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ened or liberal description; it is cheering into partnership with a few other individ. to meet one superior to the sectarian feel. uals. The papal government gave the neings or national prejudices of the country, cessary permission, reserving only to itself and disposed to do justice to all, even a preference of the right of purchasing any though their religion should be different article of value or of interest that might be from his own. It is not every day we meet discovered. The excavations were accord. a writer who has the hardihood to assert ingly commenced; the success of their efthat the Italians are a noble people, that forts soon attracted others, and the results the canons of a provincial church are intel- have been such as no one previously could ligent and well-informed gentlemen, and have contemplated. Vases, urns, golden that the sovereign Pontiff himself deserves crowns, breastplates and ornaments, paintthe gratitude of the world for the services ings, sculptured sarcophagi, scarabei or eahe has rendered to the cause of science cred beetles, gems of curious and costly and literature.
workmanship, and in every stage of art, The attention of Mrs. Gray was first from the most rude to the most refined, drawn to the subject of Etruscan antiqui. have been found in such variety and abun. ties by an exhibition of urns, vases, and dance, as to startle many who had been sarcophagi, some years ago, in Pall Mall, wont to view the nations of central Italy by Campanari, an Italian. The beauty of through the false medium of Roman literathese relics of an extinct and almost un- ture. The Romans were never ready to do known people, excited her curiosity to justice to a rival power. They wished the such a degree, that, on a journey to Italy world to understand, that at all periods of some time after, she resolved to explore, their history no other people could equal personally, the locality in which they were them in the great attributes of empire. If found. The collection of Campanari, which they were magnanimous and generous, it was afterwards purchased for the British was only to the humbled foe who lay Museum, was small and insignificant, com- crushed and prostrate at their feet, and pared to the magnificent collections to from whom they no longer had any thing to which she had access, in the capital of the fear; not to the rival, who was their own Christian world. The Gregorian Museum, equal in all but fortune. The labors of Niebegun by the present Pontiff, was especially buhr have done much to restore to the early an object of attention. Private individuals inhabitants of Italy that place, of which the were in possession of many beautiful and jealousy of Rome would have deprived them. extensive collections, and valuable speci- He has succeeded in detecting the unmens were each day being brought to light soundness of much that was generally reby the zeal or the cupidity of the excava- ceived as history, by observing its contrators, and to be met with in the public shops dictions, its incompatibility with other well. and stalls of Rome, exercising ihe learning established and admitted facts, and the imand ingenuity of its antiquaries. So nume- possible and improbable occurrences which rous were they, that, in the year 1815, the it admitted into its pages. No later than tombs of Tarquinii yielded no fewer than half a century ago, it was with considerable five thousand vases, and so valuable were hesitation and timidity that a few adventu. many of them, that it was confidently stated, rous writers could hint a suspicion of the that, in three months, no less a sum than truth of many of its early stories. The forty thousand scudi was realized by three majority of readers would as soon doubt speculators alone.
the existence of Romulus or Numa as It is matter of surprise that they should they would the existence of Alfred or of have been so long concealed. For many Edward the Confessor. Niebuhr, with that years it had been suspected that the ruins unrivalled sagacity which in him amounted of Etruria contained many relics and me to a species of divination, has done much to morials of its former inhabitants, and a few separate the mere legend from the fact, and were from time to time discovered. But to point out the statements which may be the excavations were carried on with true and those which are more than doubt. neither system nor perseverance : the dis- (ful. coveries that have been made are the re. What reliance, for instance, is to be sult of comparatively a few years. A na placed upon records which assign a period tive of Toscanella, about forty miles from of one hundred and seven years to the Civita Vecchia, and in the heart of the reigns of the last three kings, and tell us country formerly occupied by the Etrus- that the Tarquinius who was expelled a hale cans, was the first professional explorer of strong man at the end of that period, was whom we have any record. He entered the son of him who ascended the throne in mature age, at the commencement thereof? |culum, Porsenna dictated terms to the vanServius, too, marries the daughter of Taroquished people; and believed that he had quinius, a short time before he is made for ever made Rome powerless for evil, king; yet, immediately after that event, when he stripped it of great part of its terhe is the father of two grown-up daughters ritory, when he deprived it of the use of whom he marries to the brothers of his own iron, except as far as might be necessary wife; the sons of Ancus, who murdered for the purposes of agriculture, and when Tarquinius to get possession of their father's be made it a mere dependency on the power throne, are made to wait for eight and of Etruria. Yet does the history of Rome thirty years before they attempt their pur. make no mention of such a calamity. The pose; during which period, time and long heroism of Cocles, the devotedness of possession must have been making their Scævola, and the patriotism of Clælia and case, each day, more and more hopeless, her companions, beautiful legends though and their claims more and more impracti- they be, are but a poor and inadequate subcable. The Roman bistory makes mention stitute for the truth which it ought to give of no great change in the religion of the us. We of modern times are not interested people after that of Numa ; and yet we in the honor or dishonor of these events; know that a complete revolution (reforma- we will not receive romance, however beaution would, perhaps, be the better word)tiful, as a substitute for truth; and therefore must have taken place in that respect; for we can have little difficulty in tearing away when, in after times, the sacred books of the veil which national pride would draw Numa were dug up by accident, near the over the humiliating chapters of this hiscapitol, they were ordered by the senate to tory. be burned. On being read, their contents Niebuhr is of opinion that the early porwere found to be completely opposed to tions of Roman history are taken from some the then prevailing doctrines, and their ten- metrical romance of the olden time, in dency and spirit subversive of the religion which, like Virgil, the writer has assumed of the people. How imperfect and inaccu. the main facts of history as the framework rate, at least, must be the history which of his poem, and filled it up with many an could be silent on a matter of such import- incident of his own creation. It certainly ance. Again, we find that a great change has more of the life and unity of a poem must have taken place in the extent of the than of a history; and far surpasses in inRoman territory ; for, by the commercial terest the chronicles of later times. Much treaty made by Rome with Carthage in the of Livy's narrative has been also derived first year of the Republic, and preserved by from the traditionary recollections of the Polybius, the cities along the Latin coast as families whose ancestors were concerned far as Terracina were then its dependen in the events which he describes. And it cies; while twelve years later all these are is perhaps less difficult, even now, to sepindependent, and we find the Romans dis- arate the truth from the large alloy of puting the sea-coast nearer home with the family laudation, than when his work was Volsci and the Latins; and the local tribes written. Each noble family was anxious to which, under Servius Tullins, were thirty ascribe to its own members, whatever of in number, some time after are found to valor, or of patriotism, was exhibited in the have dwindled to twenty. These are all senate or the field. The truth was never conclusive proofs that the cities must bave tested by the criticism or the censure of undergone some great religious and politi- contemporary or interested persons. Incal changes by wbich the established" reli- deed an impartial historian could not have gion was altered, and its territorial posses- written in ancient Rome. The laws of the sions diminished, at least one-third, from what they are known to have been at an quam non Porsenna, dedita urbe, neque Galli captâ, earlier time. The change of governinent temerare potuissent."-Hist. book iii. What ihis
de ilio means, may be seen by the form which Livy is attempted to be accounted for, but not a
has preserved of the surrender of Collatia, and word is said of these other important alte- which he stales 10 have been the one usual on such rations. Even the famous contest with occasions : “Rex interrogavit, Estisne vos legati Porsenga, which their writers could not al. oratoresque missi a populo Collatido ut vos popu.
lumque Collatinum dederitis? Sumus. Esine together conceal, they have taken particu
populus Collatinus in sua potestate? Est. Deditisne lar care to misrepresent; so far from the vos, populumque Cullatinum, urbem, agros, aquain, issue being as is stated by them, that it is terminos, delubra, utensilia, divina humanaque omnow admitted that the city surrendered at nia in meam populique Romani ditionem ? Dedi
mus. Ai Ego recipio."-Livy book i. chap. 38. From discretion. From the summit of the Jani Jithis:
the want this form we may in fer the result of the victory of * Tacitus says, "Sedem Jovis oplimi maximi, l Porsenna over the Romans.
twelve tables completely suppressed any in through a hole which existed at the top of the free expression of censure or disapproba- door, owing to the want of a closing stone. In tion. The Right Hon. Francis Blackburn this lay above twenty vases, large and small, of
various forms, two of them with four handles, but was never more unwilling to have his con
they were all of coarse clay, and rude drawing, duct discussed or his administration found and in that style of art which is considered fault with, than were the civil and military | prior to all others, viz , purely Etruscan, and withofficers of the Roman commonwealth. If a out any intermixture from Greece or Egypt."man dared to ulter a word of censure or of p. 79. blame against any public character, he was This tomb had been rifled before ; it conto be for ever incapable of giving testimony tained no sarcophagus, though the place in a court of justice, and was deprived ol was marked where one had once stood. In the power of disposing of his property by virgin tombs, as they are called, the doors will. The poet Nævius had to fly from are made of slabs of stone, with protections Rome, through the influence of the Metelli, to fit into the rock, above and below, like
binges, and therefore when opened are althis line,
ways found clean and dry. They are dis“Fato Romæ fiunt Metelli consules." covered in the following manner. By the influence of these laws, and the “The foreman of the laborers took his pickaxe vet stronger influence of public feeling, the and struck the ground in many places, but it reliterature of early Rome received an inevit. sounded to the tuto (rock of volcanic formation, able tendency to eulogy. So strong and found generally in the vicinity of Rome). He universal has this been, that no eminent
minent went on in the same direction, however, along the
hill, and at last ibe axe stuck in the earth, and he person-more especially any one possessed
ordered a man to dig. About two fect deep he of family influence, is ever spoken of in came upon the rock, and then, of course, desisted; other terms than those of eulogy and praise. at the distance of a few paces the axe stuck again, And if we cannot rely on it for the particu and the foreman found the earth deep. He then lars of their own eventful career, how un. searched about and distinctly traced upon the likely is it to do justice to a rival power. grass the part where the rock and soil met upon But Etruria has found a voice wherewith to
the upper line of a door. He marked the pian,
and the newly-discovered spot would be the scene urge her claims. That voice has reached
of his next excavation.” p. 90. us from her tombs. In more than one sense is it true, that the dead are demanding jus- The following is the description of the tice to their memory.
|“ Grotte della Biga," as it is called at TarBut we have left Mrs. Gray on her way quinii, which as it gives the reader a some. to the sepulchres; and it is fitting that we what correct idea of all, we copy entire, should bear her company. Her tour in- though there are others of greater extent cluded the cities of Veii, Tarquinia, now and magnificence. Corneto, Vulci, Cere, Farnum Voltumne,
1 “It was discovered in 1827, and is so called on now Castel D'Asso, and Clusium, the city
le cry account of the principal subject depicted on its of Porsenna. We shall give, in her own walls, which is chariot races. It is a square cham. words, some of the principal objects that ber of about sixteen or seventeen feet in dimen. attracted her attention. Here is the open- sion; the roof is vaulted, with a painted heam ing of a tomb at Veii, and the manner in across it, and diced in red, white, blue, and black, which they are generally discovered.
ornamented with wreaths of Bacchic ivy. Over
the door are represented two geese and two leo"Several of our party had been with the men pards, both of which animals are sacred to Bacchus, the whole morning, and seen the operation of un- the president of the funeral feasts. The walls are covering the face of the tomb. When we arrived divided into two compartments, an under and we stood upon the brink of a deep pit, probably upper one, on which are painted different classes about ten feet deep, and we looked down upon a of subjects. To the right of the door, on the lower rudely arched doorway, filled up with loose stones. part, are represented the dancers, and four dancing It was cut in the hard tufo rock that composes the girls, who are animated by the sound of the double hill; very different from the rich loose soil which Aute, which one of them plays. The dancers are we saw lying all around it; and on each side of clothed in a short light tunic, which leaves free this arched door was a lesser arch, leading into a play to their limbs, and the ladies' dress is at once small open chamber, perfectly empty. I entered airy and elegant, being a rich but slight robe, with the tomb; a single chamber, arched in the rock, a beautiful border embroidered in stars, and agiapparently ten or twelve feet square, and somewhat tated to and fro by their rapid and fantastic move. low. It was so dark that I was obliged to have a ments. They have ornamented sandals on their torch, which a laborer held within the door, that I feet, and chaplets hanging from their necks, while might see by myself what was the arrangement of the men are bareheaded and barefooted. Their the tomb, and what it contained. The bottom was feet are twinkling about in rapid motion, and their a sort of loose mud, both soil and wet having fallen extended hands beat time in the still scarcely ob.
solete Italian fashion, as an accompaniment. Besed “Grotta delle Inscrizione," from the tween each dancer stands a tree of olive or myrtle, pumber of inscriptions which are engraved sacred to the dead. In the upper compartment all upon its walls. The meaning of these it is is bustle and preparation for a chariot race, The Circensian games are here in full activity. There
as yet impossible to decipher. The char. are five chariots, some already starting, guided by
acters are of the oldest Latin form, are their charioteers, and some in the act of being read from right to left ; but the language, yoked. At the end is the stand for spectators, of which they constitute the expression with the awning folded back above, to be used it and the record, has been lost, and, like the necessary, and having two stories; the one above characters of Persepolis, they are probably for the more noble and distinguished spectators; I destined to remain a mystery for ever. In the ladies being dressed in tunic and cloak, and the im
the time of Augustus it was understood only with bead-dresses, the men in mantle, without tunic: and the one below for company of inferior by a few; and even then some words were note. On the side of the wall opposite the en- utterly unintelligible; and where the sçatrance, the under compartment represents the fu- vans of Rome were at a loss, it would be
1 banquet, with three couches, and on each a presumption in us to expect to discover a man and woman leaning on rich cushions; the meaning. It was in one of these tombs elegant dresses and highly ornamented furniture Thor SionoreA volte anrofessional evava
ure that Signore Avolto, a professional excavaindicate the rank and wealth of the deceased. All are crowned with myrtle. Two are raising the tor, bad for a few moments a glimpse
of one of the ancient Lucumones. In eggs, with which the Etruscans used to commence the course of his labors he was exploring their repasts. There is the usual accompaniinent one of the tombs; on removing a few stones, of a flute-player, and there are two youthful at- he looked through the aperture to discover tendants, the one with a myrtle branch and the its contents, and behold! (it is a true story.). other with a goblet. Five ducks, an animal sacred avtonded in store hofar bir
sacred extended in state before him, lay one of to Bacchus, are waiting at the foot of the table for the crumbs. In the upper compartment there is a
the mighty men of old. He saw him crown. contiquation of the stands, which we have de-led with gold, clothed in his armor. His scribed, on the other wall; but here, instead of shield, and spear, and arrows were by his chariot races, the spectators are entertained with side, and the sleep of the warrior seemed to varions gymnastic exercises and games; such as have been but of a day. But while the sig. wrestling, playing with the cesius, leapiny, eques- nore gazed in astonishment, a sudden change trian tours de force,' &c. Above these compart
part. came over the scene; a slight tremor, like ments there is a third subject, just beneath the vault of the roof, viz., a bracket surmounted by a
a passing breath of air, seemed to agitate
pas large vase, on each side of which stand two women, the figure, it crumbled into dust, and diswith dishevelled hair, one holding a small vase, appeared. When an entrance was effected, the other a sacrificial instrument, as if about to the golden crown, some fragments of arms, pour out a libation. On each side of them is and a few bandfuls of dust were all that restretched a man, leaning on double cushions; the mained to mark the position in which it lay.
her Many of the sepulchres, more especially beardless and crowned with olive. On the wall to the left of the entrance, the under compartment
op those on the site of the ancient Agylla or
Cære, were in the interiors of earthen bilgymnastic sports; such as boxing, throwing quoits. hurling the lance, and fool-races, all similar to ground. These barrows were surrounded those which have been already described on the on the outside by walls of stone, which went other side. In this, as in the other painted tombs, round each, and contained the doors lead. besides the real door there were painted doors atling into the different tombs. Above this the sides and at the upper end opposite the entrance; these were of a red color, and studded
a wall the earth sloped gradually away, until with white spots, pot unlike the heads of large it came nearly to a point on the top, which Dails." p. 165.
'was generally surmounted by the figure of
a lion. On the summit of the wall, in like This is only one of many that are found manner, just where the earth began to thus decorated. The paintings give us rep- slope, there were ranged, at short distances, resentations of the manners and domestic figures of this description. In the centre babits of those who lived more than two of the barrow, but above the level of the thousand years ago, and present to us every tombs, to which access was to be had variety of subject and story, from the scene through the doors of the surrounding wall, of household grief at the loss of a loved was the tomb of the principal person, to parent to that of riot and sensual enjoy. whose memory it was erected, the lower ment, which, by a strange anomaly, are, as apartments generally containing the remains we have seen, found depicted on the walls of his followers, dependents, and, it may be, of these sepulchral chambers. A very re. the members of his family. Such was the markable tomb is that which has been call- | tomb at Agylla, generally termed by the
English in Rome, General Galassi's grave, hold carriage, in which the corpse had been -not because the general was buried there, conveyed to the grave, and the sides of but because it was first discovered and ex- which were ornamented with lions in cavated by him, in conjunction with Father bronze, 'in the style of early Greek workRegulini, the rector of the neighboring vil. manship. One vase of bronze, for per. lage of Cervetri,—which no doubt the ge- fumes, also stood near the entrance, consist neral thought much the more agreeable ing of three globes, one above the other; reason of the two. The interest of the near to which was something like a canexcavation arises not so much from its con-delabra, and a tripod, for burning incense struction, as from the curious and valuable during the funeral ceremonies. But their remains of antiquity which have been dis- discoveries did not terminate here. From covered there. It presented, externally, this an entrance was effected into an inner, the appearance of a natural billock, to and a more curious, sepulchre. Here were which, no doubt, it owed its preservation. vases of bronze, still hanging on the walls The experienced eye of the antiquary soon by nails; a tripod, containing a vase for detected its nature, and suspected the pur- perfumes; a large vase, ornamented with poses to which it had been once applied. massive heads; some bronze vases of dif. Around the base, after removing the earth, ferent forms, hanging from the roof; and, they soon came to the external wall, which, in a sort of recess at the end, were two as we have before said, always surrounds large stones, about five feet from each an Etruscan tomb in its restored condition. other, on which had been placed the head This went all around the tomb, having and feet of the body buried there. Upon doors in it at certain distances, leading to the stone next the end wall lay an extraorgraves within. The graves consisted of dinary gold ornament, consisting of two three chambers each, connected together disks, with animals carved upon them, and by short, narrow passages. These doors two gold fillets; and, sunk down below the were in the Egyptian style of architecture. stone, or half leaning upon it, was the suThere were figures of lions and griffons on perb golden breastplate already alluded to. the cornice above the doors. Had our On each side, where the wrists had once space permitted us, we should have ex depended, lay broad golden bracelets, richtracted the entire account, as we at firstly worked in relievo, and below it lay a intended, but find that we must content clasp composed of three spheres of gold, ourselves with a brief description. Sus. and at various distances between the stones pecting that there must be another chamber, were little lumps of the same metal, which besides those already mentioned, they exca. had been probably interwoven with the vated from the top, until they came at a dress of the deceased. Attached to the slope, which by steps led them down to a wall, behind the head, were two silver vesmassive stone door, towards the centre of sels, covered with Egyptian figures, and the barrow. On breaking this they came some vases, on which was inscribed the upon the expected prize. The portico led name of Larthia. From this name Mrs. them into a chamber about ten feet square. Gray supposes—nay, takes for granted, Along the sides, and on a sort of shelf be that the deceased was a woman. We think neath the immense stones which formed that this conclusion bas been rather hastily the roof, were found ornamented shields come to. The termination of the word may of bronze. Mingled with them were ar- lead to such an inference in Rome, though rows, a bundle of which lay close to a bier. not necessarily even there; but in Etruria This bier had four short feet, and was made it is any thing but certain ; nay, if she looks of cross bars of bronze. It stood close to at one of her previous descriptions of a a walled-up door, the top of which was painted tomb in Tarquinia, she will find that open; and in this were four vases, two of this very same name is written over one which were of silver. At the head and of the male figures on horseback. This foot of the bier were small altars for sacri- tomb at Agylla is supposed by competent fice, surrounded each by a number of small judges to have been constructed many images : some bones also were on the bier, years before the fall of Troy, which event and by its side lay a very curious inkstand, took place eleven hundred years before the having upon it an alphabet of thirteen con- Christian era. It was constructed before sonants and four vowels, repeated in sylla- the invention of the arch, for the architects bles, like the first lessons of a primer. This seem as if they would have made an arch latter is especially valuable, as forming the in many places if they could ; and it must key to all we know of Etruscan inscriptions have been made before the custom of burn. Opposite the bier stood the small house ling the bodies of the dead was known, or