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ter, in Philadelphia, in the year of Pennsylvania, through the medi1805.
um of an officer of the government, By a fund, which is annually to collect facts and observations recreated among themselves, they are lative to these highly interesting subenabled to subscribe for all the pe- jects. riodical publications of the United The citizens of this commonStates which are valuable, and al- wealth remember how much zeal so some of those most celebrated
was displayed, last winter, at Lanin England, to procure which, they caster, to stimulate such undertakassemble every fortnight, and, in or- ings, by showing the expediency of der to make the convention subser- them, and the ability of the state to vient to more than one useful pur- grant pecuniary aid ; but without pose, at every meeting two of their effect. It must therefore be pleasmembers read each an essay on ei- ing to every patriotic mind to know ther a scientific, moral, or literary that the general government is dissubject. To such an institution the posed to show its patronage. To friends of learning must wish suc render this the more certain, there
It does not appear to be fore, it becomes the duty of those built of those flimsy materials which persons who are possessed of any will wear out in a day; but having useful information of the kind to for its object the promotion of know. communicate it. ledge among its members, as well as the extention of patronage toward American papers, it has a fair We have pleasure in stating, from claim to long existence, creditable actual knowledge, that there has and honourable to its founders. lately been erected, within the boun
daries of Philadelphia, a factory, August, 1807.
which contains two looms for the purpose of making cloth of a strong quality, between sail duck and Rus
sia sheeting. In the largest of these For the Literary Magazine. is made cloth seven yards wide,
and, such is the superiority of its LITERARY, PHILOSOPHICAL, COM- machinery, that one man alone is MERCIAL, AND AGRICULTURAL able to make from thirty-five to for
ty-two square yards per day, with
out more exertion than at common EDWARD LIVINGSTON, of weaving. The first piece, containNew Orleans, has offered proposals ing near four hundred yards, was for publishing “ The Body of the finished and cut from the loom about Civil Law," which he means to four weeks since. The proprietor is translate in ten volumes octavo, at in possession of a mode of applying ten dollars a volume.
a rotatory motion to looms of the useful kind. In the present instance,
however, that operation is unnecesDuring the late session of congress, sary. In Europe, so far as our inthe senate of the United States pass- formation is correct, two men at ed a resolution directing the secre least are employed in the making of tary of the treasury to procure in- cloth of this width, who together formation touching the general pro- seldom produce more than eighteen gress of canals and turnpikes, and yards per day. the improvement of the navigation The lesser loom weaves, in a siof rivers throughout the union: and milar manner, cloth three yards to report the result to the ensuing ses wide of the same texture, which can sion. In compliance with this order, be, and often is worked by a boy of the secretary has recently invited the twelve years; the tramp of this loom numerous corporations of the state does not require eight ounces.
The object of the factory is that or be of the least utility. And of making the patent floor cloths or while we were putting off from summer carpets, similar with those the wharf, which was crowded with of Hare's patent, heretofore always spectators, I heard a number of sarimported, for the perfection of which castic remarks: this is the way, it is best that there should be no you know, in which ignorant men seam; it is, therefore, necessary compliment what they call philosoto weave of this extraordinary width. phers and projectors.
Connected with this busines is Having employed much time and that of renovating woollen carpets money and zeal in accomplishing or baizes, which are otherwise of this work, it gives me, as it will little use ; they can be done at a you, great pleasure to see it so fully small expence; they are coated on answer my expectations. It will one side, leaving the wool on the give a quick and cheap conveyance other untouched, and giving the ad to merchandize on the Missisippi, vantage of a summer and winter Missouri, and other great rivers, carpet : they are neat and durable. which are now laying open their
treasures to the enterprise of our
countrymen. And although the Mr. Robert Fulton, the ingenious prospect of personal emolument has inventor of the machines called tor. been some inducement to me, yet I pedoes, some account of which was feel infinitely more pleasure in regiven in our last number, has like- flecting with you on the immense wise constructed a steam boat, cal. advantage that my country will deculated to sail both against wind rive from the invention. and tide. The following letter to However, I will not admit that it Mr. Barlow, containing an account is half so important as the torpedo of its first voyage, will be gratifying system of defence and attack; for to every friend to the commerce out of this will grow the liberty of and agriculture of this country. the seas; an object of infinite im
portance to the welfare of America, TO JOEL BARLOW, PHILADELPHIA. and every civilized country. But
thousands of witnesses have now New York, Aug. 22, 1807. seen the steam boat in rapid moveMy dear friend.
ment, and they believe : they have My steam boat voyage to Albany not seen a ship of war destroyed by and back has turned out rather a torpedo, and they do not believe. more favourable than I had calcula. We cannot expect people in geneted. The distance from New York ral will have a knowledge of physics, to Albany is 150 miles; I ran it up or power of mind sufficient to comin 32 hours, and down in 30 hours. bine ideas, and reason from causes The latter is just five miles an hour. to effects. But in case we have I had a light breeze against me the war, and the enemy's ships come whole way going and coming, so into our waters, if the government that no use was made of my sails; will give me reasonable means of and the voyage has been performed action, I will soon convince the wholly by the power of the steam world that we have surer and engine. I overtook many sloops and cheaper modes of defence than they schooners beating to windward, and are aware of. passed them as if they had been at
Yours, &c. anchor.
ROBERT FULTON. The power of propelling boats by steam is now fully proved. The morning I left New York, there There is now growing in the garwas not perhaps thirty persons in den of Joseph Cooper, Esq., of New the city who believed that the boat Jersey, opposite to the city of Phiwould ever move one mile an hour, ladelphia, a grape-vine that covers
an area equal to two thousand one there has, this season, been cut a hundred and seventy square feet, full crop
grass ! and is now so loaded with fruit, that These facts ought not to discouit is estimated to contain not less than rage the raising of foreign grapes; forty bushels of grapes ; and it pro- for it is now well known, that varibably contains a much greater quan ous kinds of the foreign vines will tity. From this one vine Mr. Coop- stand over winters, and produce fruit er, last fall, made a barrel of wine; in abundance. and, this fall, may make a much larger quantity. This wine was made without any addition of sugar; The following easy method of takand the writer of this paragraph, ing honey without destroying the who was bred in the Madeira wine- bees was communicated to the edi. trade, and has tasted this wine, feels tor of the Cornwall Gazette, by a no hesitation in saying, that it is su- respectable French priest, who asperior to Madeira wine of the same serts that it is the mode generally age; whether it will improve by adopted throughout France : in the age, in like manner with Madeira dusk of the evening, when the bees wine, remains to be shown by expe- are quietly lodged, approach the riment. The grape from which hive, and turn it gently over; having it was made, is a native grape steadily placed it in a small pit preof the neighbourhood, and appears viously dug to receive it, with its botto be a species of the common chick- tom uppermost, cover it with a clean en grape ; which, like that, and new hive, which has been previmost of our late grapes, is distin- ously prepared, with two small sticks guished from the European and stuck across its middle, and rubbed Asiatic grapes hitherto imported with aromatic herbs. Having careinto America (and known among us fully adjusted the mouth of each hive under the name of English grapes) to the other, so that no aperture reby a very important circumstance, mains between them, take a small viz.: a slight frost destroys the fo- stick and beat gently round the sides reign grape, and discomposes its of the lower hive for about ten mijuice; while the same degree of nutes, or a quarter of an hour, in frost, and even a much greater de. which time the bees will leave their gree of it, concentrates and enrich- cells in the lower hive, and ascend es the juice of the native grape. and adhere to the upper one. Then This circumstance affords strong gently lift the new hive, with all its ground to presume, that the wine little tenants, and place it on the from it improves by time, even more stand from whence the other hive than that of the Madeira grape. was taken. This should be done There is, also, a further important some time in the week preceding advantage on the side of our native midsummer day, that the bees may grape, viz. : the fruit may be per. have time, before the summer flow. mitted to remain on the vine so late ers are faded, to lay in a new stock in the season, as that the fermenta- of honey, which they will not fail to tion will not be affected by too great do, for their subsistence through the a heat. The facts here stated are winter. As many as have the hunot like the distant wonders related manity and good sense to adopt that by travellers, that are too far off to practice will find their reward in be examined : for this vine stands the increase of their stock and their within four hundred yards of Coop- valuable produce. er's ferry, opposite to Philadelphia, and may be seen for the trifling expence of ferriage across the river. The bee is well known to be an They will also learn what may irritable, vindictive creature ; but greatly surprise a foreign vigneron, whether envy or jealousy constitute ihat, under the shade of this vine, a part of her character, or whether
she bear any antipathy to the but- bited by him at a meeting of the terfly, I cannot tell. Rivalship, Agricultural Society of Philadelphia, however, being, in most other cases, on the 11th of August. It unites the sufficient ground for jealousy and finerless of the Spanish Merinos hostility, and the bee and the but- with nearly the length of the Engterfly resorting to the same flowers lish combing wool, and exhibits, befor food, it may be well worth the yond contradiction, the congeniality agriculturalist's while to observe of our climate with the perfection whether the bee ever attack the of that valuable staple of manufacbutterfly; whether butterflies be so ture. numerous in gardens where swarms The exertions which Mr. Custis of bees are kept, as in those where is making to improve the quality of there are none, and whether dead American wool, are highly meritobutterflies (bearing no marks of rious, and rank him, with colonel violence from spiders) be found in Humphreys, among the true patriots gardens where stray bees resort.
of our country. If, upon examination, it should appear that the bees kill or drive away the butterflies, then the farm- JERSEY AGRICULTURAL REPORT, ers and gardeners may soon extirpate the whole race of caterpillars,
Summer, 1807. by only keeping on foot (or rather Hay.-Large crops, exceeding on wing) a standing army of bees, those of any late year. Some of it to protect their grounds; a standing damaged, a great deal well got in. army which will yield an increase Bottom and low meadows escaped of revenue to their employer. floods with less injury than commod.
Should this idea ever be realized, Harvests. Wheat.-More abunand the whole country be covered dant and better than any former with swarms of bees, the quantities year since the revolution. With of honey thus produced will be in- daily showers and hot suns in harconceivable; and then truly may vest-time, somewhat grown in plawe be said to live in a land « flow. ces. ing with milk and honey.”
Rye.- Plentiful and well secured, some few crops excepted.
Oats.-Unusually abundant and Smearing of sheen. Immediate- good. More sown than usual, and ly after the sheep are shorn, soak what was sown is better. the roots of the wool that remains
Flax.-Large, thick, and well all over with oil, or butter, and seeded; the coating not yet ascerbrimstone ; and 3 or 4 days after- tained. ward wash them with salt and wa Corn._Never more promising, ler; the wool of next season will and seldom more planted. not only be much finer and softer, Barley.--But little sown; that but the quantity will be in greater little generally good. abundance. The sheep will not be On the whole, should Indian corn troubled with the scab or vermin turn out as well as it promises, a that year. Tar-water is a safe re. more plentiful year will never have medy against maggots.
been remembered in this state.
Fruit.-No scarcity, except of
apples, of which there are very few. A specimen of wool from a native sheep, brought from Smith's Island to Arlington*, was forwarded by James Deneale, of Dumfries, VirMr. Custis to Dr. Mease, and exhi- ginia, has obtained a patent for an
oven which he has invented on en* The farm of G. W. P. Custis, tire new principles, for baking all near Alexandria.
kinds of bread." The advantages of
his plan over those hitherto used are About ten years ago a lease was thus stated by the proprietor : In granted by lord Crewe of an estate in the usual mode the oven is first heat- Madely, England, to Mr. Elkington, ed; the fire scraped out, and the the celebrated drainer. It consistés dough put in to bake when the oven ed of about five hundred acres, three is hottest, and as the bread bakes,' hundred of which were so unsound, the oven gradually cools. It will that a person could not even walk easily be conceived, that when upon it. Half of it has been drainbread is first put into an oven, it is: ed, and brought into a state of cul. most tender, and least capable of tivation. The crops of turnips raisbearing heat; by this new plan the ed upon it, both of the common and bread is put into the oven at the ex Swedish sort, have been remarkably treme end, or where the heat is fine ; and the land is become so firm least, and, as it bakes, it regularly as to admit of their being fed off by progresses into a keener heat, until cattle. In the succeeding crops, an baked. Again : it is acknowledged, unusual difficultý has occurred; for the thinner bread is baked the bet- though Mr. Elkington, from the exter it is, and the longer it will keep. treme luxuriance of the soil, thought In the usual mode of baking, the it expedient to sow only half the usuthinner the bread, the smaller the al quantity of seed, the barley-crops quantity the oven will bake per day: have been so strong; as to be union this plan, the thinner the bread formly laid, the grain of course the more the oven will bake; added much injured, and the clover and to this, the labour of splitting of grass-seeds destroyed. Mr. Elking* wood is saved, the heating, cleaná ton has, however, been successful in ing, and setting an oven also. An his attempts to render this land more oven on this plan, if well built, is promising by exhausting crops. much more durable; takes up less Last year he had ten acres of hemp: room to do the same business, costs the crop was great, and the grass much less money to build it, requires roots such as to astonish the neighless fuel to bake the same quantity bourhood. From the same motive of bread; and fewer hands can do Mr. Elkington has reduced the soit the same business. For an oven of by successive crops of oats, upon twenty feet length, and three feet lands that have borne two previous six inches width, or the privilege of crops of corn without.máriure: He using it, his price is five hundred obtained last year the amazing pro. doltars, and in proportion for a larg* duce of 174 bushels of good oatsy er or smaller one.
from five bushels and eleven quarts of seed sown broad cast.
traordinary return has been made A seaman recommends to all from land, which a few years ago masters of vessels who are bound on was not worth one shilling per acre: long voyages, to have their bread carefully packed in rum or brandy casks. Bread put up in this manner The result of a course of exmay be kept for years, equally as periments has been laid before the good as when received from the Hereford Agricultural Society, by bakehouse. The casks should be T. A. Knight, esq., from which it perfectly air tight, and the bread appears that the strength of the well dried before packing: it is nec juice of any cyder apple is in exact cessary in the course of the voyage proportion of its weight. Thus the to start the casks and drive the juices of the inferior apples are hoops. Bread has been kept for light when compared with the juitwo years in this manner, in perfect ces of the old and approved sorts. order, when some of the same quali. The forest stire outweighed every ty, kept in the usual way, was full of other, until it was put in competition
with the new variety produced by VOL. VIII. NO. XLVII: