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easily taken.

great persons used formerly to keep him to know mankind thoroughly, jesters, from whom they might hear but to pardon their several follies. their own characters, and receive Demea has gathered his wisdom hints for the better regulating their chiefly out of books; he has colconduct, without disssimulation, lected together the sayings and fattery, or any other disguise, than actions of the greatest philosothat of wit, which served to gild the phers, and wisest men in all ages ; bitter pill, that it might be the more and his own judgment having pro

Indeed, few things nounced them just and reasonable, require more discretion, nicety, and he has formed several maximś good-breeding, than the telling a which he looks upon to be so selfman of his faults, and giving him ad- evident in themselves, that he will vice. The first rule, and which can hardly condescend to give reasons never too often be inculcated on this for them; and is resolved never to occasion, is so to order it, that the break through upon any occasion : person advised may see the advice in short, Micio, though he has a is given him for his own sake, and just dislike of their faults, cannot not to gratify the ill-humour, or help pitying the weak and the vishow the superior understanding of cious. Demea is so enraged at the the adviser; and, as Cicero says, least appearance of vice or folly, Monitio acerbitate, objurgatio con that he can hardly keep up the tumelia careat.

common rules of decency and good No one hears of his faults without breeding towards the person of the some concern or uneasiness. While offender. Demea tutors and admonishes us, we can scarce forbear affronting For where's the man who counsel can him, and are so angry at his re bestow, proofs, that they even give us a sort Still pleas'd to teach, and yet not of an aversion to his person. When proud to know? Micio shows us he is sorry for our Unbiass'd, or by favour, or by spite, failings, and that he cannot help dif- Not dully prepossess’d or blindly fering from us in his notion of things, right?

and we love him, and are only vexed Though learn'd, well-bred : and enraged at ourselves. Micio though well-bred, sincere ? considers how hardly we bear a su

Modestly bold, and humanly severe ? periority in understanding, and Who to a friend his faults can freely therefore introduces his counsel by And gladly praise the merit of a foe?

show, the most obliging and artful expres- Blesť with taste exact, yet unconsions. " I remember, sir (says Micio), I once acted myself upon the A knowledge both of books and human same principles you do, but went

kind? far greater lengths than you have Gen’rous converse ; a soul exempt done. Demea assures you, he from pride, should have been frightened at him. And love to praise, with reason on his self, could he ever have thought af side ? ter so monstrous a manner as he finds you do, and is amazed how If it requires so much discretion such notions could enter into the and good sense to reprove for erhead of a man of common sense. rors already committed, it requires Micio knows that we have a natu little less to caution against such as ral desire to be happy, but are not we would have people to avoid. easily convinced, that what is When I say this, I have my eye against our present inclinations can more particularly upon such persons never conduce to make us so. A as are intrusted with the education great deal of conversation with people of youth. It is no uncommon thing of the most opposite humours and in- to see parents, with more care than clinations, has not only taught discretion, contribute to the ruin of

fin'd;

their children, by continually cau. instruction of his pupils ; Aphorisms tioning them against vices they upon the Knowledge and Cure of might otherwise, perhaps, have Disorders: he may be stiled the never thought of. This method is Euclid of physicians, and these the like burning of books by the common elements of chemistry. This last hangman, and prohibiting of certain work is considered as the mastergoods, which only makes them more piece of this illustrious man, whọ courted and esteemed. But I shall has published several other useful conclude with a story out of Mon. treatises. taigne's Essays.

From the time of the learned Hip“My daughter (says the author), pocrates, no physician has more the only child I have, is now of an justly merited the esteem of his conage that forward young women are temporaries, and the thanks of posallowed to be married at. She is terity, than Boerhaave. He united of a soft, tender complexion, and to an uncommon genius, &c. extrahas accordingly been brought up by ordinary talents, the qualities of the her mother after a private and par. heart, which give them so great a ticular manner, so that she but now value to society. He is painted to begins to be weaned from her child. us above the middle size, and well ish simplicity. She was one day proportioned, of a strong, robust reading before me in a French book, constitution. He made a decent, where she happened to meet with a simple, and venerable appearance, word of a very harmless and indiffer- particularly when age had changed ent meaning, but that bore some the colour of his hair; in a word, he small resemblance to another word greatly resembled the picture that not altogether so innocent. The is given us of Socrates; he had the woman to whose conduct she is com same features, but they were softenmitted stop her short a little rudely, ed, and more engaging. He was an and ordered her to skip over that eloquent orator, and declaimed with ugly word. I let her alone, not to dignity and grace. He taught very trouble their rules, for I never con methodically, and with great precern myself in that sort of govern- cision ; he never tired his auditors,

The feminine policy has a but they always regretted that his sort of mysterious proceeding in it, discourses were finished. He would and we ought to leave entirely to sometimes give them a lively turn themselves; though, if I am not with raillery ; but his raillery was mistaken, the conversation of twenty refined and ingenious, and it enlive lacquies, could not, in six months' ened the subject he treated of, withtime, have so firmly imprinted in out carrying with it any thing seher fancy the full meaning of these vere or satirical. A declared foe smutty syllables, as this old woman to all excess, he considered decent did by her reprimand and interdic- mirth as the salt of life. Morning tion."

and evening he consecrated to study : HILLARIO. he gave the public part of the time

which intervened ; the rest was for his friends and his amusement.

When health would permit, he reFor the Literary Magazine. gularly rode on horseback; when

his strength began to fail him, he walked on foot; and, upon his return home, music, of which he was

passionately fond, made the hours of HERMAN BOERHAAVE was relaxation glide agreeably away, and born at Woerhout, near Leyden, enabled him to return to his labours in the year 1668. This great phy. with redoubled alacrity. sician has given us the Institutes of Boerhaave, at the age of fifteen, Medicine, which he wrote for the found himself without parents, pro

ment.

MEMOIRS OF THE CELEBRATED

BOERHAAVE.

name

EVENING MEDITATIONS.

tection, advice, or fortune. He had four ages of life, and two the scienalready studied theology, and the ces in which Boerhaave excelled, other ecclesiastical sciences, with form a group issuing between the the design of devoting himself to urn and its supporters. The capi. a clerical life; but the science of tal of this basis is decorated with a nature, which equally engaged his drapery of white marble, in which attention, soon engrossed his whole the artist has shewn the different time. He practised physic, after emblems of disorders and their rebeing received doctor in that science, medies. Above, upon the surface in 1693. This illustrious physician, of the pedestal, is the medallion of whose

afterwards spread Boerhaave ; at the extremity of the throughout the world, and who left frame, a ribbon displays the favourat his death above 200,0001. sterling, ite motto of this learned man: Simcould, at that time, barely live by plex sigillum veri, Truthunarhis labours, and was compelled to rayed. teach the mathematics to obtain ne Boerhaave, after passing a usecessaries. His merits being at ful and agreeable life, departed this length discovered, many powerful world in the year 1738, aged sixtyfriends patronized him, and procur- nine, sincerely lamented by his ed him three valuable employments; friends, regretted by the worthy and the first was that of professor of the good, and revered by the great medicine in the university of Leyden; and the learned. the second that of professor of chemistry; and, thirdly, that of professor of botany. The academy of sciences at Paris, and the royal society

For the Literary Magazine. at London, invited him to become one of their members. He communicated to each his discoveries in chemis.

“ And oft I think, fair planet of the try. The city of Leyden became, in night, his time, the school of Europe for That in thy orb the wretched may this science, as well as medicine and have rest!" botany. All the princes of Europe sent him disciples, who found in CRIED MITIO, as he was walkthis skilful professor, not only an in- ing one evening, and gazing on the defatigable teacher, but even a ten- placid countenance of the moon, in der father, who encouraged them to her utmost splendour. Thus he conpursue their labours, consoled them tinued: “ Retired from company, in their afflictions, and solaced them wearied with the insipid trifling, the in their wants.

noisy jars, and the confused bustle When Peter the great went to of the inhabitants of this terraqueHolland in 1715, to instruct himself ous and wretched settlement, I adin maritime affairs, he also attended dress myself to thee, and would fain Boerhaave to receive his lessons. hold converse with some modest in

His reputation was spread as far telligent being of thine unknown re. as China: a mandarine wrote to gions. I would ask him, if he be af. him with this inscription, To the il dicted with the cries of age in penulustrious Boerhaave, physician in ry, and of childhood in distress, soli. Europe; and the letter came regu- citing the morsel from the hand of larly to him.

insatiate avarice? If, in any corner The city of Leyden have raised of his abode, the sons of anguish in a monument in the church of St. tenements of wretchedness let fall Peter to the salutary genius of Boer- the tear, unnoticed and unknown? haave, Salutifero Boerhaavii genio If he were ever an unhappy witness sacrum. It consists of an urn upon to a parent's tears over an abandona pedestal of black marble ; six ed child; to a wretched profligate's heads, four of which represent the cursing the grey hairs of his vene

2

VOL. VIII NO, XLVII.

W

ON COMETS.

rable sire; to a dissipated husband's shall I feel your pleasures, and be raising a hideous storm amidst his released from all the ills and all the peaceful family, and driving them, crimes which stain our mother by extravagance, to despair, wretch: earth ?” edness, and death? If he knew aught of traffic; its cares, its frauds, its disappointments, and its dangers ? If he ever saw a being formed for immortality toiling from morn till For the Literary Magazine. eve, from year to year, from youth to age, to call a little clay and a thousand cares his own? I would ask him, if, in his orb, thousands of

Written in 1756. beings are formed in fierce battalions, each one armed with an in THE Newtonian philosophy and strument of death ; disciplined in the observations of modern astronosavage manners; nursed in all the mers have given sufficient reason brutal rices; led to the field of to conclude that comets are not only slaughter; aiming the deadly wea- solid and durable bodies, but also pon at the vitals of an unknown revolve round the sun in very eccencompany of his fellow-creatures; tric ellipses, and, consequently, reexpiring amidst the rage of mur turn within our system, and become derous anger? If he has ever seen visible to us at stated and regular the worshippers of the Deity, in his periods. Yet what those precise world, pursue each other with infer. periods are, has been determined nał rancour, lighting up fires round only as to three of them, with any the bodies of the conscientious, and great degree of probability, viz., the pursuing them with anathemas and comet which appeared last in the the terrors of civil justice, for a dif- year 1680, and is expected again ference of sentiment on the mode of about the year 2255; that which exercising their religious services? appeared in 1661, and is expected If he hath ever seen the felons' den in 1789; and that which appeared the gloomy gibbet, and the wretched in 1682, and is expected in 1758. exit of ignorance and vice? If he The first of these, that in 1680, ever saw the savage murderer leap was the comet which, more than from the thicket, and embrue his any other, both acquired the most hands in the blood of the lonely, un- astonishing degree of heat by its suspecting, unoffending traveller? amazing approximation to the sun, The child taking away the life of and threatened the earth with the the father; the mother butchering nearest appulse. This was so her child ? If he ever visited a

ear

the sun at its perihelion, that its disslave ship, or the regions of an in- tance from his surface was but a quisition?' If he hath ever seen the sixth part of the diameter of the sons of riot in their midnight re sun's body, and therefore the heat vels, disease and death their com it then received was twenty-eight panions? If he hath ever felt jea- thousand times greater than that of Jousy, ambition, envy, anger, dis summer, or two thousand times hot. trust, or terror, disturbing his bo- ter than red-hot iron. Its least dis

If he be haunted with the tance from the annual orbit of the fear of death? Or, if his orb be earth was, according to Dr. Halley's free from all these evils? If peace computation, no more than one seand plenty, the calm of innocence, mi-diameter of the sun, or about the the joys of health, the social ties of radius of the lunar orbit; and, confriendship, the sacred bliss of fond sequently, if our globe had been in affection, prevail in all the circuit of one particular part of its path, the his tranquil world?

comet might have been as Ilappy! happy inhabitants! when us as the moon. Upon examination

som?

near

of the orbit of this comet, it was eccentricity of the ellipses of comets found so very eccentric, that a re- undoubtedly making these liable to volution through it musť require more considerable irregularities. more than 500 years to complete it. The small difference, therefore, in Mention is made in history of the the intervals of the years mentioned appearance of a similar comet, first already, is by no means a sufficient at the death of Julius Cæsar and the objection against supposing it to be celebration of the games by Augus- the same comet which was seen in tus to his honour, and at two several all of them. Its period will, consetimes afterwards ; each appearance quently, be about 75 or 76 years, and at the distance 575 years from the its next return about the year 1758. preceding. And a computation of This comet is far from being in any the motion of this comet in an orbit particular degree threatening or which would require that number dangerous to our globe (if, indeed, of years for it to revolve in, was

any comets at all are so), because found to agree very well with the this is not among those which either actual observations which were receive the greatest heat from the made of it. Its period therefore is sun, or approach nearest to the orbit fixed, by Dr. Halley, Mr. Whişton, of the earth. &c., at 575 years; and its return is If these comets should appear expected, with great probability, again at the periods they are expectabout the year 2255.

ed, it is easy to see what a confirThe second comet, whose period mation it will be of the truth of the is supposed to be known, is that Newtonian philosophy relating to which appeared in the year 1661, them: but, on the other hand, if any and which seems to be the same of them should not do so, it will by with that which was seen before no means be sufficient to overthrow in 1532; but the observations of it; since it cannot be imagined that it then are scarce exact enough they should preserve the same reto allow this to be determined with gularity in their periods as the placertainty. However, if this conjec. nets; because, as I have intimated ture be right, the period of this co- already, the eccentricity of their mec will be about 129 years, and its orbits must necessarily expose them next return about the year 1789. to greater alterations from the hea.

The third comet, and that whose venly bodies they may meet with in appearance is soonest to be expect their course. Dr. Halley particu. cd, is that which was seen last in larly observes, about the comet in the year 1682. There is great rea. 1682, which is supposed to be the son to imagine this the same with soonest to revisit us, that a very that which appeared first in 1456, little increase of its velocity may though not then observed by any as even occasion a change in its orbit tronomically, and which was after from an ellipsis to a parabola, the wards taken more exact notice of in consequence of which will be, that 1531, 1607, and especially 1682. it can never return to us at all

. The Every thing relating to the comets mere failure, therefore, of the reseen in these several years agree, appearance of this or any other coexcepting the little inequality of the met must not be considered as conintervals, which, however, as Dr. futing a theory built upon the same Halley observes, is no more than solid foundations as the theory of the may be well accounted for by phy- planets, answering with wonderful sical causes; as, for instance, by the accuracy the observations of astrodisturbances the comet may have nomers, and accounting for them by received in its orbit from its ap- the best established physical causes. proach to other heavenly bodies, In regard to what may probably such things having been certainly be the effects of comets, or the uses known to happen with regard to the for which they are designed by the planet Saturn, and the much greater Supreme Creator and Preserver of

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