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off the yoke as fast as possible: for what offend the gods by perjury. You may people chuse to be under foreign domi- therefore confider with yourself, whether nion !
had better have a people of such a If you will cross the Tanais, you may character, and so fituated as to have it in travel over Scythia, and observe how ex their power either to serve you or to tensive a territory we inliabit. But to annoy you, according as you treat them, conquer us is quite another business: you for allies or for enemies.
2. Curtius. will find us at one time, too nimble for your pursuit; and at another time, when $ 35. JUNIUS BRUTUS over the dead you think we are fled far enough from
Body of LUCRETIA, who had ftabbed you, you will have us surprise you in your
berself in consequence of the Rape of camp; for the Scythians attack with no TARQUIN. less vigour than they fly. It will there Yes, noble lady, I swear by this blood fore be your wisdom to keep with strict which was once so pure, and which noattention what you have gained: catching thing but royal villainy could have polluted, at more you may lose what you have. that I will pursue Lucius Tarquinius the We have a proverbial saying in Scythia, Proud, his wicked wife, and their chilThat Forture has no feet, and is furnished dren, with fire and sword: nor will I suffer only with hands to distribute her capricious any of that family, or of any other whatfavours, and with fins to elude the grasp of soever, to be king in Rome. --Ye gods, I thofe to whom she has been bountiful.- call you to witnels this my oath! You give yourself out to be a god, the son There, Romans, turn your eyes to that of Jupiter Ammon: it suits the character fad spectacle !the daughter of Lucretius, of a god to bellow favours on mortals, not Collatinus's wifea he died by her own to deprive them of what they have. But hand! See there a noble lady, whom the if you are no god, refieet on the precarious lust of a Targain reduced to the necesity condition of humanity. You will thus of being her own executioner, to attest few more wisdom, than by dwelling on her innocence. Hospitably entertained by thofe subjects which have puffed up your her as a kinsman of her husband, Sextus, pride, and made you forget yourself. the perfidious guest, became her brutal
You see how little you are likely to gain ravilher. The chaste, the generous Luby attempting the conquest of Scythia. cretia could not survive the insult. Glo. On the other hand, you may, if you please; rious woman! but once only treated as a have in us a valuable alliance. We com- Save, the thought life no longer to be enmand the borders of both Earope and dared. Lucretią, a woman, disdained a life Asia. There is nothing between us and that depended on a tyrant's will; and shall Bactria but the river Tanais; and our we, mall men, with such an example territory extends to Thrace, which, as
and after five-and have heard, borders on Macedon. If you twenty years of ignominious fervitude, decline attacking us in a hostile manner, ffiall we, through a fear of dying, defer you may have our friendship. Nations one single instant to affert our liberty? which have never been at war are on an No, Romans; now is the time; the faequal footing; but it is in vain that confi- vourable moment we have so long waited dince is repored in a conquered people : for is coine. Tarquin is not at Rome: there can be no fincere friendship between the Patricians are at the head of the enterthe oppressors and the opprefied; even in prize: the city is abundantly provided peace, the latter think themselves entitled with men, arms, and all things necessary. to the rights of war against the former. There is nothing wanting to secure the We will, if you think good, enter into a success, if our own courage does not fail treaty with you, according to our manner, And Ihall those warriors who have which is not by figning, lealing, and cak ever been so brave when foreign enemies ing the gods to witness, as is the Grecian were to be subdued, or when conquests custom; but by doing actual services. were to be made to gratify the ambition The Scythians are not used to promise, and avarice of Tarquin, be then only but perform without promising. And they cowards, when they are to deliver themthink an appeal to the gods superfluous ; selves from slavery? for that those who have no regard for Some of you are perhaps intimidated the esteem of men will not helitate to by the army which Tarquin now com
mards; the soldiers, you imagine, will my unfortunate brother, and has driven take the part of their general. Banish me from my throne and native country, fach à groundless fear: the love of liberty though he knows I inherit, from my is natural to all men. Your fellow citi.
Your fellow citi grandfather Mafiniffa, and my father Mi. zens in the camp feel the weight of oppref- cipsa, the friendship and alliance of the fon with as quick a sense as you that are in Romans. Rome; they will as eagerly seize the oc For a prince to be reduced, by villainy, cafion of throwing off the yoke. But let to my distressful circumstances, is calamity Es grant there may be some among them enough; but my misfortunes are heightwho, through baseness of spirit, or a bad ened by the consideration, that I find myeducation, will be disposed to favour the self obliged to solicit your assistance, Fatyrant : the number of these can be but thers, for the services done you by my ansmall, and we have means sufficient in our ceftors, not for any I have been able to hands to reduce them to reason. They render you in my own person. Jugurtha bare left us hostages more dear to them has put it out of my power to deferve any than life; their wives, their children, their thing at your hands, and has forced me fathers, their mothers, are here in the city. to be burdensome before I could be useful Courage, Romans, the gods are for us; to you. And yet, if I had no plea but my those gods, whose temples and altars the undeserved misery, who, from a powerful impious Tarquin has profaned by facri- prince, the descendant of a race of illustrifces
, and libations made with polluted ous monarchs, find myself, without any hands, polluted with blood, and with num. fault of my own, destitute of every supberless unexpiated crimes committed a port, and reduced to the neceflity of beg. gaint his subjects.
ging foreign affittance against an enemy Ye gods, who protected our forefathers! who has seized my throne and kingdom; ye genü, who watch for the preservation if my unequalled diftresses were all I had and glory of Rome! do you inspire us to plead, it would become the greatness with courage and unanimity in this glow of the Roman commonwealth, the arbitress rious cause, and we will to our last breath of the world, to protect the injured, and defend your worship from all profanation. to check the triumph of daring wickedness
Livy. over helpless innocence. But, to provoke * 36. Speech of ADHERBAL to the Ro- your vengeance to the utmost, Jugurtha has
driven me from the MAN SENATE, imploring their Afiftance the senate and people of Rome gave to
very against JUGURTHA.
my ancestors, and from which my grandFathers!
father and my father, under your umbrage, It is known to you that king Micipsa, expelled Syphax, and the Carthaginians. my father, on his death-bed, left in charge Thus, fathers, your kindness to our fac to Jugurtha, his adopted son, conjunctiy mily is defeated; and Jugurtha, in injurwith my unfortunate brother Hiempfal and ing me, throws contempt on you. myself, the children of his own body, the O wretched prince! O cruel reverse of administration of the kingdom of Numi- fortune ! O father Micipa! is this the dia, directing us to consider the senate and consequence of your generosity, that he people of Rome as proprietors of it. He whom your goodness raised to an equality charged us to use our best endeavours to with your own children, should be the be serviceable to the Roman common- murderer of your children? Must then the wealth, in peace and war; assuring us, royal house of Numidia always be a scene that your protection would prove to us a of havock and blood? While Carthage defence against all enemies, and would be remained, we suffered, as was to be exinftead of armies, fortifications, and trea- pected, all sorts of hardships from their fares.
hostile attacks; our enemy near; our only While my brother and I were thinking powerful ally, the Roman commonwealth, of nothing but how to regulate ourselves at a distance; while we were so circumaccording to the directions of our deceased stanced, we were always in arms, and in father, jugurthathe most infamous of action. When that scourge of Africa was mankind! breaking through all ties of no more, we congratulated ourselves on gratitude and of common humanity, and the prospect of established peace. But intrampling on the authority of the Roman stead of peace, behold the kingdom of commonwealth-procured the murder of Numidia drenched with royal blood, and
the only surviving fon of its late king fly O murdered, butchered brother! O ing from an adopted murderer, and seek. dearest to my heart-now gone for ever ing that safety in foreign parts, which he from my fight !--But why should I lament cannot command in his own kingdom. his death He is indeed deprived of the
Whither, whither shall I fly! If I blessed light of heaven, of life, and kingreturn to the royal palace of my ancestors, dom, at once, by the very person who my father's throne is seized by the mur- ought to have been the first to hazard his derer of my brother. What can I there own life in defence of any one of Micipexpect, but that Jugurtha should haften to fa's family? But as things are, my brother imbrue in my blood those hands which are is not so much deprived of these comforts, now reeking with my brother's? If I as delivered from terror, from flight, from were to fly for refuge, or for assistance, to exile, and the endless train of miseries any other courts, from what prince can I which render life to me a burden. He lies hope for protection, if the Roman com full low, gored with wounds, and feftering monwealth gives me up? From my own
in his own blood; but he lies in peace: he family or friends I have no expectations. feels none of the miseries which rend my * My royal father is no more: he is beyond soul with agony and diftraction, whilft 1 the reach of violence, and out of hearing am set up a spectacle to all mankind of 3 of the complaints of his unhappy son. the uncertainty of human affairs. So far Were my brother alive, our mutual fym- from having it in my power to revenge is pathy would be some alleviation : bat he his death, I am not mafter of the means is hurried out of life in his early youth, of securing my own life: To far from by the very hand which should have been being in a condition to defend my king: the last to injure any of the royal family dom from the violence of the uforper, I fio of Numidia. The bloody Jugurtha has am obliged to apply for foreign protection butchered all whom he suspected to be in for my own person. my interest. Some have been destroyed Fathers! Senators of Rome! the arbi. by the lingering torment of the cross? ters of the world !--to you I Ay for re. others have been given a prey to wild fuge from the murderous fury of Jugurbeasts, and their anguish made the sport of tha --By your affection for your children, men more cruel than wild beasts. If there by your love for your country, by your be any yet alive, they are shut up in dun own virtues, by the majesty of the Roman geons, there to drag out a life more into. commonwealth, by all that is facred, and lerable than death itself.
all that is dear to you-deliver a wretche Look down, illustrious fenators of ed prince from undeserved, unprovoked Rome! from that height of power to injury, and save the kingdom of Numidia, which you are raised, on the unexampled which is your own property, from being distresses of a prince, who is, by the cru the prey of violence, ufurpation, and elty of a wicked intruder, become an out- cruelty.
Salluft. cait from all mankind. Let not the crafty insinuations of him who returns murder for § 37: Speech of CANULEJUS, a Roman adoption, prejudice your judgment. Do
Tribune, to the Confuls; in which he denot listen to the wretch who has butchered
mands that the Plebeians may be admitted the son and relations of a king, who gave
into the Confulibip, and that the Law prohim power to fit on the same throne with
bibiting Patricians and Plebeians from liis own sons. I have been informed that
intermarrying may be repealed. he labours by his emissaries to prevent What an infult upon us is this! If we your determining any thing against him are not so rich as the patricians, are we in his absence, pretending that I magnify not citizens of Rome as well as they? inmy ditress, and might for him have Itaid habitants of the same country? members in peace in my own kingdom. But, if of the fame community? The nations ever the time comes when the due ven- bordering upon Rome, and even strangers geance from above shall overtake him, he
more reinote, are admitted not only to will then diffemble as I do. Then he who marriages with us, but to what is of much now,' lardend in wick dne's, triumphs greater importance, the freedom or the over those whom his violence has laid low, city. Are we, because we are commoners, vill in his turn feel dilrefs, and suffer for to be worse treated than, ftrangers ? —And, his inipices irg atitude to my father, and when we demard that the people may b: bs b.co.-thicily cruelty to m; brother. free to beitow their cfices and dignities o?
whom they please, do wę ask any thing do violence to the daughter of a patrician; unreafonable or new ? do we claim more those are exploits for our prime nobles. than their original inherent right? What There is no need to fear, that we shall occafion then for all this uproar, as if the force any body into a contract of marriage. universe were falling to ruin ! - They were But, to make an express law to prohibit just going to lay violent hands upon me marriages of patricians with plebeians, in the senate-house.
what is this but to thew the utmost contempt What? must this empire then be un- of us, and to declare one part of the com. avoidably overturned: muf Rome of ne- munity to be impure and unclean? ceffity fink at once, if a plebeian, wor They talk to us of the confusion there thy of the office, should be raised to the will be in families, if this statute should be confalship? The patricians, I am per- repealed. I wonder they do not make a fuaded, if they could, would deprive you law against a commoner's living near a of the common light. It certainly offends nobleman, or going the same road that he them that you breathe, that you speak, is going, or being present at the same that you have the, shapes of men. Nay, feast, or appearing in the same marketbut to make a commoner a consul, would place : they might as well pretend, that be, say they, a moft enormous thing, these things make confusion in families, as Numa Pompilius, however, withoat being that intermarriages will do it. Does not so much as a Roman citizen, was made every one know, that the child will be king of Rome : the elder Tarquin, by ranked according to the quality of his fabirth not even an Italian, was neverthelets ther, let him be a patrician or a plebe an? placed upon the throne: Servius Tullius, In fort, it is manifest enough, that we the son of a captive woman (nobody have nothing in view but to be treated as knows who his father was) obtained the men and citizens ; nor can they who opkingdom as the reward of his wisdom and pose our demand, have any motive to do it, virtue. In those days, no man in whom but the love of domineering. I would fain virtue shone conspicuous was rejected, or know of you, consuls and patricians, is the despised, on account of his race and de- sovereign power in the people of Rome, scent. Ard did the state prosper less for or in you? I hope you will allow, that that were not these strangers the very the people can, at their pleasure, either belt of ail our kings ? And supposing now, make a law or repeal one. And will you that a plebeian should have their talents then, as soon as any law is proposed to them, and merit, must not he be suffered to go- pretend to lift them immediately for the vern us?
war, and hinder them from giving their But,“ we find that, upon the abolition suffrages, by leading them into the field ? " of the regal power, no commoner was
Hear me, consuls: whether the news of the « chosen to the consulate.” And what of talk of be true, or whether it be only that! Before Numa's time there were no a false rumour, spread abroad for nothing pontiffs in Rome, Before Servius Tul- but a colour to send the people out of the lius's days there was no Census, no divifion city, I declare, as tribune, that this people, of the people into classes and centuries. who have already so often spilt their blood Who ever heard of consuls before the ex in our country's cause, are again ready to pallion of Tarquin the Proud ? Dictators, arm for its defence and its glory, if they we all know, are of modern invention; may be settored to their natural rights, and so are the offices of tribunes, ædiles, and you will no longer treat us like ilianquestors. Within those ten years we have gers in our own country: but if you acmude decemvirs, and we have uemade count us unworthy of your alliance by inthem. Is nothing to be done but what termarriages; if you will not suffer the has been done before? That very law entrance to the chief offices in the state to forbidding marriages of patricians with be open to all persons of merit indifferplebeians, is not that a new thing? was ently, but will confine your choice of mathere any such law before the decemvirs giltrates to the senate alone-talk of wars enaĉed it and a most shameful one it is as much as ever you please ; paint, ia in a frse estate. Such marriages, it feems, your ordinary discourses, the league and will taint the pure blood of the nobility! power of our enemies ten times more why, if they think so, let them take care dreadful than you do now—I declare that to match their fifters and daughters with this people, whom you so much despise, and Den of their own sort. No plebeian will' to whom you are nevertheless indeb-ed
2 z 3
for all your victories, shall never more in. death of those whose private interests and lilt theinfelves; not a man of them Mall personal quarrels had engaged to hate lake arms; not a man of them thall expose when living, and defame him when dead, his life for imperious lords, with whom he so his name and memory began to shine can neither share the dignities of the state, out in its proper lustre; and in the reign nor in private life have any alliance by even of Tiberius, when an eminent senator marriage.
Hooke. and historian, Cremutius Cordus, was con
demned to die for praising Brutus, yet Pa. $ 38. Life of CICERO.
terculus could not forbear breaking out
into the following warm expoftulation with The story of Cicero's death continued Antony on the subject of Cicero's death : fresh on the minds of the Romans for many “ Thou hast done nothing, Antony; haft ages after it; and was delivered down to « done nothing, I say, by setting a price posterity, with all its circumstances, as one « on that divine and illustrious head, and of the most affecting and memorable events " by a detestable reward procuring the of their history: so that the spot on which “ death of so great a consul and preserver it happened, seems to have been visited by “ of the republic. Thou halt snatched travellers with a kind of religious reve “ from Cicero a troublesome being, a derence, The odium of it fell chiefly on clining age, a life more miserable under Antony; yet it left a fain of perfidy and “thy dominion than death itself; but fo ingratitude also on Augustus; which ex “ far from diminishing the glory of his plains the reasons of that silence, which is “ deeds and sayings, thou hast increased observed about him, by the writers of that “ it. He lives, and will live in the me. age; and why his name is not so much as mory of all ages; and as long as this mentioned either by Horace or Virgil. system of nature, whether by chance or For though his character would have fur. “ providence, or what way so ever formed, nished a glorious subject for many noble “ which he alone of all the Romans com. lines, yet he was no subject for court poets, “ prehended in his mind, and illustrated since the very mention of him must have “ by his eloquence, shall remain intire, it been a satire on the prince, especially • will draw the praises of Cicero along while Antony lived; among the sycophants “ with it: and all posterity will admire of whose court it was fashionable to insult “ his writings againit thee, curse thy act his memory, by all the methods of ca. “ against him Jumny that wit and malice could invent : From this period, all the Roman writers, nay, Virgil, on an occasion that could whether poets or historians, seem to vie hardly fail of bringing him to his mind, with each other in celebrating the praises instead of doing justice to his merit, chose of Cicero, as the most illustrious of all their to do an injusii e rather to Rome itself, by patriots, and the parent of the Roman wit yielding the superiority of eloquence to the and eloquence; who had done more honour Greeks, which they themselves had been to his country by his zuritings, than all tbeir forced to yield to Cicero.
conquerors by their arms, and extended tbe Livy, however, whose candour made bounds of his learning beyond those of their Augustus call him a Pumpeian, while, out empire. So that their very emperors, near of complaisance to the times, he seems to three centuries after his death, began to extenuate the crime of Cicero's murder, reverence him in the class of their inferior yet after a high encomium of his virtues, deities; a rank which he would have predeclares, ibat to praise him as he dejerved, served to this day, if he had happened to required the eloquence of Cicero bimself. live in papal Rome, where he could not have Augustus too, as Plutarch tells us, hap- failed, as Erasmus says, from the innocence pening one day to catch his grandson of his life, of obtaining the honour and title reading one of Cicero's books, which, for of a saint. fear of the emperor's displeasure, the boy As to his person, he was tall and slender, endeavoured to hide under his gown, took with a neck particularly long; yet his feathe book into his hands, and turning over tures were regular and manly; preserving a great part of it, gave it back again, and a comeliness and dignity to the last, with said, “ This was a learned man, my child, a certain air of chearfulness and serenity, « and a lover of his country.”
that imprinted both affection and respect. In the succeeding generations, as the par. His confti.ution was naturally weak, yet ticular envy to Cicero subsided, by the was so confirmed by his management of