unquenched sanguine hope, when he thowise attained; and becomes vagabond and roughly fails. gypsy, when to be merely an honest man But the interest of the Bible in Spain is engaged in a righteous cause had been to quite apart from the amount of good fortune be nothing. Wonderful are his accomplish that attended the missionary labors of its ments. Even the greatest rascals of Madrid, writer. He was five years in the country, Alguazils themselves, are brought to a pause mixed with almost every class, and underby one who understands the seven gypsy went every kind of adventure. He associajargons, and can ride a horse or dart a ted with gypsies, ministers, robbers, and knife with the best Andalusian of them priests: he was one with every class, in the all.
forest, the field, the hut, the posada, the These qualities, we say, make a hero of prison, and the palace. He reports a stirMr. Borrow, and whether he is with robbers, ring scene, a noble landscape, a humorous priests, or politicians, give us almost the and characteristic dialogue, with the pic. same kind of interest that we take in Le taresque force, the dramatic gayety of Le Sage, with the pains-taking truth, the minute come paralytic, Batuscha! and your clob reality of De Foe. He had no mere party | has degenerated into a crutch.” Nay, not opinions—having lived too long with “Rom. with the weight of a sick man's crutch did many Chals ” to be of any politics but it descend on Borrow. He had hardly got gypsy politics—and he saw the peasants of into prison, when they implored him to go every grade and in every circumstance. For quietly out. But he would have revenge, the most part he was as one of themselves : and submission, and his imprisoners on travelling as a gypsy, a “London Caloro,” | their knees to him ; moreover, he was rewith gypsies for servants and friends. solved to see all the tenants of the prison
To overrate the value of opinions formed since he was there: and so our gallant Bor. by such a man with such means of judg- row, waited on with Castilian courtesy and ment, would be impossible. And Mr. Bor- politeness by a rascal of a jailer, staid out row's opinions of the Spanish people agree several days in the prison of Madrid. with those of the best observers that have Here is one of his many admirable scenes, been competent to give evidence on this taken in the interior : subject. For the higher and better classes he says little, but he maintains the common ar
“ Observe, ye vain and frivolous, how vanity and people to be sound at the core. The lamen- crime harmonize. The Spanish robbers are as table and the reprehensible he found among fond of this species of display as their brethren of them, but neighbored by more that was other lands, and, whether in prison or out of it, noble and to be admired: much savage and are never so happy as when, decked out in a prohorrible crime he encountered, as how could I fusion of white linen, they can loll in the sun, or it otherwise be in a country so afflicted, but
Lhui walk jauntily up and down. Snow-white linen,
indeed, constitutes the principal feature in the of low vulgar vice he appears to have seen
robber foppery of Spain. Neither coat nor jacket little. In a word, he bears strong testimony is worn over the shirt, the sleeves of which are to the natural vigor and resources of Spain, wide and flowing, only a waistcoat of green or and to the fact that she is still a powerful blue silk, with an abundance of silver buttons, and unexhausted country, and her children which are intended more for show than use, as the still to a certain extent a high-minded and vest is seldom buttoned. Then there are wide
trousers, something after the Turkish fashion ; great people. We rejoice above all to
around the waist is a crimson faja or girdle, and learn from him that the imbecile, cruel, and
| about the head is tied a gaudily colored handker. contemptible Carlos is generally hated, and chief from the loom of Barcelona ; light pumps most of all by the spirited Basques, and and silk stockings complete the robber's array. that priestcraft is extinguished for ever. This dress is picturesque enough, and well adaptMr Borrow continually exults with jovial ed to the fine sunshiny weather of the Peninsula : epithets of scorn over the utterly fallen, and there is a dash of effeminacy about it, however,
hardly in keeping with the robber's desperate trade. prostrate, and never again to be lifted up,
It must not, however, be supposed that it is every power of the Pope. “Undeceive yourself,
robber who can indulge in all this luxury ; there Batuscha,” says the excellent Borrow, "you are various grades of Thieves, some poor enough, have lost all your power!”
with scarcely a rag to cover them. Perhaps in Che It is a good scene where he bethinks crowded prison of Madrid, there were not more himself of these things as they are conduct than twenty who exhibited the dress which I have ing him into the prison at Madrid, for ex. attempted to describe above; these were jente de
repulacion, tip-top thieves, mostly young fellows, ceeding bounds in some of the duties of his
who, though they had no money of their own, mission. The court he is taken across is
were supported in prison by their majas and ami. that where the last prince of the Austrian gas, feniales of a certain class, who form friend. line was wont to enjoy his auto-da-fés- ships with robbers, and whose glory and delight it licking his lips between each batch of suf. is to administer to the vanity of these fellows with ferers, and wiping a face that perspired with the wages of their own shame and abasement. the heat and was black with the smoke of These females supplied their cortejos with the the burnings. So, crossing this court, how
snowy linen, washed, perhaps, by their own hands
in the waters of the Manzanares, for the display of natural was it that the dauntless Borrow the Sunday, when they would themselves make should bethink him of the past. “Here am their appearance dressed à la joaja, and from the 1-I who have done more to wound Popery corridors would gaze with admiring eyes upon the than all the poor Christian martyrs that robbers vaporing about the court. ever suffered in this accursed square-here “Amongst those of the snowy linen who most am I. merely sent to prison. from which I particularly attracted my attention, were a father
and son ; the former was a tall athletic figure of am sure to be liberated in a few days with
about thirty, by profession a house-breaker, and credit and applause. Pope of Rome! 1|celebrated throughout Madrid for peculiar dexteri. believe you malicious as ever, but you ty which he exhibited in his calling. He was now are sadly deficient in power. You are be- ( in prison for a rather atrocious murder, committed in the dead of night, in a house at Caramanchel, but I don't get on the better for that. How is in which his only accomplice was his son, a child this ?' say I, and I fall to spurring him. What under seven years of age. The apple,' as the happens then, brother? The wizard no sooner Danes say, had not fallen far from the tree;' the feels the prick than he bucks down, and flings me imp was in every respect the counterpart of the over his head into the fango. I get up and look father, though in miniature. He, too, wore the about me; there stands the donkey, staring at me, robber shirt sleeves, the robber waistcoat with the and there stand the whole gypsy canaille, squinting silver buttons, the robher kerchief round his brow, at me with their filmy cyes. Where is the scamp and, ridiculous enough, a long Manchegan knife in who has sold me this piece of furniture?' I shout. the crimson faja. He was evidently the pride of the He is gone to Granada, Valorous,' says one. suffian father, who took all imaginable care of He is gone to his kindred among the Moors,' says this chick of the gallows, would dandle him on another. I just saw him running over the fields, his knee, and would occasionally take the cigar in the direction of — , with the devil close behind from his own moustached lips, and insert it in the him,' says a third. In a word, I am tricked, I urchin's mouth. The boy was the pet of the court, wish to dispose of the donkey; no one, however, for the father was one of the valientes of the prison, will buy him ; he is a Calo donkey, and every and those who feared his powess, and wished to pay person avoids him. At last the gypsies offer thirty their court to him, were always fondling the child. rials for himn; and after much chaffering I am glad What an enigma is this world of ours ! How dark to get red of him at two dollars. It is all a trick, and mysterious are the sources of what is called however; he returns to his master, and the brother. crime and virtue! If that infant wretch becoine hood share the spoils among them. All which eventually a murderer like his father, is he to blame? villany would be prevented, in iny opinion, were the Fondled by robbers, already dressed as a robber, Calo language not spoken ; for what but the word of born of a robber whose own history was perhaps a Calo could have induced the donkey to behave in similar. Is it right ...."
such an unaccountable manner ?" No-most excellent, true-hearted Bor.l.
It is difficult to be moderate in our ex. row. We supply the blank which a Bible Ta
tracts, but have we not said enough to send missionary could hardly fill, and answer it
the reader to the book itself ? is not right.
THE GOATHERD AND HIS FAITH. The gypsy illustrations have almost greater interest than those of the former work,
“Upon the shoulder of the goatherd was a in which there are no such amusing dia- | he had lately caught in the neighboring brook ; it
beast, which he told me was a lontra, or otter, which logues as those of the old Kommany hag | had a string round its neck, which was attached to with her proposals of marriage to her Lon. his arm. At his left side was a bag, from the top don Caloro, and no scenes so good as that of which peered the heads of two or three singuwhich takes place in the little posado out lar looking animals, and at his right was squatted of Badajoz, when our hero gets into a scrape
the sullen cub of a wolf, which he was endeavoring by indiscreet use of the Calo or of gypsy
to tame; his whole appearance was to the last de.
gree savage and wild. After a little conversation, language. No sooner is it heard that one
such as those who meet on the road frequently hold, of two ill-looking fellows, with enormous|I asked him if he could read, but he made me no anmoustaches, turns round from his cigar and swer. I then inquired if he knew any thing of God or swears that if he catches another word of Jesus Christ; he looked me fixedly in the face for a Calo, he will cudgel the bones of Borrow, moinent, and then turned his countenance towards and send him flying over the house-tops
the sun, which was beginning to sink in the west, with a kick of his foot.
nodded to it, and then again looked fixedly upon
me. I believe that I understood the mute reply, 4. You would do right,' said his companion: the which probably was, that it was God who made insolence of these gypsies is no longer to be borne. I that glorious light which illumes and gladdens all When I am at Merida o: Badajoz I go to the merca- creation; and gratified with that belief, I left him, do, and there in a corner stand the accursed gypsies and hastened after my companions, who were by jabbering to each other in a specch which I under this time a considerable way in advance." stand not. •Gypsy, gentlemen,' say I to one of them, what will you have for that donkey ?'. I will
A CATALAN AND HIS WIFE. have ten dollars for it, Caballero nacional, says the “There was one in particular, a burly, savagegypsy ; it is the best donkey in all Spain.' I looking fellow, of about forty, whose conduct was should like to see its paces,' say I. That you shall, atrocious; he sat with his wife, or perhaps concumost valorous,' says the gypsy, and jurnping upon bine, at the door of a room which opened upon the its back, he puts it to its paces, first of all whispering court; he was continually venting horrible and obsomething into its ear in Calo, and truly the paces scene oaths, both in Spanish and Catalan. The of the donkey are most wonderlul, such as I have woman was remarkably handsome, but robust, and never seen before. I think it will just suit me,' seemingly as savage as himself; her conversation and after looking at it awhile, I take out the money likewise was as frightful as his own. Both seemed and pay for it. I shall go to my house,' says the to be under the influence of an incomprehensible gypsy; and off he runs. I shall go to my village,' fury. At last, upon some observation from the say I, and I mount the donkey. Vamonos,' say I, woman, he started up, and, drawing a long knife but the donkey won't move. I give him a switch, from his girdle, stabbed at her naked bosom; she
however, interposed the palm of her hand, which " Myself.--I have never read his writings. I
Slav, I think I see a book in your hand.
"Myself.-The New Testament. “The banks of the Duero in this place have much! “Alcalde.- What book is that? beauty: they abound with trees and brushwood,l « Myself.-A portion of the sacred writings, the amongst which, as we passed along, various birds Bible. were singing melodiously. A delicious coolness “Alcalde. Why do you carry such a book with proceeded from the water, which in some parts you? brawled over stones or rippled fleetly over white “Myself.--One of my principal motives in visit. sand, and in others glided softly over the blue pools ing Finisterre was to carry this book to that wild of considerable depth. By the side of one of these place. last, sat a woman of about thirty, neatly dressed as “Alcalde.--Ha, ha! how very singular. Yes, I a peasant; she was gazing upon the water, into remember. I have heard that the English bighly which she occasionally flung flowers and iwigs of prize this eccentric book. How very singular that trees. I stopped for a moment to ask a question; the countrymen of the grand Bainiham should set she, however, neither looked up nor answered, but any value upon that old monkish book." continued gazing at the water, as if lost to consciousness of all beside, “Who is that woman?'
TRAFALGAR. said I to a shepherd, whom I met the inoment after. “Huge fragments of wreck stil: frequently
She is mad, la pobrecita,' said he; "she lost her emerge from the watery gulf whose billows chafe child about a month ago in that pool, and she has the rocky sides of Trafalgar; they are relics of the been mad ever since; they are going to send her enormous ships which were burnt and sunk on that to Valladolid, to the Casa de los Locos. There are terrible day, when the heroic champion of Britain many who perish every year in the eddies of the concluded his work and died. I never heard but Duero; it is a bad river; vaya usted con la Virgen, one individual venture to say a word in disparageCaballero.' So I rode on through the pinares, or ment of Nelson's glory; it was a pert American, thin scanty pine forests, which skirt the way to who observed that the British admiral was much Valladolid in this direction.”
overrated. Can that individual be overrated,' re
plied a stranger, whose every thought was bent BORROW'S DIALOGUE WITH A LIBERAL ALCALDE. I on his country's honor, who scarcely ever fought
* Alcalde. The inhabitants of Finisterra are without leaving a piece of his body in the fray, and brave, and are all liberals. Allow me to look at your who, not to speak of ininor trinmphs, was victorions passport? Yes, all in form. Truly, it was very I in two such actions as Aboukir and Trafalgar ?'” ridiculous that they should have arrested you as a Carlist.
AN INCIDENT ON BORROW'S PASSAGE TO SPAIN. “Myself.—Not only as a Carlist, but as Don “I was on the forecastle, discoursing with two Carlos himself.
of the sailors: one of them, who had but just left " Alcalde.-Oh, most ridiculous! mistake a wis hammock, said, I have had a strange dream, countryman of the grand Baintham for such a which I do not much like; for,' continued he, point. Goth!
ing up to the mast, I dreamt that I fell into the “Myself.-Excuse me, sir, you speak of the grand sea from the cross-trees.' He was heard to say this
by several of the crew besides myself. A moment “Alcalde.--The grand Baintham. He who has after, the captain of the vessel, perceiving that the invented laws for all the world. I hope shortly to squall was increasing, ordered the topsails to be sce them adopted in this unhappy country of ours. taken in; whereupon this man with several others
“Myself.-Oh! you mean Jeremy Bentham. instantly ran aloft; the yard was in the act of being Yes, a very remarkable man in his way.
hauled down, when a sudden gust of wind wbirled " Alcalde.—In his way! in all ways. The most it round with violence, and a man was struck down universal genius which the world ever produced ; a from the cross-trees into the sea, which was work. Solon, a Plato, and a Lope de Vega.
I ing like yeast below. In a few moments he emerged.