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towering antlers in the bodies of from rage and pain, he bounds across both, throws their shattered limbs the area, attempts to climb the pa. in the air, and strews them on the lisado, and wreak his revenge on

More frequently the rider every opposing object. Frequently escapes by the recesses in the pali. he catches them on his horns, but sado, and returns remounted with generally from their great agility fresh courage to provoke battle. It they escape, and he only bears away is not unusual for one bull to kill se. in triumph part of the red garment veral horses ; but these animals, with which he had been provoked particularly in Andalusia, are so and deceived. I have seen one of noble, that, with their entrails drag these combatants hard pressed by ging on the ground, they face the the enraged bull, and apparently tortured beast, and by their neigh without means to escape. He was ing and snorting seem to enjoy the pent close to the palisado, and no sport, although not trained to it.

recess at hand. Already had the Should they prove refractory, the furious beast stooped to tear him to riders cover their eyes with a hand- pieces, and the terrified spectators kerchief, that they may be uncon- imagined him

horribly mangled on scious of their danger; though such his horns. The active combatant, is the courage and noble spirit of undismayed, and with unexampled this domestic animal, that this is presence of mind, put his foot on the seldom necessary : but it is grating forehead of the bull, with one leap to every feeling of humanity, that was out of danger, and, lighting bethe end of this first of beasts should hind the furious animal, seemed to be thus perverted by practices so laugh at his unavailing efforts to cruel. After a round of feats of this catch him ; he skipped gaily and unkind, equally horrid and disgusting, hurt away. He then walked round the trumpet again sounds, and the the circle with his hat in his hand; horsemen retire. The foot comba. money from all sides was showered tants then come forth, gaily dressed, down to him from the pleased specand each bearing a pair of darts in tators and his patrons, who always his hands. With these they pro requite an extraordinary display of voke the furious animal to battle, agility by a collective reward." Forand, when he puts down his head in merly a favourite flower from the an attitude to tear them with his breast of the fair, or a bunch of rihorns, they dexterously stick the bands, was thrown down to the victo. barbed darts behind his neck, and rious champion, and he was happy evade his horns by slipping aside. in that return for the exertion of his These shulitos a pie crowd around courage and agility. When every bim, wound him by incessant darts, means of harassing the animal has and when he goes near the seats he been exhausted, the trumpet is receives showers of small ones from again blown, the footmen leave the the people.

In the tops of these area, and a single champion steps darts, gaily ornamented with colour. forth. In his right hand he bears ed paper, fire-works are fixed, a double-edged Toledo, and on his which, when the match burns down, left arm a red cloak. 'After making explode with frequent crackings. his obeisance to the spectators, he He stands with an aspect of rage provokes the bull by holding to him and terror. His flaming eyes dart the red garment, and after several around the circle, he seeks objects evasions of his horns he prepares to sate his rage; they evade him, for the last and most noted exertion the place resounds with horrid bel- of skill in this way. He places himlowings, streams of red froth issue self in a firm position before him, from his mouth and nostrils, he holds his sword obliquely, on which paws the blood-stained ground, and the maddening beast rushes with in vain shakes his sides and neck to such impetuosity as to bury it to the dislodge the galling load. Furious hilt. Already the staggering bull VOL. VIII. NO. XLVII,


bellows with agonizing pain, streams of St. John of God, the other pays of black gore burst from the wound the expenses. The amphitheatre and mouth, his haggard looks pro- in Cadiz is of wood, holds ten or claim his tortured state, the dread- twelve thousand people, and belongs ful steel entering at the collar-bone to the city. It is rented to a comhas searched the source of life, his pany under great restrictions, but feeble limbs deny support, he sinks this cannot hinder frequent imposiand struggles in the dust. Inces. tions on the public. Those in Masant peals of applause re-echo drid, Seville, and Grenada, are of through the vast circle, and frantic stone, and of royal foundation. In acclamations, such as resounded at the smaller cities where they have the Olympic games of the Greeks, none, they use the market squares, or the gladiatorial scenes of the Ro- but on a very paltry scale. Indians mans. The most lively and animat- from South America often display ed music joins the loud sound, but their feats with a leathern thong, with is nearly drowned by the plaudits of which they dexterously entangle the mob. Three mules yoked to- the bull, and throw him on his back, gether, and ornamented with gay when they mount, and by their dexstreamers, drag the mangled and terity render vain the exertions of bloody carcase from the area, and the animal to shake off the unusual every preparation is made for a re- load. Many gypsies are amongst petition of the same sport, which the foot combatants. Their pay is only varies according to the courage from ten to sixty dollars an afterof the men and the fury of the bull. noon, according to merit. That Ten or sixteen are often killed in side of the amphitheatre on which an evening, and the amusement, the afternoon sun beats is only half from neither its sameness nor dis. price. There is a small difference gusting scenes, appears to tire ; as in the several cities, but in all these many horses often fall, and the men are the leading traits. are frequently killed or maimed. To foreigners, accustomed to see Romero was the most famous mata. the dexterous feats of equestrian ridor the Spaniards every had, and ders, such diversions appear unintehis end was shocking. The meat resting and barbarous; and from is exposed for sale, but bought only the continual danger to which the by the common people. The scene riders and the horses are exposed, is often varied by the fighting of the feeling mind can derive no satwo horses, which is indeed grand, tisfaction. Even in this age of reand, though horrid, has something fined philosophy, man seems to be in it noble and fierce. They some- glad to multiply means for the extimes let loose the wild boar, the tinction of his own species, which stag, and other animals, to fight from the brute creation he might dogs, and if a bull will not face the learn to husband. This familiarity combatants, dogs are let loose upon with scenes of blood darkens the him, which becomes quite an Eng- traits of the national character ; Jish bull-bait. The last bull is em. and were a revolution to agitate the bolado, or his horns are tipped with people, it would possibly be more wood; the common people all rush sanguinary than we have yet witout, cling to the horns and tail, and nessed. Government has often wrestle with him in bodies. The wished to abolish this practice, but entertainment is often closed with in vain; it is so generally relished. fire-works, and the interval is It is astonishing that the Spanish laagreeably filled up by all the men dies. enjoy this sport, so savagely striking their flints and steels, which monotonous. Possessed of susceptithey always carry, and which give bility and the finest feelings in naa most curious gleam around. "Part ture, with every sense in unison with of the funds arising from these en- delicacy and sentiment, one would tertainments belongs to the hospitals imagine they would fly it as a bane;


still do they frequent it; a contra- which hangs over their breeches, a diction which neither the moralist linen frock, a surtout shaped like nor the keen observer can reconcile their frock, and made of coarse or combine.

woollen cloth; the whole descends as low as their knees, and is fastened to the body with a girdle. In winter,

instead of a surtout, they wear a For the Literary Magazine. cloak of sheep's skin; their heads

are bare in summer, and in winter SOME PARTICULARS RESPECTING

covered with a cap. THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS They wear no covering to their OF THE RUSSIAN PEASANTS. necks either winter or summer;

their legs are wrapt up in bandages THE Russian gentlemen have al- of cloth ; but they use, shoes, or most adopted the same manner of rather a kind of slippers, made of living as that of the other nations of the rind of trees, cut into slips, Europe. The citizens being, for which interwoven together. the most part, slaves who have The women are dressed almost in been made free, retain, in a great the same manner as the men, but measure, the manners of their pri- their exterior garments are loose, mitive state, and are very few in and not fastened with a girdle ; number. It is amongst the peasants, they are also very long, and reach therefore, that we must look for the down to their feet. true national character of the Rus. Their wooden huts have all a sians. Some of them are slaves of perfect resemblance one to another. the crown; and the rest, who form They are built in villages, bordering the greater pumber, are slaves to the the highway, are placed parallel to great lords, who have every power it, and are covered with boards. over them, except that of life and Nothing is seen but a wall formed death. The Russian peasants were of planks, having two or three holes originally free ; but about the mid- in it, which serve as windows. dle of the sixteenth century they These windows are only lạrge were made part of every estate, in enough for one to put the head order to prevent emigration. Since through them. They are seldom that period a custom has prevailed filled with squares of glass ; but in of treating them entirely, as serfs, of the inside there is a piece of wood selling and buying them, and of to shut them during the night, or in transferring them as property in any the time of bad weather. On one other manner. Their yoke, how- side of the hut is a small gate, ever, is much easier than that of which conducts to a yard, the greatthe peasants of Livonia, because the er part of which is covered with Livonian gentlemen consider theirs wooden planks, to shelter their as procured by conquest, while the carts, hay, &c. From the yard you Russian peasants have the same enter the house by a back door, to origin as their masters.

which you go up by a few steps, The ordinary food of the Russian and, when you have opened the peasants, besides bread, is the schut- door, you find in the first corner, schi ; that is to say, a kind of soup towards the right hand, a stove conmade of cabbage, rendered sour by structed of bricks, which serves fermentation, and hashed very them for culinary purposes, and to small : this soup is, for the most warm the apartment. Around the part, accompanied with a piece of stove, and on a level with its top, boiled meat. Their drink is kivas, runs a circular projection, upon a sort of sour, yellowish small beer, which the family sleep, and take a which they brew themselves in forenoon nap, as well as on the large earthen pans. Their dress stove itself, however warm it may consists of a shirt, always very neat, be; for they are remarkably fond,

of excessive heat. In the corner their dishes, do not fail to make opposite to the stove, in a diagonal those sick who are not accustomed direction, that is to say, in the cor to them. When the smoke be. per on the left, stands a small wood comes too powerful to be resisted, en shelf at about the height of a they open a small wicket, which is man, containing a few images of a little higher than the window, in their saints, ranged in order, and order to give it vent; but these surrounded by small wax candles or peasants do this with reluctance, as lamps, which are lighted on certain they fear that part of the heat may festivals; the drapery of these escape at the same time; they are saints is embossed, and formed of fond of being, as it were, roasted in tin plate or of copper, gilt; but the their huts. visage, the hands, the feet, and in These peasants supply all their general all the naked parts, are only own wants ; they make their own painted. The Russians pretend shoes, benches, tables, wooden dishthat they are authorised to have es, and construct their own stoves painted images, but none of carved and huts. The females also weave work, because the commandment a kind of cloth, which resembles a says, « Thou shalt not make unto very broad riband ; they have oco thee any graven image.” All casion, therefore, to buy only a around the hut is a large wooden little woollen cloth or sheep skins to bench, made for sitting or sleeping cover them, their girdles, which upon. Nearer the door than the they consider as objects of great saints, and to the left as you enter, luxury, and the iron they employ there is a long table, formed of two for their implements of husbandry. boards, joined together lengthways, The Russian peasants are tem• and before it, on one side, the perate in eating, but not in drinking: bench already mentioned, and on the they are extremely fond of strong other a portable bench much nar. liquors, and often get intoxicated, rower. The rest of the furniture especially on their festivals. They consists of a wooden bason, suspend- think they would not show their ed from the roof, on one side of the respect for their saints, did they not stove, in order to wash their hands honour them by getting drunk ; and whenever cleanliness requires it, a they have a word to express the wooden platter, two or three wood state in which one finds one's-self en dishes, and a few wooden spoons. next day. They call this state, be

As the hut forms only one apart tween health and sickness, spokle. ment, all mix together without any melie; the women are addicted to distinction : one may see sleeping drinking as well as the men. They on the earth, on the bench, or on cannot be accused of laziness, but the top of the stove, the master of they consider labour as a necessary the house, the mistress, the chil- evil, and never execute any piece dren, and servants, both male and of work thoroughly, contenting female, and all without any scandal. themselves with finishing it in a In some huts, however, there is a very imperfect manner; for this particular corner for the master reason, therefore, they scratch up and mistress, but it is separated the ground, instead of tilling it. from the rest only by a curtain, sas. They are fond of keeping their perpended from a pole placed in a sons neat: however dirty their uphorizontal direction. These huts per garments may be, their shirts have no chimnies; the smoke, are always clean ; they have warm therefore, renders them exceedingly or vaporated baths, into which the black in the inside. If they are men and women, boys and girls, entered at the time when the mis- without distinction, plunge themtress of the family is preparing selves two or three times a week. dinner, the smoke and the smell of An order has lately been made, forthe onions, which they use in all bidding different sexes to mix to


gether promiscuously in these baths; their images, and commit it to their but this order is very little observed. care. Robbery is never heard of

They marry when very young, among them, although the doors of and often even at the command of their huts are always open, and oftheir masters. Paternal authority ten left without any person to guard among them is very great, and it them. However disinterested the continues during the lives of their Russians may be naturally, they children ; a father may give a blow soon become fond of money, especiwith a stick to his son, of whatever ally when they begin to trade; age or condition he may be. We they have then a perfect resemare told, that an old peasant having blance of the Jews; they are as ex. gone to visit his son, who had made orbitant in the prices which they a fortune in the army, and who en- ask, and equally ready to take every joyed a considerable rank, the lat. advantage ; but, at the same time, ter was so proud of his promotion, they are equally disposed to sell that he ordered his domestics to with a small profit, when they can. send the old man about his business. not get rid of their goods in any The father, however, having found other manner. means to enter the house when none These peasants are not sullen, of the servants were in the way, like those of Germany; they speak took a large cudgel, and gave his much, are very polite, and even son a sound beating; nor did the sometimes to excess. Their mode son, so powerful was parental au- of saluting is by shaking one another thority, dare to defend himself, or by the hand, and by bowing. Their call out for assistance.

equals they call brothers, and their The people in Russia are very superiors they call fathers. Before hospitable. A Russian peasant, their lords, and before those from when on a journey, enters whatever whom they ask a favour, they house he chuses, makes the sign of prostrate themselves, that is to say, the cross before an image, salutes stretch themselves out at their the company, and lays down his length on the ground. These Rus. knapsack without any ceremony. sians have very little ambition. If If he find the family at table, he you speak to them with mildness, says, bread and salt; upon which you may obtain from them whatever the master of the house replies, eat you desire ; and they will not be my bread, and the stranger imme- offended when you call them knaves diately places himself among the and cheats, and even much worse. company. If he happen to arrive They are very honest ; but when when the people are not at meals, they cease to be so, one cannot use he sits down among the rest, with- too much precaution not to be a out any formality, at the proper time. dupe to their promises. Their If it be in the evening, he sleeps in minds receive very little cultivation, the hut, and the next morning de- for they can neither read nor write; parts very early without saying a all their learning consists in a few word: if the family are up, he proverbs, which they transmit from says, I thank you for bread and salt. father to son. They are fond of A stranger who is travelling meets vocal music, and are always singwith almost the same hospitality, if ing. The labourer sings behind his he can be satisfied with the usual plough, the coachman on his box, fare of these peasants ; if he cannot, and the carpenter on the roof of the he must pay the full price for every hut where he is at work; their thing extraordinary; he pays also songs are generally upon love, and for the hay which his horses have their music is very monotonous. eaten"; but the price is always mo The religion of the Russians is derate.

that of the Greek church ; that of Whatever little money these pea- these peasants consists in going to sants acquire, they place it behind hear mass, in prostrating themselves

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