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The Etruscans were wealthy, and wealth ting insolvent debtors to be pursued in the creates in its owners many wants of which streets by groups of children, with empty they would not otherwise be susceptible. purses in their hands, who worried the Their remains disclose to us many of the wretched pauper by the demand of money. contrivances by which a wealthy and a lux. That they had a written language is evi. urious people are wont to gratify their de. dent from their numerous inscriptions, of sires of amusement and relaxation. They which several may be seen in Sir William were skilled in all the well-known games of Gell's work on the topography of Rome, the circus. The numerous combinations and a few in the volume of our authoress. and varieties of horse and chariot racing They are read from the right to the left, but, were not unknown among them. One of as we before remarked, are utterly unintel. their vases gives us a perfect racing sketch. ligible, with the exception of a few oft-re. We see depicted thereon-the race-stand, peated words,--such as the affecting and the judges, the sporting gentlemen of the almost Christian termination to all their day, the jockeys, " et hoc genus omne," as monumental inscriptions, “Adieu in peace," if the artist had taken for his subject the or “Rest in peace.” The only other sperace-course of Epsom or Doncaster. Boar cimen of their language which has reached hunting was also a favorite amusement, as our tiines, are those tables of brass which we may see by another sketch, where sports were dug up near Gubbio, and which are men are seen in all the ardor of the chase; thence called the Eugubine tables ; but dogs, seemingly in full cry, and crowds of which, like their sepulchral inscriptions, peasants, armed with axes and poles, hastily cannot be deciphered. The sculptured ink. seized on the occasion. They are said to stand which was discovered at Agylla has, have had two principal meals in the day, we believe, been found of use, in ascertainand to have admitted the fair sex to an equal ing the power and nature of the characters, participation in the honors of the dining and in enabling them to be copied in Roman table. This singular deviation from the characters, but beyond this, notwithstandpractice of antiquity is found only in Etruing the anticipations of Mrs. Gray, we do ria and Egypt : it is brought very vividly be- not see that it can possibly be of utility. fore us in one of their paintings, where per- What pretensions they had to the possessons of both sexes are at table together. sion of a literature we cannot now ascerOne of the ladies is in the act of breaking an tain. It is a misfortune that they have left egg; another is eating some food, while a no historian to record their achievements, dog is looking up in anxious expectancy for or to chronicle their deeds, for the informaa portion. On these festive occasions, the tion of after times; but it is a misfortune ladies seem to have been far more attentive which it is now useless to deplore. They to the quality, than the quantity of their ha- I have left as much "engraved in the hard biliments;-some of them appear quite at rock with the pen of iron," but we need a their ease, in a costume which would make Daniel to discover their import and reveal ladies of the present time, to say the least of it to the world. Their history has been an it, exceedingly uncomfortable. The guests eventful one; it has been diversified with were entertained with concerts of instru- many trying incidents by sea and land. mental music. The lyre was in much re. How different would have been their fame, quest, as was also an instrument bearing a had there been a Virgil or a Homer to sur. close resemblance to a double flageolet. To round them with a halo of light, or a Thuthe music of those instruments a company cydides to consecrate them with the im. of dancers keep time with their feet and mortality of genius! The record of the hands. Some of these are represented in marble, imperishable as it is, forms but a most lively and animated gestures; but, we poor substitute for the undying record of regret to add, that some of the representa a nation's literature. The sepulchral eulotions confirm the accounts which early wri.gy of the Lucumones, the sculptured obeters transmit to us, concerning the corrup-lisk of the Pharaohs, or the mysterious tion and licentiousness of many of their fes-chronicles of the Persian kings, as seen on tive entertainments. They had also peri- the ruins of Persepolis, have not been able odical assemblies for the arrangement of|to preserve their names and deeds from the their public business, as well as for general ravages of time. They cannot compete amusement. One of the most celebrated of with that lustre which the human mind is these was the gathering of the noble fami- able to impart to the hero it embellishes, in lies at the temple of Voltamna. Scenic re- the action it records. Etruscan literature presentations were also in use, and a singu- has left us no trace of its existence. The lar custom prevailed among them of permit industry of a few Roman writers attempted to supply this deficiency, and the emperor rivers of Europe which at one time were Claudius deemed Etruria a theme not un- frozen every winter, are now never closed worthy his imperial pen. But the twenty- up for a day. So late as the time of the four books which were the fruit of his la. Roman empire, the barbarians were wont bor, have perished with the exception of each winter to avail themselves of the freeze one solitary fragment, and the writings of ing of the Danube and the Rhine, to make tha less noble penmen have not been more predatory incursions on the northern proenduring than those of their sovereign. vinces;—and Pliny says, that the severity The stream of time has washed over them of winter was such in Rome, that the olive all, and with thein have disappeared our could not be cultivated in the open air. fullest sources of information as to the ori. Nothing is more usual, at the present day, giu and history of the Etruscans.
than to see the olive growing in the open There is a point in connection with this air in the vicinity of Rome. But even adsubject to which our authoress has not al. mitting it to have been as unhealthy as now, laded, but which is well deserving of atten. is it certain that, despite its unhealthiness, tion. The Campagna in which the cities of it could not be thickly peopled ? It was Etruria lay, and which was once crowded the native soil of the millions who dwelt with a dense and industrious population, is there. It was the air they were from innow visited for some months of the year by fancy accustomed to inhale ; and from the a pestilential malaria, which is destructive power of habit it is likely that the malaof human life, and which makes even theria would have lost much of its malignity. natives desert it for a season. The few The shores of Africa are unhealthy beyond shepherds, who remain in charge of the comparison, as are the islands of the West cattle, may be known by their wan and ema. Indies, yet these are not the less thickly ciated features; for even they are not ex. peopled. Even the collieries and manufac. empt from its influence. Yet was this tories of England are known to shorten country once the abode of a numerous pop- considerably the average duration of human ulation, and covered with busy and thickly life, yet are there thousands who are will. peopled cities. Veii was as large as Rome, ing to brave all dangers, and to encounter, and the size of Tarquinia may to some ex- for subsistence, the perils of the factory tent, be inferred from the magnitude of its and the mine. Peculiarities of diet and of necropolis, which is said to contain no less dress, with which we are not now acquainted, than two millions of sepulchres. But there may have been of use in enabling the inhab. can be little doubt that the climate of the itants to defy its noxious influence; and Campagna is not now the same as it was in much, also, may have been done by the times of old. Had it been then as subject to general cultivation of the soil and the the malaria as it is at present, the fact would spread of human dwellings. Were its rich have been mentioned by some of the Ro.1 plains to be divided among a hardy and inman writers. Yet, while they expressly dustrious peasantry, and covered with crops mention the unhealthiness of particular of golden grain, its effects on the human districts, they are silent on that of the constitution might be very different from entire country. The virulence of the ma- that of the present dreary solitude. laria, nay, its existence, arises from the ab. We have seen that the Etruscan power sence of moisture, for while the wet grounds included nearly the entire of central Italy, are comparatively free from it, the dry and and extended from Naples to the Alps. sandy downs are particularly unhealthy. There was a time too, though not acknowNot alone in the Campagna di Roma, but ledged by her chronicles, when Rome itself in every country in Europe subject to its was numbered among its dependencies. It influence, a wet summer is proved to neu. is now the most probable opinion, that the tralize its noxious properties. It is proba- reigns of the three later kings was a pe. ble that the climate of Italy, two thousand riod of Etruscan domination; and it may years ago, was more exposed to cold and be, that even these kings are, as Müller sup. wet than it is now. The uncleared forests poses, but representatives of three Etruscan of Germany, and of Italy itself, must have dynasties, who succeeded each other in contributed powerfully to this effect, by regular order. It was during this period preventing evaporation from the surface of that those great architectnral works were the earth, as in America at this day. The executed, whose magnitude and solidity temperature and the dryness of the atmos- have scarcely been exceeded by the later phere depend much less on the degree of works of the empire. The Cloaca Maxima, latitude than on local peculiarities, which which may be called the “ Thames Tunnel” are always liable to change. Many of the of the ancient world; the temple of Jupi.
Vol. I. No. II.
ter, on the Capitoline hill; the walls of|and animated lines on the Return of NapoServius, which continued to be the walls of leon. In another of her contributions, the city for eight hundred years, down 'to Victoria opening the Parliament of 1841, the time of Aurelian; all combine to de- the earnest and kind-hearted spirit will also monstrate the power and extent to which it be much admired. But there is in this lat. attained under Etruscan sway. They are ter poem an expression difficult to undercollateral testimony to the certainty of that stand. Beauty, says Mrs. Sigourney, speakevidence which their sepulchral monuments ing of the Scene of Pomp," afford. But like every earthly institution, Etruria was doomed to decay. In the ar
Beauty lent her charins,
For with plum'd brows, the island-peeresses rangements of Providence it was to give
Bare themselves nobly. way to its more fortunate rival. Its maritime strength was destroyed by its defeat That the island-peeresses of 1841 did any at Cumæ; its internal strength was wasted such thing, we will not believe, and we away by internal disunion, as well as by hope that no caustic commentator of 1971 outward hostility. When the Gauls poured will be permitted to say so. To us, Mrs. forth from the defiles of the Alps, in the Sigourney's phrase is at present quite unin: northern cantons of the Etruscan confede-telligible; we will look for its meaning in ration, the southern states were solicited the next American Dictionary. for aid, but the appeal was made in vain, The veteran James Montgomery still and one half of Etruria was forever blot-writes in the Forget-Me-Not. His lines on ted from the page of history. The other | The Press are full of manly thought and continued to maintain an unequal contest poetic fancy. with the encroaching power of Rome. The name of Porsenna alone stands out in bright
.. Think me not the lifeless frame relief from the darkness that hangs over
Which bears my honorable name:
Nor dwell I in ihe arm, whose swing his people, and surrounds with a passing Intelligence from blocks can wring; glory the period of their decline. The Nor in the hand, whose fingers fine cities of Veii, and Tarquinia, and Clusium,
The cunning characters combine;
Nor even the cogitative brain, and Agylla, sunk one by one; Roman colo
Whose cells the germs of thought contain, nies occupied their ruins for a time: some Which that quick hand in letters sows, preserve a sickly existence over the graves Like dibbled wheat, in lineal rows; of the Larthia and the Lucumones; but the
And that strong arm, like autumn sheaves,
Reaps, and binds up in gathered leaves, sites of others are no longer known. They
The harvest-home of learned toil are looked for in vain through the dreary From that dead frame's well-cultured soil. solitude of the Campagna, and save the se. I am not one nor all of these; pulchral remains of their past greatness,
They are my types and images,
The instruments with which I work; Tarquinia is but a name, and Veii but a re In them no secret virtues lurk. collection of the past.
I am an omnipresent soul; We have gone with Mrs. Gray through
I live and move throughout the whole,
And thence with freedom unconfined, five hundred pages of a narrative equally
And universal as the wind, instructive and interesting, pleased with Whose source and issues are unknown, her antiquarian zeal, profiting by her judi Felt in its airy flight alone, cious and often profound observations, and
All life supplying with its breath,
And, when 'lis gone, involving death, amused with the lighter incidents which she
I quicken souls from Nature's sloth, occasionally relates. Should she venture Fashion their forms, sustain their growth, before the public again, we should with And, when my influence fails or flies, much pleasure hail her appearance amongst
Matter may live, but spirit dies. us. She is an authoress of much promise,
Myself withdrawn from mortal sight, and literature has a claim on her services.
I am invisible as light-
All that philosophy has sought,
Science discover'd, genius wrought;
All that reflective memory stores,
Or rich imagination pours;
All that the wit of man conceives; Mrs. SIGOURNEY, an American lady, is a All that he wishes, hopes, believes; very graceful writer of verse in the school
All that he loves, or fears, or hates;
All that to heaven and earth relates; of Mrs. Hemans. She has contributed, to
- These are the lessons that I teach this now venerable annual, some striking 1 By speaking silence, silent speech.
tile, such is his bottomless divine proviFrom the Athenæum.
dence. The following curious document may be
Item, that the King's Highness for the added to the series which formerly appear.
special trust his Grace hath conceived of ed in this Journal. Mr. Devon, to whom
his trusty servant Sir Wm. Sidney, Knight, we are indebted for it, has written the ab
hath constrained him to be Chamberlain to breviated words at length, and adopted the
the said Prince's Grace, and hath committed modern spelling. The passages in italics and appointe
and appointed to him, as well to have the are, in the original. interlineations, in the keeping, oversight, care, and cure of his handwriting of Cromwell,then Vicar General,
Maties and the whole realm's most precious Lord Privy Seal, and Master of the Rolls.
jewell the Prince's Grace, and foresee that
all dangers and adversaries of malicious Instructions given by the King's Highness un
persons and casual harms (if any be), shall to his trusty and well-beloved Servant, Sir be vigilantly foreseen and avoided, as also Wm. Sidney, Knight, Chamberlain of the such good order observed in his Graces Household of the most Noble and Right Ex
household as may be to his Maties honor and cellent Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, assured surety of the Prince's Grace's perDuke of Cornwall, Earl Palatine of Ches- son, our most noble and precious jewell: ter, &c. and to Sir John Cornwallis, Steward for which good order in the said Household to his Grace.
the said Sir John Cornwall, being Steward, The King's Highness willeth that his said together with Vice Chamberlain and Comptrusty and well-beloved servants shall controller shall always join together. ceive in their minds that like as there is! Item, that for their best information, and nothing in the world so noble, just, and per-| for the first part of their instruction, they fect but that there is something contrary and every of them shall foresee that no that evermore envieth it, and procureth the manner stranger, nor other person or perdestruction of the same, insomuch as God sons, of what state, degree, dignity, or conhimself hath the devil repugnant unto him, dition soever they be, except the said -Christ hath his antechrist and persecutors, | Chamberlain, Steward, the Vice Chamberand from the highest to the lowest after lain, Comptroller, the Lady Mistress, the such proportion; so the Prince's Grace for Nurse, the Rocker, and such as be appointed all nobility and innocency, albeit he never continually to be in the Prince's Grace's offended any man, yet by all likelyhood he private chamber and about his proper perJacketh no envy nor adversaries against his son, and officers in their offices, shall in any Grace, who, either for ambition of their manner wise have access ordinary to touch own promotion or otherwise for to fulfill bis Grace's person, cradle, or any other their malicious perverse mind, would per- thing belonging to his person, or have any chance, if they saw opportunity, (which entry or access into his Grace's privy chamGod forbid,) procure to his Grace displea- | ber, unless they shall have a special token sure. And although his excellent, wise, or commandment express from the King's and prudent Majesty doubteth not but like Majesty, in the which case they shall reas God for his consolation and comfort, of gard the quality of the person, and yet, neall the whole realm, hath given the said vertheless, to suffer no such person to touch Prince, so of his divine providence he will his Grace, but only kiss his hand, and yet in the point of all danger preserve and de that no personage under the degree of a fend him. Yet, nevertheless, all diligent knight to be admitted thereunto-and in and honest heed, caution, and foresight this case the said Steward, Chamberlain, ought to be taken to avoid (as much as Vice Chamberlain, and Comptroller, or one man's wit may) all practices and evil enter of them at the least to be ever present, and prises which might be devised against his to see a reverent assay taken in due order, Grace or the danger of his person. For, ere any such person shall be admitted to although Almighty God is he that taketh kiss his Grace's hand. care and thought for us, and that he fur. Item, that they shall at all times cause Disheth us of all necessaries, and defendeth good, sufficient, and large assayes of all us from all evil, yet this divine providence kinds of bread, meat, and drinks, milk, eggs, will have us to employ our diligence to the and butter prepared for his Grace, and likeprovision and defence of ourselves, and of wise of water and of all other things that such as be committed to our charge, as may touch his person or ministred to him though it should not come of him, and that in any wise duly to be taken. To see his it notwithstanding we should know that Grace's linen, rayment, apparel whatsoever without his helping hand our labor is inu. I belonging to his person, to be purely washed, clean dried, kept, brushed, and reserved | Item, that forasmuch as the officers and cleanly by the officers and persons appoint- other servants of his Grace in the household, ed thereunto, without any intermeddling of as well of kitchen, butter, pantry, ewery, other persons having no office there, in such wood-yard, cellar, lardry, pultry, skaldingwise as no danger may follow thereof, and house, sawcery, yomen, and grooms of the before his Grace shall wear any of the same, hall have under them as it is informed sunassayes to be taken thereof as shall apper- dry boys, pages, and servants, which with. tain, and that the Chamberlain, Vice Cham- out any respect go to and fro, and be not berlain, or one of them, shall be daily at the ware of the dangers of infection, and do of. making ready of the Prince as well at night as ten times resort into suspect places. Therein the morning to see the assayes taken as is fore, the King's gracious pleasure is, that aforesaid.
for the consequence which may follow of Item, that whatsoever new stuff, apparel, them, they shall be restrained from having or rayment shall be brought of new, to and any servants, boy, or page, and none to be for his Grace's body, be it woollen, linen, admitted within the house. silk, gold, or other kind whatsoever, or be Item, that such provision shall be taken new washed, before his Grace shall wear as no infection may arise from the poor any of the same, shall be purely brushed, people, sore, needy, and sick, resorting to made clean, aired at the fire, and perfumed his Grace's gate for alms, and for that pur. thoroughly, so that the same way his Grace pose there shall be a place afar off, appoint. may have no harm nor displeasure, with as- ed a good way from the gates where the sayes taken from time to time as the case said poor people sball stay and tarry for the shall require, and that in the presence of the alms to be distributed there by the almoChamberlain, Vice Chamberlain, or one of ners, and after that distribution to depart them.
accordingly; and if any beggar shall presume Item, that no manner other persons or of to draw nearer the gates than they be appointficers in the house shall have access to the ed, to be grievously punished to the example of said privy chamber, but only such as be ap- other. pointed to the same, and that other which Item, that the said Steward and Chamber. be appointed to bring in wood, make the fires, lain shall see good order to be kept in that and other offices there as the pages of the household without any superfluous charges chamber incontinent as they shall have done or waste, which is utterly to be avoided, so their offices shall depart and avoid out of that the King's Highness may in all points the same, till the time they shall be called be put at the least charge that can be for for the doing of their offices again. Pro- that household, (so that, nevertheless, the vided always, that those pages shall not re- same may always be honorably kept, as apsort to any infect or corrupt places, and that pertaineth,) and that no manner of persons, also they shall be clean and whole persons, of what degree soever he or they be, shall without diseases.
have any more servants allowed within the Item, for to avoid all infection and danger Prince's house than to him shall be limited of pestilence and contagious diseases, that and appointed by a checker roll by the King's might chance or happen in the Prince's Maties band to be signed. household, by often resorting of the officers Item, that every officer within the Prince's or servants of the same to London, or to household shall be sworn that they shall not some infect and contagious places, his Maties serve the Prince's Grace with any manner said servants shall provide and put such or meat, drink, fruit, spice, or other thing, whatder, as none of his Grace's privy chamber, soever it be, for his own person, but such as none of the officers that have any office they shall serve, every man in his own office, about his Grace's person or in his house in his own person, suffering none other to hold shall resort to London or to any other meddle therewith, and before he or they shall place during the summer or contagious so serve the Prince, shall as well themselves time; and if they shall for some necessary as well as all other coming and having charge things have license so to do, yet neverthe. of the same, take and cause to be taken large less after their return they shall abstain to assayes from time to time, as the case shall resort to the Prince's Grace's presence, or require, and that the Chamberlain for the chamto come near him for so many days as by ber and the Steward for the household shall the said Chamberlain and Steward shall because newly to be sworn, all the Prince's ser. thought convenient; and if by chance happen vants at their first entry, of what condition, to any person to fall suddenly sick, that then degree or estate soever they be, of the due con. without tract (treat) or delay of time to be re- servation of their offices and duties as apper. moved out of the house.